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I 



'Itw- l-i.?iy. 14 



SariiaA College litacg 



FROM THE 



UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 




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•-U^ /"_ » ,,s ^ - ,«. ^ V < 









H. O. No. 196 

AFRICA PILOT 

Volume II 

SOUTH AND EAST COASTS OF AFRICA 
FROM CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO RAS HAFUN 



HRST EDITION 



VoaT \■^S■9.'o 



College LibraiT 
Jen. 24, 1917 
Prom the 
United Btatoe Oovemment. 



R 0. HO. 166. 



A rammary of the Notioes to Mariners aflectmg this pnblicatioii, 
pnlilished during the year 1916, will be sent free of expense npon the 
receipt of this oonpon at the United States Hydrogriphio Office, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 



Name .. 
Address. 



H. 0. NO. 166. 

A snnunary of the Notices to Mariners affectum this publication, 
published during the year 1917, will be sent free of expense upon the 
receipt of this coupon at the United States Hydrographic Office, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Name 

Address 



H. 0. NO. 166. 

A summary of the Notices to Mariners affecting this publication, 
published during the year 1918, will be sent free of expense upon the 
receipt of this coupon at the TTnited States Hydrographic Office, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Name - 

Address 



• ■•« •«««««4««J^v«J 



H. 0. HO. 166. 



A summary of the Hotices to Mariners affecting this publication, 
published during the year 1919, will be sent free of expense upon the 
receipt of this coupon at the TTnited States Hydrographic Office, Wash- 
ington, S. C. 



Hame .. 
Address. 



H. 0. HO. 156. 

A summary of fhe Hotioes to lEarinen afleotiiig fhis publioation, 
published dviiiig fhe year 1920, will be sent free of expense upon the 
receipt of this coupon at the United States Hydrographio Offlce, Wash- 
ii^ton, D. 0. 



Name .. 
Address. 



E. 0. NO. 156. 

A summary of the Notices to Uariners affectii^f this publication, 
published durii^ the year 1921, will be sent free of expense upon the 
receipt of this coupon at the United States Hydrographio Ofice, Wash- 
ington, D. 0. 



Name .. 
Address. 



* 



H. 0. NO. 156. 

A summary of the Notices to lEariners affecting this publication, 
published during the year 1922, will be sent free of expense upon the 
receipt of this coupon at the United States Hydrographio Ofioe, Wash- 
ington, S. C. 

Name 

Address 



^^^-^44<^j^. » 



%•-* te^A^^ ***t 



H. 0. NO. 156. 

A summary of the Notices to Mariners affecting this publication, 
published during the year 1923, will be sent free of expense upon the 
receipt of this coupon at the United States Hydrographio Oflce, Wash- 
ington, D. 0. 

Name 

Address 






• »•« w 



J 

« 

i 



t*, 



• • 



M 



i 

t 

i 
4 



PKEPACE. 



This publication contains the sailing directions for the south and 
east coasts of Africa from Cape of Good Hope to Kas Haf un. 

The information contained in this publication is taken from all 
available sources and principally from British. Admiralty publica- 
tion, "Africa Pilot," Part III. It cancels all supplements, addenda,, 
etc., and includes all Notices to Mariners up to and including No. 16 
of 1916. 

The bearings and courses are true, in degrees from 0° (north) to 
360° (clockwise). 

Bearings limiting the sectors of lights are toward the light. 

The directions of winds refer to the points from which they blow ; 
of currents, the points toward which they set. These directions are 
tnce. 

Variations for the year, with the annual rate of change, may be 
obtained from H. O. Chart No. 2406, Variation of the Compass. 

Distances are expressed in nautical miles, the mile being approxi- 
mately 2,000 yards. 

Soundings are referred to low water ordinary springs unless other- 
wise stated. 

Heights are referred to mean high water, spring tides. 

Details of lights should be taken from the latest light lists and 
charts, as no attempt has been made to cover these details in this- 
volume. 

The return coupons in the front of the book should be sent in at 
5 the expiration of the years shown on them. 

In the interest of mariners, information regarding inaccuracies 
in this publication should be sent to the United States Hydrographie- 
Office, Washington, D. C. 

ITI 



■^r^Mti^-^ 



"■» *iS - 



T 

1 

531 

V 



21 



87 



0,> 



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IT 



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» 



CONTENTS. 



Page^ 

Pi-eface v 

Information relating to navigational aids and general information 1 

Index 631 

Index chart faces— v 

Chapter I. 

General remarks — Cape of Good Hope Province — Natal — Portuguese 
East Africa — German East Africa — British East Africa — ^Zanzibar and 
Pemba — Italian East Africa — Winds and weather — Barometer — Cur- 
rents — Temperature — Ice — ^Buoyage — Tides — ^Variation of the Com- 
pass — ^Lloyd's signal stations — ^Life-saving stations — ^Naval establish- 
ments — Coal — Docks — ^Passages 21 

Chapteb II. 
Cape of Good Hoi>e to Cape Agulhas 87 

Chapter III. 
Cape Agulhas to Cape Recife, Algoa Bay 105 

Chapter IV. 
Cape Recife to Cape Morgan 135 

Chapter V. 
Kei River to Cape Corrientes 167 

Chapter VI. 

Mozambique Channel — Cape Corrientes to Kiliman, including the Zambezi 

and Shire Rivers 21^ 

Chapter VII. 
Mozambique Channel — ^Kiliman to Cape Delgado 265 

Chapter VIII. 
Cape Delgado to Ras Kanzi 31^ 

Chapter IX. 
Ras Kanzi to Pangani Bay, including Zanzibar Island and Channel 367 

Chapter X. 

Pemba Island and Channel — Mainland Coast from Pangani Bay to For- 
mosa Bay 421 

Chapter XI. 
Formosa Bay to Mto Ya Vumbu 477 

Chapter XII. 

Mto Ya Vumbu to Ras Hafun 503 

Aj'pendix I. Regulations for the harbors of the Union of South Africa — 

Simons Bay, regulations for dockyard port 523 

Appendix II. Particulars of dry docks, patent slips, etc 529 

Appendix III. List of principal ports, showing particulars of depths, etc_ 530 

V 



INFORMATION RELATING TO NAVIGATIONAL ADS 

AND GENERAL NAVIGATION. 



THE CORRECTION OP CHARTS, UGHT USTS, AND 

SAILING DIRECTIONS. 

The following publications are issued by the United States Hydro- 
graphic Office as guides to navigation: Charts, Chart Catalogues, 
Sailing Directions, Light lists, Tide Tables, Notices to Mariners, 
Pilot Charts, and Hydrographic Bulletins. Of these, the Notices to 
Mariners and the Hydrographic Bulletins are free to mariners and 
others interested in shipping. The Pilot Charts are free to con- 
tributors of professional information, but are sold to the general 
pubhc at 10 cents a copy. The other publications of the office are 
sold under the law at cost price. 

The Charts, the Sailing Directions, and the Light Lists are all 
affected by continual changes and alterations, concerning which 
information from all parts of the world is published weekly in the 
Notices to Mariners. 

The charts are always corrected for all available information up to 
the date of issue stamped upon them; and the Light Lists should be 
noted for the recent alterations and additions. The Sailing Direc- 
tions, however, can not, from their natiu'e, be so fuUy corrected, and 
in aU cases where they differ from the charts, the charts must be 
taken as the guide. 

Charts. — ^When issued from the Hydrographic Office, the charts 
have received all necessary corrections to date. 

All small but important corrections that can be made by hand are 
given in the Notices to Mariners, and should at once be placed on 
the charts to which they refer. 

Extensive corrections that can not be conveniently thus made are 
put upon the plates, and new copies are put on sale. Masters of vessels 
are urged to replace the old charts, which should be destroyed to pre- 
vent the possibility of their being used in the navigation of the ship. 

The dates on which extensive corrections are made are noted on 
the chart on the right of the middle of the lower edge; those of the 
smaller corrections at the left lower comers. 

The edition, and corresponding date, of the chart will be found in 
the right lower comer, outside the outer neat line. 

1 

39511—16 ^1 



GENERAL NAVIGATION. 

In all cases of quotations of charts, these dates of corrections 
should be given, as well as the number of the chart (found in the 
lower right and upper left corners), in order that the edition of the 
chart referred to may be known. 

The Light Lists are corrected before issue, and all changes are 
published in the weekly Notices to Mariners. 

The navigating officer should make notations in the tabular form 
in the Light Lists and paste in at the appropriate places sUps from 
the Notices to Mariners. 

The Light Lists, should elways be consulted as to the details of 
a light, as the description in the sailing directions is not complete, 
and may be obsolete, in consequence of changes since publication. 

The Sailing Directions or Pilots are kept corrected by addenda; 
and subsequent to date of last addenda, they should be kept corrected 
by means of the Notices to Mariners. Sailing Directions issued to 
naval vessels carry with them an envelope containing sUps of correc- 
tions up to date of issue. 

Addenda are published from time to time, and contain a summary 
of all the information received up to date since the publication of the 
volume to which they refer, canceling all previous Notices to Mar- 
iners. 

To enable the books to be more conveniently corrected, addenda 
and Notices to Mariners are printed on one side only, and two copies 
of the latter are issued to each naval vessel, one to be cut and the 
shps pasted in at the appropriate places, the other to be retained 
intact for reference. 

To paste in the slips, as the Notices to Mariners are received, is one 
of the duties of the navigating officer, demanding faithful attention. 

It must, however, be understood that Sailing Directions will 
rarely be correct in all details, and that, as already stated, when 
differences exist, the chart, which should be corrected from the 
most recent information, should be taken as the guide, for which 
purpose, for ordinary navigation, it is sufficient. 

The Tide Tables, which are pubUshed annually by the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Siuvey, give the predicted times and 
heights of the high and the low waters for every day in the year 
at 70 of the principal ports of the world, and, through the medium 
of these by means of tidal differences and ratios, at a very large 
number of subordinate ports. The tables for the Atlantic and the 
Pacific coast ports of the United States are also published separately. 

It should be remembered that these tables aim to give the times 
of high and low water, and not the times of turning of the current 
or of slack water, which may be quite different. 

Notices to Mariners, containing fresh information pertaining 
to all parts of the worlds are published weekly and mailed to all 



GENEBAL NAVIGATION. 3 

United States ships in commission, Branch Hydrographic offices 
and agencies, and United States consulates. Copies are furnished 
free by the main office or by any of the branch offices on application. 

With each Notice to naval vessels is sent also a separate sheet, 
giving the items relating to Hghts contained in the latest Notice, 
intended especiaDy for use in correcting the Light Lists. 

Pilot Charts of the North Atlantic, Central American Waters, 
and North Pacific and Indian Oceans are published each month, 
and of the South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans each quarter. 
These charts give the average conditions of wind and weather, 
barometer, percentage of fog and gales, routes for steam and sailing 
vessels for the period of issue, ice, and dereUcts for the preceding 
period, ocean currents and magnetic variation for the current year^ 
storm tracks for preceding years, and much other useful informa- 
tion. They are furnished free only in exchange for marine data or 
observations. 

Hydrographic BulletiiiSy published weekly, are supplemental 
to the Pilot Charts, and contain the latest reports of obstructions 
and dangers along the coast and principal ocean routes, ice, derelicts, 
and wreckage, reports of the use of oil to calm the sea, and other 
information for mariners. They are to be had free upon application. 

THE USE OF CHARTS. 

Accuracy of chart. — ^The value of a chart must manifestly 
depend upon the character and accuracy of the survey on which it 
is based, and the larger the scale of the chart the more important 
do these become. 

To judge of a survey, its source and date, which are generally 
given in the title, are a good guide. Besides the changes that may 
have taken place since the date of the survey, in waters where 
sand or mud prevails, the earlier surveys were mostly made imder 
circumstances that precluded great accuracy of detail; until a chart 
founded on such a survey is tested, it should be regarded with cau- 
tion. It may, indeed, be said that, except in well-frequented 
harbors and their approaches, no surveys yet made have been so 
thorough as to make it certain that all dangers have been found. 
The number of the soundings is another method of estimating the 
completeness of the survey, remembering, however, that the chart 
is not expected to show aU the soundings that were obtained. When 
the soundings are sparse or unevenly distributed, it may be taken 
for granted that the survey was not in great detail. 

Large or irregular blank spaces among soundings mean that no 
soundings were obtained in these spots. When the surrounding 
soundings are deep it may fairly be assumed that in the blanks 
the water is also deep; but when they are shallow, or it can be 
) 



4 GENEBAL NAVIGATION. 

Been from the rest of the chart that reefs or banks are present, 
such blanks should be regarded with suspicion. This is especially 
the case in coral regions and off rocky coasts, and it should be 
remembered that in waters where rocks abound it is always possi- 
ble that a survey, however complete and detailed, may have 
failed to find every small patch or pinnacle rock. 

A wide berth should therefore be given to every rocky shore or 
patch, and instead of considering a coast to be clear, the contrary 
should be assumed. 

Fathom ciinres a caution. — Except in charts of harbors that 
have been surveyed in detail, the 5-fathom curve on most charts 
may be considered as a danger line or caution against unnecessarily 
approaching the shore or bank within that line, on account of the 
possible existence of undiscovered inequaUties of the bottom, which 
only an elaborate detailed survey could reveal. In general surveys 
of coasts or of little frequented anchorages, the necessities of 
navigation do not demand the great expenditure of time required 
for so detailed a survey. It is not contemplated that ships will 
approach the shores in such locaUties without taking special pre- 
cautions. 

The 10-fathom curve on rocky shores is another warning, espe- 
cially for ships of heavy draft. 

A useful danger curve will be obtained by tracing out with a col- 
ored pencil, or ink, the line of depth next greater than the draft of 
the ship using the chart. For vessels drawing less than 18 feet the 
edge of the sanding serves as a well-marked danger line. 

Charts on which no fathom curves are marked must especially be 
regarded with caution, as indicating that soundings were too scanty 
and the bottom too uneven to enable the curves to be drawn with 
Cjccuracy. 

Isolated soundings, shoaler than surrounding depths, should always 
be avoided, especially if ringed around, as it is doubtful how closely 
the spot may have been examined and whether the least depth has 
been found. 

The chart on largest scale should always be used on account 
of its greater detail and the greater accuracy with which positions 
may be plotted on it. 

Caution in using small-scale charts. — In approaching the 
land or dangerous banks, regard must always be had to the scale of 
the chart used. A small error in laying down a position means 
only yards on a large-scale chart, whereas on one of small scale the 
same amount of displacement means a large fraction of a mile. 

Distortion of printed charts. — ^The paper on which charts are 
printed from engraved plates has to be damped. On drj^ing dis- 
tortion takes place from the inequaUties of the paper, which greatly 



GENERAL NAVIGATION. 5 

varies with different papers and the amount of the damping; but 
it does not affect navigation. The larger the chart the greater the 
amount of this distortion. It must not, however, be expected that 
accurate series of angles taken to different points will always exactly 
agree when carefuUy plotted on the chart, especially if the lines to 
objects be long. 

Mercator chart. — Observed bearings are not identical with 
those measured on the Mercator chart (excepting only the bearings 
north and south, and east and west on the equator) because the 
line of sight, except as affected by refraction, is a straight line 
and lies in the plane of the great circle, while the straight line on 
the chart (except the meridian line) represents, not the arc of a 
great circle, but the loxodromic curve, or rhumb line, which on the 
globe is a spiral approaching but never in theory reaching the pole, 
or, if the direction be east and west, a circle of latitude. 

The difference is not appreciable with near objects, and in 
ordinary navigation may be neglected. But in high latitudes, 
when the objects are very distant and especiaDy when lying near 
east or west, the bearings must be corrected for the convergence of 
the meridians in order to be accurately placed on the Mercator 
chart, which represents the meridians as parallel. 
^On the polyconic chart, since a straight line represents (within 
the limits of 15 or 20 degrees of longitude) the arc of a great circle 
or the shortest distance between two points, bearings of the chart 
are identical with observed bearings. 

The mercator projection is unsuited to surveying, for which pur- 
pose the polyconic projection is used by the Hydrographic Office 
and the Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Notes on charts should alwajrs be read with care, as they may 
give important information that can not be graphically represented. 

Buoys. — ^Too much reliance should not be placed on buoys 
always maintaining their exact positions. They should therefore be 
regarded as warnings, and not as infallible navigational marks, 
especially when in exposed places and in the wintertime, and a 
ship's position should alwaj'^, when possible, be checked by bearings 
or angles of fixed objects on shore. ") 

Gas buoys. — ^The lights shown by gas buoys can not be impUcitly 
relied on; the light may be altogether extinguished, or, if periodic, 
the apparatus may get out of order. 

Whistle and bell buoys are sounded only by the action of the sea; 
therefore, in calm weather, they are less effective or may not sound. 

flights. — ^All the distances given in the Light Lists and on the 
charts for the visibility of lights are calculated for a height of 15 
feet for the observer's eye. The effect of a greater or less height 



6 GBNBBAL NAVIGATION. 

of eye can be ascertained by means of the table of distances of visi- 
bility due to height, published in the Light Lists. 
'^The glare of a powerful light is often seen far beyond the limit 
of visibility of the actual rays of the light, but this must not be 
confounded with the true range. Refraction, too, may often cause 
a light to be seen farther than under ordinary circumstances. 

When looking out for a light, the fact may be forgotten that 
aloft the range of vision is much mcreased. By noting a star imme- 
diately over the light a very correct bearing may be obtained from 
the standard compass when you lay down from aloft. 

On first making a light from the bridge, by at once lowering the 
eye several feet and noting whether the light is made to dip, it 
may be determined whether the ship is on the circle of visibility 
corresponding with the usual height of the eye, or unexpectedly 
nearer the light. 

The intrinsic power of a light should always be considered when 
expecting to make it in thick weather. A weak light is easily 
obscured by haze, and no dependence can be placed on its being 
seen. ^ 

The power of a light can be estimated by its candlepower or order, 
as stated in the Light Lists, and in some cases by noting how much 
its visibility in clear weather falls short of the range corresponding 
to its height. Thus, a light standing 200 feet above the sea and 
recorded as visible only 10 miles in clear weather, is manifestly of 
little brilliancy, as its height would permit it to be seen over 20 
miles if of sufficient power. 

?Pog signals. — Sound is conveyed in a very capricious way through 
the atmosphere. Apart from the influence of the wind large areas 
of silence have been found in different directions and at different 
distances from the origin of sound, even in clear weather; therefore, 
too much confidence should not be felt as to hearing a fog signal. 
The apparatus, moreover, for sounding the signal often requires some 
time before it is in readiness to act. *" A fog often creeps imperceptibly 
toward the land, and may not be observed by the lighthouse keepers 
until upon them; a ship may have been for many hours in it, and 
approaching the land in confidence, depending on the signal, which is 
not sounded. When sound travels against the wind, it may be thrown 
upward; a man aloft might then hear it though inaudible on deck. 

The submarine bell system of fog signals is much more reliable 
than systems transmitting sound through the air, as sound trav- 
eling in water is not subject to the same disturbing influences; the 
falUbility of the lighthouse keeper is, however, about the same in 
all systems, so that caution should be observed even by vessels 
equipped with submarine-bell receiving apparatus. 



GENEEAX NAVIGATION. 7 

Submarine bells have an effective range of audibility greater 
than signals sounded in air, and a vessel equipped with receiving 
apparatus may determine the approximate bearing of the signal. 
These signals may be heard also on vessels not equipped with receiv- 
ing apparatus by observers below the water line, but the bearing of 
the signal can not then be readily determined. 

Vessels equipped with radio apparatus and submarine bell receivers 
may fix their distance from a hght vessel having radio and submarine 
bell, utilizing the difference in velocity of sound waves of the radio 
and the bell. Sound travels 4,794 feet per second at 66° F. in water, 
and the travel of radio sound waves for practicable distances may 
be taken as instantaneous. 

All vessels should observe the utmost caution in closing the land 
in fogs. The lead is the safest guide and should be faithfully used. 

Tides. — ^A knowledge of the times of high and low water and of 
the amount of vertical rise and fall of the tide is of great impor- 
tance in the case of vessels entering or leaving port, especially when 
the low water is less than or near their draft. Such knowledge is 
also useful at times to vessels running close along a coast, in enabling 
them to anticipate the effect of the tidal currents in setting them on 
or offshore. This is especially important in fog or thick weather. 

The predicted times and heights of the high and low waters, or 
differences by which they may be readily obtained, are given in 
the Tide Tables for all the important ports of the world. The 
height at any intermediate time may be obtained by means of 
Tables 2A and 2B for most of the principal tidal stations of the 
United States, given in Table 1, and for the subordinate stations of 
Table 3 by using them as directed in the Tide Tables. The interme- 
diate height may also be obtained by plotting the predicted times 
and heights of high and low water and connecting the points by a 
curve. Such knowledge is often usefid in crossing a bar or shallow 
fiats. 

Planes of reference.^ — ^The plane of reference for soundings on 
Hydrographic OflSice charts made from United States Government 
surveys and on Coast and Geodetic Survey charts of the Atlantic 
coast of the United States is mean low water; on the Pacific coast 
of the United States as far as the Strait of Juan Fuca, it is the mean of 
the lower low waters ; and from Puget Sound to Alaska, the plane em- 
ployed on Hydrographic Office charts is low water ordinary springs. 

On most of the British Admiralty charts the plane of reference 
is the low water of ordinary springs; on French charts, the low 
water of equinoctial springs. 

1 The diStiDction between "rise " and "range " of the tide should be understood. The former expression 
refers to the height attained above the datum plane for soundings, difFering with the different planes of 
reference; the latter, to the dlfterenoe of level between successive high and low waters. 



8 QENEBAL NAVIGATION. 

In the case of many charts compiled from old or various sources 
the plane of reference may be in doubt. In such cases, or when- 
ever not stated on the chart, the assumption that the reference 
ploQC is low water ordinary springs gives a larger margin of safety 
than mean low water. 

Whichever plane of reference may be used for a chart it must 
be remembered that there are times when the tide falls below it. 
Low water is lower than mean low water about half the time, and 
when a new or full moon occurs at perigee the low water is lower 
than the average low water of springs. At the equinoxes the spring 
range is also increased on the coasts of Europe, but in some other 
parts of the world, and especially in the Tropics, such periodic low 
tides may coincide more frequently with the solstices. 

Wind or a high barometer may at times cause the water to fall 
below even a very low plane of reference. 

On coasts where there is much diurnal inequality in the tides, the 
amount of rise and fall can not be depended upon and additional 
caution is necessary. 

Mean sea level. — ^The important fact should be remembered 
that the depths at half tide are practically the same for aU tides, 
whether neaps or springs. Half tide therefore corresponds with 
mean sea level. This makes a very exact plane of reference, easily 
found, to which it would be well to refer all high and low waters. 

The Tide Tables give in Table 3, for all the ports, the plane of 
reference to which tidal heights are referred and its distance below 
mean sea level. 

If called on to take special soundings for the chart at a place 
where there is no tidal bench mark, mean sea level should be found 
and the plane for reductions established at the proper distance 
below it, as ascertained by the Tide Tables, or by observations, or 
in some cases, if the time be short, by estimation, the data used 
being made a part of the record. 

Tidal streams. — In navigating coasts where the tidal range is 
considerable, especial caution is necessary. It should be remembered 
that there are indrafts to all bays and bights, although the general 
run of the stream may be parallel with the shore. 

The turn of the tidal stream offshore is seldom coincident with 
the times of high and low water on the shore. In some channels the 
tidal stream may overrun the turn of the vertical movement of the 
tide by three hours, forming what is usually known as tide and half 
tide, the effect of which is that at high and low water by the shore 
the stream is running at its greatest velocity. 

The effect of the tidal wave in causing currents may be illustrated 
by two simple cases. 



GENEBAL NAVIGATION. 9 

(1) Where there is a small tidal basin connected with the sea by a 
large opening. 

(2) Where there is a lai^e tidal basin connected with the sea by a 
small opening. 

In the first case the velocity of the current in the opening will have 
its maximum value when the height of the tide within is changing 
most rapidly, i. e., at a time about midway between high and low 
water. The water in the basin keeps at approximately the same level 
as the water outside. The flood stream corresponds with the rising 
and the ebb with the falling of the tide. 

In the second case the velocity of the current in the opening will 
have its maximum value when it is high water or low water without, 
for then there is the greatest head of water for producing motion. 
The flood stream begins about three hoxirs after low water, and the 
ebb stream about three hours after high water, slack water thus 
occurring about midway between the tides. 

Along most shores not much affected by bays, tidal rivers, etc., the 
current usually turns soon after high water and low water. 

The swiftest current in straight portions of tidal rivers is usually 
in the middle of the stream, but in curved portions the most rapid 
current is toward the outer edge of the curve, and here the water 
will be deepest. The pilot rule for best water is to follow the ebb 
tide reaches. 

Countercurrents and eddies may occur near the shores of straits, 
especially in bights and near points. A knowledge of them is useful 
in order that they may be taken advantage of or avoided. 

A swift current often occurs in a narrow passage connecting two 
large bodies of water, owing to their considerable difference of level 
at the same instant. The several passages between Vineyard Sound 
and Buzzards Bay are cases in point. In the Woods Hole passage 
the maximum strength of the tidal streams is at about half tide. 

Tide rips are made by a rapid current setting over an irregular 
bottom, as at the edges of banks where the change of depth is con- 
siderable. 

Current arrows on charts show only the most usual or the mean 
direction of a tidal stream or current; it must not be assumed that 
the direction of a stream will not vary from that indicated by the 
arrow. The rate, also, of a stream constantly varies with circum- 
stances, and the rate given on the chart is merely the mean of those 
found during the survey, possibly from very few observations. 

FIXING POSITION. 

Sextant method. — ^The most accurate method available to the 
navigator of fixing a position relative to the shore is by plotting 
with a protractor, sextant angles between three well-defined objects on 



10 GENEBAL NAVIGATION. 

• 

shore which are shown on the chart; this method, based on the 
'* three-point problem" of geometry, should be in general use. 

For its successful employment it is necessary: First, that the 
objects be well chosen; and, second, that the observer be skillful and 
rapid in his use of the sextant. The latter is only a matter of practice. 
Two observers are better for this method. 

Near objects should be used either for bearings or angles for 
position in preference to distant ones, although the latter may be 
more prominent, as a small error in the bearing or angle or in laying 
it on the chart has a greater effect in nciisplacing the position the 
longer the line to be drawn. 

On the other hand distant objects should be used for direction, 
because less affected by a small error or change of position. 

The three-arm protractor or station pointer consists of a 
graduated brass circle with one fixed and two movable radial arms, 
the three beveled edges of the arms, if produced, intersecting at the 
exact center of the instrument. The edge of the fixed arm marks 
the zero of the graduation which enables the movable arms to be set 
at any angles with the fixed arm. 

To plot a position, the two angles observed between the three 
selected objects are set on the instrument, which is then moved over 
the chart until the three beveled edges pass respectively and simul- 
taneously through the three objects. Tte center of the instrument 
will then mark the ship's position, which may be pricked on the 
chart or marked with a pencil point through the center hole. 

The transparent xylonite protractor is an excellent substitute 
for the brass instrument and in some cases preferable to it, as when, 
for instance, the objects angled on are so near the observer that they 
are more or less hidden by the circle of the instrument. The xylonite 
protractor also permits the laying down for simultaneous trial of a 
number of angles in cases of fixing important positions. Plain 
tracing paper may also be used if there are any suitable means of 
laying off the angles. 

The value of a determination depends greatly on the relative 
positions of the objects observed. If the position sought lies on 
the circle passing through three objects (in which case the sum 
of the observed angles equals the supplement of the angle at the 
middle object made by lines from the other two) it will be inde- 
terminate, as it will plot all around the circle. Such an observation 
is called a '* revolver. " An approach to this condition must be avoided. 
Near objects are better than distant ones, and, in general, up to 90*^ 
the larger the angles the better, remembering always that large as well 
as small angles may plot on or near the circle and hence be worthless. 
If the objects are well situated, even very small angles will give for 



GENERAL NAVIGATION. 11 

navigating purposes a fair position, when that obtained by bearings 
of the same objects would be of little value. 

Acciffacy requires that the two angles be simultaneous. If under 
way and there is but one observer the angle that changes less rapidly 
may be observed both before and after the other angle and the 
proper value obtained by interpolation. 

A single angle and a range of two objects give in general an excel- 
lent fix, easily obtained and plotted. 

Advantages of sextant method. — In many narrow waters where 
the objects may yet be at some distance, as in coral harbors or nar- 
row passages among mud banks, navigation by sextant and protractor 
is invaluable, as a true position can in general be obtained only by 
its means. Positions by bearings are too rough to depend upon, 
and a small error in either taking or plotting a bearing might imder 
such circumstances put the ship ashore. 

In all cases where great accuracy of position is desired, such as 
the fixing of a rock or shoal, or of fresh soundings or new buildings 
as additions to the chart, the sextant should invariably be used. . In 
all such cases angles should be taken to several objects, the more the 
better; but five objects is a good number, as the four angles thus 
obtained not only prevent any errors, but they at once furnish a 
means of checking the accuracy of the chart itself. If a round of 
angles can be taken the observer's accuracy is also checked. In the 
case of ordinary soimdings a third angle need be taken only occa- 
sionally; first, to check the general accuracy of the chart, as above 
stated; second, to make certain that the more important soundings, 
as at the end of a line, are correctly placed. 

If commimication oan be had with the shore, positions may be 
fixed with great accuracy by occupying with theodolite or sextant 
two known points of the chart. The third angle of the triangle, 
that between the two points at the position sought, should be 
measured as a check. 

The compass. — It is not intended that the use of the compass to 
fix the ship should be given up; in ordinary piloting the compass, 
with its companion, the pelorus, may be usefully employed for this 
purpose, although less accurate than the sextant. 

If the accuracy of the chart is doubtful, the compass should be 
used in preference to the sextant. 

In fixing by the compass, it should always be remembered that 
a position by two bearings only, like that by two angles only, is 
liable to error. An error may be made in taking a bearing, or in 
applying to it the deviation, or in laying it on the chart. A third 
or check bearing should, therefore, be taken of some other object, 
especially when near the shore or dangers. A common intersection 
for the three lines assures accuracy. 



12 GENEBAL NAVIGATION. 

When the three lines do not intersect in a point, the following rule 
holds: If the line drawn* to the middle object falls to the right of 
the point of intersection of the lines to the two outside objects, the 
position of the observer was to the right of the line to the middle 
object; and if it falls to the left of the intersection his position was 
to the left of the line. Thus it wiU be seen that the assumption, 
that the position is at the center of the triangle formed by the 
intersecting lines, is incorrect. 

Doubling the angle on the bow. — The method of fixing by 
doubling the angle on the bow is invaluable. The ordinary form 
of it, the so-called "bow and beam bearing," the distance from the 
object at the latter position being the distanoe run between the 
times of taking the two bearings, gives the maximum of accuracy, 
and is an excellent fix for a departure, but does not insure safety, 
as the object observed and any dangers off it are abeam before the 
position is obtained. 

By taking the bearings at two points and four points on the bow, 
a fair position is obtained before the object is passed, the distance 
of the latter at the second position being, as before, equal to the 
distance run in the interval, allowing for current. Taking after- 
wards the beam bearing gives, with slight additional trouble, the 
distance of the object when abeam; such beam bearings and dis- 
tances, with the times, should be continuously recorded as fresh 
departures, the importance of which will be appreciated in cases 
of being suddenly shut in by fog. 

When the first bearing is 26J° from ahead, and the second 45°, 
the run between bearings will equal the distance at which the object 
will be passed abeam. 

A table of multipliers of the distance run in the interval between 
any two bearings of an object, the product being its distance at 
the time of the second bearing, is given in the Light Lists and in 
Bowditch. 

Danger angle. — ^The utility of the danger angle in passing out- 
lying rocks or dangers should not be forgotten. In employing the 
horizontal danger angle, however, caution is necessary, as should 
the chart be inaccurate, i. e., should the objects selected be not 
quite correctly placed, the angle taken off from it may not serve 
the purpose. It should not, therefore, be employed when the survey 
is old or manifestly imperfect. 

The vertical danger angle may be conveniently used when passing 
elevated points of known heights, such as lighthouses, cliffs, etc. 
The computation of the distance corresponding to the height of 
the object and its angular elevation requires for small distances 
merely the solution of a plain right triangle; the natural cotangent 
of the angle multiplied by the height in feet gives the distance in 



GENERAL NAVIGATION. 13 

feet. The convenient use of this method, however, requires tables 
such as those published by Capt. Lecky in his little book entitled 
"The Danger Angle and (MFshore Distance Tables." This book 
very usefully extends the vertical angle method to finding a 
ship's position at sea by observing the angular altitude of a peak 
of known height and its bearing. The tables give heights up to 
18,000 feet and distances up to 110 miles. 

When the angles are not too large they should be observed ''on and 
off the limb" and the index error of the sextant thus eliminated, in 
preference to correcting for it the single altitude. It must be re- 
membered that in high latitudes the bearing of a distant object needs 
correction for the convergence of the meridians before being laid down 
on a Mercator chart. The correction may be found by the following 
formula^ using the approximate position: The sine of the correction 
equals the product of the sine of half the difference of longitude by 
the sine of the middle latitude. It is applied on the equatorial side 
of the observed bearing and its effect is always to increase the latitude 
of the observer. 

Soundings taken at random are of little value in fixing or check- 
ing position and may at times be misleading. In thick weather, 
when near or closing the land, soundings should be taken continu- 
ously and at regular intervals, and, with the character of the bottom, 
systematically recorded. By laying the soundings on tracing paper, 
according to the scale of the chart, along a line representing the 
track of the ship, and then moving the paper over the chart, keeping 
the line representing the track parallel with the course until the 
observed soimdings agree with those of the chart, the ship's position 
will in general be quite well determined. This plan was suggested 
by Lord Kelvin, whose admirable sounding machine renders the 
operation of sounding possible in quite deep water, without slowing 
down the ship and consequent loss of time. 

Pelorus. — ^All ships should be supplied with the means of taking 
accurate bearings both by night and by day. The standard compass 
is not always conveniently placed for the purpose; in such case a 
pelorus will be very useful, but the results are not as accurate as 
those obtained direct from the compass. The utility of such an 
instrument in ascertaining the change of bearing of an approaching 
ship should not be overlooked. 

Position lines. — Among the various methods of fixing position 
at sea, the one which should be best understood and put to the 
most constant use is that employing position or Sumner lines. These 
lines give the most comprehensive information to the navigator with 
the least expenditure of labor and time. The knowledge gained is 
that the vessel must be somewhere on the line, provided the data 
used is accurate and the chronometer correct. As the information 



14 GENERAL NAVIGATION. 

given by one line of position is not sufficient to determine the definite 
location of the vessel, it is necessary to cross this line by another 
similarly obtained, and the vessel being somewhere on both must 
be at their intersection. However, a single line, at times, will 
furnish the mariner with invaluable information; for instance, if 
it 13 directed toward the coast, it marks the bearing of a definite 
point on the shore, or if parallel to the coast it clearly indicates 
the distance off, and so will often be found useful as a course. A 
sounding taken at the same time with the observation will in certain 
conditions prove of great value in giving an approximate position 
on the line. 

The easiest and quickest way to establish a line of position is by 
employing the method of Marcq St. Hilaire, as modified by the use 
of tables of altitude. The principle of this method is one of altitude 
differences, in which the observed altitude is compared with the 
computed altitude for a dead reckoning, or other selected position, 
and the difference in minutes of latitude measured toward the body 
along the line of its azimuth, if the observed altitude is greater than 
the computed altitude, and vice versa. A line drawn at right angles 
to the line of azimuth through the point thus determined is the 
position line, somewhere upon which will be found the position of the 
vessel. The tables of altitude obviate the computation of the altitude 
and thereby greatly facilitate the establishment of the line. 

A position line may also be foimd by computing two positions for 
longitude with two assumed latitudes, and drawing the line between 
them; or by drawing to the position obtained with one latitude a 
line at right angles to the bearing of the body as taken from the 
azimuth tables. 

A very accurate position can be obtained by observing two or 
more stars at morning or evening twilight, at which time the horizon 
is well defined. The position lines thus obtained will, if the bearings 
of the stars differ three points or more, give an excellent result. 
A star or planet at twilight and the sun afterward or before may be 
combined; also two observations of the sun with sufficient interval 
to admit of a considerable change of bearing. In these cases one 
of the lines must be moved for the run of the ship. The moon is 
often visible during the day and in combination with the sun gives 
an excellent fix. 

The morning and eveniag twilight observations, besides their 
great accuracy, possess the additional advantage of greatly 
extenduig the ship's reliable reckoning beyond the limits of the 
ordinary day navigation, and correspondingly restricting the dead 
reckoning uncertainties of the night. An early morning fix in 
particular is often of great value. Though the same degree of 



GENERAL NAYIQATION. 15 

accuracy as at twilight can not be expected, night observations are 
very valuable and should be assiduously practiced. 

PUotdng. — ^The navigator, in making his plan for entering a 
strange port, should give very careful previous study to the chart 
and sailing directions, and should select what appear to be the most 
suitable marks for use, also providing himself with substitutes to 
use in case those selected as most suitable should prove unreliable 
in not being recognized with absolute certainty. Channel buoys 
seen from a distance are difficult to identify, because their color is 
sometimes not easily distinguished, and they may appear equally 
distant from the observer even though they be at widely varying 
distances. Ranges should be noted, if possible, and the lines drawn, 
both for leading through the best water in channels, and also for 
guarding against particular dangers; for the latter purpose safety 
bearings should in all cases be laid down where no suitable ranges 
appear to offer. The courses to be steered in entering should also 
be laid down and distances marked thereon. If intending to use 
the sextant and danger angle in passing dangers, and especially in 
passing between dangers, the danger circles should be plotted and 
regular coiurses planned, rather than to run haphazard by the indi- 
cations of the angle alone, with the possible trouble from bad steering 
at critical points. 

The ship's position should not be allowed to be in doubt at any 
time, even in entering ports considered safe and easy of access, 
and should be constantly checked, continuing to use for this piupose 
those marks concerning which there can be no doubt imtil others 
are immistakably identified. 

The ship should ordinarily steer exact courses and follow an exact 
line, as planned from the chart, changing course at precise points, 
and, where the distances are considerable, her position on the line 
should be checked at frequent intervals. This is desirable even 
where it may seem unnecessary for safety, because if running by the 
eye alone and the ship's exact position be inmiediately required, as 
in a sudden fog or squall, fixing at that particular moment may be 
attended with difficulty. 

The habit of running exact courses with precise changes of course 
will be found most useful when it is desired to enter port or pass 
through inclosed waters dinging fog by means of the buoys; here 
safety demands that the buoys be made successively, to do which 
requires, if the fog be dense, very accurate courses and careful 
attention to the times, the speed of the ship, and the set of the 
current; failure to make a buoy as expected leaves, as a rule, no safe 
alternative but to anchor at once, with perhaps a consequent serious 
loss of time. 



16 GENEBAL NAVIGATION. 

In passing between dangers where there are no suitable leading 
marks, as, for instance, between two islands or an island and the 
main shore, with dangers extending from both, a mid-channel course 
may be steered by the eye alone with great accuracy, as the eye is 
able to estimate very closely the direction midway between visible 
objects. 

In piloting among coral reefs or banks, a time should be chosen 
when the sun will be astern, conning the vessel from aloft or from 
an elevated position forward. The line of demarcation between 
the deep water and the edges of the shoals, which generally show 
as green patches, is indicated with surprising clearness. This 
method is of frequent application in the numerous passages of the 
Florida Keys. 

Changes of course should in general be made by exact amounts, 
naming the new course or the amount of the change desired, rather 
than by ordering the helm to be put over and then steadying when 
on the desired heading, with the possibility of the attention being 
diverted and so of forgetting in the meantime, as may happen, that 
the ship is still swinging. The helmsman, knowing just what is 
desired and the amount of the change to be made, is thus enabled 
to act more intelligently and to avoid bad steering^ which in narrow 
channels is a very positive source of danger. 

Coast piloting involves the same principles and requires that 
the ship's position be continuously determined or checked as the 
landmarks are passed. On well-surveyed coasts there is a great 
advantage in keeping near the land, thus holding on to the marks 
and the soundings, and thereby knowing at all times the positions 
rather than keeping oflFshore and losing the marks, with the neces- 
sity of again making the land from vague positions, and perhaps 
the added inconvenience of fog or bad weather, involving a serious 
loss of time and fuel. 

The route should be planned for normal conditions of weather, 
with suitable variations where necessary in case of fog or bad 
weather or making points at night, the courses and distances, in 
case of regular runs over the same route, being entered in a note- 
book for ready reference, as well as laid down on the chart. The 
danger circles for either the horizontal or the vertical danger angles 
should be plotted, wherever the method can be usefully employed, 
and the angles marked thereon; many a mile may thus be saved in 
rounding dangerous points with no sacrifice in safety. Ranges 
should also be marked in, where iiseful for position or for safety, and 
also to use in checking the deviation of the compass by comparing 
in crossing, the compass bearing of the range with its magnetic 
bearing, as given by the chart. 



GENERAL NAVIGATION. 17 

Changes of course will in general be made with mark or object 
abeam, the position (a new "departure") being then, as a rule, 
best and most easily obtained. The pelorus should be at all times 
in readiness for use, and the chart where it may be readily consulted 
by the officer of the watch. The sextant should also be kept con- 
veniepitly at hand. 

A continuous record of the progress of the ship should be kept 
by the officer of the watch, the time and patent-log reading of all 
changes of course and of all bearings, especially the two and four 
point bearings, with distance of object when abeam, being noted in 
a book kept in the pilot house for this especial purpose. The ship's 
reckoning is thus continuously cared for as a matter of routine and 
without the presence or particular order of the captain or navigating 
officer. The value of thus keeping the reckoning always fresh and 
exact will be especiaUy appreciated in cases of sudden fog or when 
making points at night. 

Where the coastwise trip must be made against a strong head 
wind, it is desirable, with trustworthy charts, to skirt the shore as 
closely as possible in order to avoid the heavier seas and adverse 
current that prevail farther out. In some cases, with small ships, 
a passage can be made only in this way. The important saving 
of coal and of time, which is even more precious, thus effected by 
skillful coast piloting makes this subject one of prinle importance 
to the navigator. 

Change in the variation of the compass. ^ — ^The gradual 
change in the variation must not be forgotten in laying down on 
the chart courses and bearings. The magnetic compasses placed on 
the charts for the purpose of facihtating the plotting become in 
tujie sUghtly in error, and in some cases, such as with small scales or 
when the lines are long, the displacement of position from neglect of 
this change may be of importance. The date of the variation and 
the annual change, as given on the compass rose, facilitate correc- 
tions when the change has been considerable. The compasses are 
reengraved once in ten years; more frequent alterations on one spot 
in a copperplate would not be practicable. 

The change in the variation is in some parts of the world so rapid 
as to need careful consideration, requiring a frequent change of the 
course. For instance, in approaching Halifax from Newfoimdland 
the variation changes 10° in less than 500 miles. 

Local magnetic disturbance of the compass on board 
ship. — The term ''local magnetic disturbance" has reference only 
to the effects on the compass of magnetic masses external to the 

I See H. O. Chart No. 2406, Variation ot the compass. 
39511—16 2 



18 GENERAL NAVIGATION. 

ship. Observation shows that disturbance of the compass in a 
ship afloat is experienced in only a few places on the globe. 

Magnetic laws do not permit of the supposition that the visible 
land causes such disturbance, because the effect of a magnetic 
force diminishes so rapidly with distance that it would require a 
local center of magnetic force of an amount absolutely unknown 
to affect a compass half a mile distant. 

Such deflections of ihe compass are due to magnetic minerals 
in the bed of the sea imder the ship, and when the water is shallow 
and the force strong, the compass may be temporarily deflected 
when passing over such a spot; but the area of disturbance will be 
small unless there are many centers near together. 

Use of oil for modifying the eflTect of breaking waves. — 
Many experiences of late years have shown that the utility of oil 
for this purpose is imdoubted, and the application simple. 

The following may serve for the guidance of seamen, whose attention 
is called to the fact that a very small quantity of oil, skillf uUy applied, 
may prevent much damage both to ships, especially of the smaller 
classes, and to boats by modifying the action of breaking seas. 

The principal facts as to the use of oil are as follows: 

1. On free waves, i. e., waves in deep water, the effect is greatest. 

2. In a surf, or waves breaking on a bar, where a mass of liquid is 
in actual motion in shallow water, the effect of the oil is uncertain, 
as nothing can prevent the larger waves from breaking imder such 
circumstances; but even here it is of some service. 

3. The heaviest and thickest oils are most effectual. Refined 
kerosene is of Uttle use; crude petroleum is serviceable when no other 
oil is obtainable, or it may be mixed with other oils; all animal and 
vegetable oils, such as waste oil from the engines, have great effect. 

4. In cold water, the oil, being thickened by the low temperature 
and not being able to spread freely, will have its effect much reduced, 
a rapid-spreading oil should be used. 

5. A small quantity of oil suffices, if applied in such a manner 
as to spread to windward. 

6. It is useful in a ship or boat either when running, or lying-to^ 
or in wearing. 

7. When lowering and hoisting boats in a heavy sea the use of oil 
has been found greatly to facilitate the operation. 

8. For a ship at sea the best method of application appears to be 
to hang over the side, in such a manner as to be in the water, small 
canvas bags, capable of holding from 1 to 2 gallons of oil, the bags 
being pricked with a sail needle to permit leakage. The waste pipes 
forward are also very useful for this purpose. 



GENERAL NAVIGATION. 19 

9. Crossing a bar with a flood tide, to pour oil overboard and 
allow it to float in ahead of the boat, which would follow with a 
bag towing astern, would appear to be the best plan. . 

On a bar, with the ebb tide running, it would seem to be useless 
to try oil for the purpose of entering. 

. 10. For boarding a wreck, it is recommended to pour oil over- 
board to windward of her before going alongside, bearing in mind 
that her natural tendency is always to forge ahead. If she is aground 
the effect of oil will depend upon attending circumstances. 

«11. For a boat riding in bad weather to a sea anchor, it is reccnn- 
mended to fasten the bag to an endless line rove through a block on 
the sea anchor, by which means the oil can be diffused well ahead of 
the boat, aad the bag readily hauled on board for refilling, if necessary. 



CHAPTER I. 

GENERAL REMARKS— CAPE OF GOOD HOPE PROYINCE—NATAL— 
PORTUGUESE EAST AFRICA— GERMAN EAST AFRICA— BRITISH 
EAST AFRICA— ZANZIBAR AND PEMBA— ITALIAN EAST AFRICA- 
WINDS AND WEATHER— BAROMETER— CURRENTS— TEMPERA- 
TURE— ICE— BUOYAGE— TIDES— VARIATION OF THE COMPASS- 
LLOYD'S SIGNAL STATIONS— LIFE-SAVING STATIONS— NAVAL 
ESTABLISHMENTS— COALr-DOCKS— PASSAGES. 

General rexaarks. — ^The south, southeast, and east coasts of 
Africa, described in this work, commencing at the Cape of Good 
Hope, have a coastline of about 4,250 miles, to Ras Hafun^ and in- 
clude the following political divisions : 

Union of South Africa, extending from the Cape of Good Hope to 
about 2J miles northward of the Kosi River, or between latitude 34® 
2V and 26° 51' south, includes within its limits the following British 
territories: Cape of Good Hope, which stretches on the southwest 
coast of Africa as far as the Orange River, and on the south as far 
as the Umtamvuna River, the boundary between it and Natal, which 
latter, with Zululand, extends for 860 miles northeastward to the 
northeast boundary of the Province, separating it from Portuguese 
territory. In addition to these the Province also includes the Trans- 
vaal and Orange Free State, both without seaboard. 

Portuguese East Africa extends northeastward and northward to 
its boundary with German East Africa, in latitude 10^ 40' south, the 
latter division stretching northward to the Umba River, in latitude 
4° 41' south, which forms the southern boundary of the East African 
Protectorate, another area of British territory, also including the 
islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, and extending to the Mto Ya Vumbu 
in latitude 0^ 15' south, from which the remainder of the coastline 
is in the Italian sphere, reaching to the British Protectorate on the 
Somali coast. Within the east coast are the British territories of 
Rhodesia, Nyasaland, and Uganda. 

21 



22 GENERAL REMARKS. 

Cape of Good Hope Province, from its northern boundary of 
the Orange Eiver and the German protectorate, stretches southward 
between latitude 26° and 34° 50' south, a distance of about 550 miles, 
and from the southwest coast of Africa eastward, between longitude 
16° 26' and 80° 0' east for nearly 750 miles; it has an area of 
276,995 square miles, and a coastline of nearly 1,200 miles. The 
west coast of the Province is described in Africa Pilot, Part I. 

The cape itself was discovered in 1486 by Bartholomew Diaz, a 
Portuguese commander, sent by the King of Portugal to discover 
an ocean route to India, it being named by its discoverer Cabo Tor- 
mentoso, or Stormy Cape, but King John II, of Portugal, convinced 
of its being the turning point to the route to India, named it Boa 
Esperanca, or Cape of Good Hope. Diaz only rounded the cape and 
returned home, but in 1497 Vasco da Gama not only rounded it, but 
landed in what is now known as Natal. 

From this, until 1652, no permanent settlement was made at the cape, 
but it was used by British, Portuguese, and Dutch vessels as a place 
of call when proceeding to and from the East Indies; in the latter 
year the territory was taken possession of by the Dutch East India 
Co., under Van Eiebeck, who built a fort with a view to providing 
supplies for their vessels when passing, and it remained in their 
hands until 1795, when it passed to the British Government, who 
held it until the peace of Amiens, in 1802, when it was restored to 
the Dutch, but in 1806 the British again took possession, and it was 
formally ceded to them in 1814. 

The government of the whole Union of South Africa is constituted 
under the South Africa act of 1909, the self-governing colonies of 
the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, the Transvaal, and Orange Eiver 
colony being united under one government in 1910, with the seat of 
the Government at Pretoria, and that of the legislature at Cape 
Town. The executive is vested in a Governor General, appointed by 
the sovereign, aided by an executive council, with a legislature of 
two houses. 

Physical features. — Directly south of the Orange River, on 
the west coast, the country consists of a series of terraces, divided by 
mountain ranges, varying in height from 4,000 to 8,000 feet, rising 
gradually from south to north as far as the parallel of 32° south, 
and gradually descending in a series of open sterile plains to the 
river, the highest summit being Spitzkop or Compass Berg; the 
passages from one plateau to another are by well-made passes 
through narrow and difficult gorges or kloofs. 

I'he southwest peninsula contains Table Moimtain, 3,582 feet high, 
and the Groote Zwarte Bergen and Lange Bergen run in parallel 
lines from west to east of the southern Province, having between 
them and the Roggeveld and Nieuweveld, on the north, the Great 



GENEEA.L BEMABKS. 23 

Karoo plateau, 300 miles in length in an east and west direction, and 
70 miles in breadth, bounded on the east by Sneeuwbergen, and con- 
taining the highest summit, already mentioned; this plateau is a 
dry, barren district, but immediately after heavy rains it is covered 
by profuse and varied vegetation. The ranges in the east join the 
Drakensbergen, between Natal and Orange Free State. 

Mountains. — ^The principal moimtain ranges are Olifants Zitzi- 
kama, the summit of which is Great Winterhoek, 6,818 feet high; 
Groote Zwarte Bergen, its highest peak being the Cockscomb Moun- 
tain, 5,773 feet, and the Boggeveld Sneeux Bergen Bange, having 
Compass Berg, 8,209 feet, already mentioned. 

Bivers, although numerous, are practically useless for either navi- 
gation or irrigation, most of them flowing through deep and precipi- 
tous ravines and being, except when swollen by rains, mere shallow 
torrents. Bars, which front the mouths of the largest, in most cases 
make entrance both difficult and dangerous, but some of these have 
been rendered navigable. The principal rivers are the Orange and 
Olifant, the former rising near Mont aux Sources, in Basutoland, 
draining 400,000 square miles of country. 

Flora and fauna. — South Africa is greatly destitute of forest 
except in lower valleys and coast regions. In the plains the fleshy, 
leafless, contorted species of kapsias, mesembryanthemums, aloes, and 
other succulent plants are found, and there is also some valuable 
timber, the trees being yellow pine {Podocarpus elongatua)^ stink- 
wood (Ocotea)y sneezewood or Cape ebony {Pteroxylon utUe)^ and 
ironwood. Extensive miniature woods or heaths are found in endless 
variety, covered throughout the greater part of the year with innu- 
merable blossoms, red being prevalent; alfa, the most abundant 
of all the grasses, grows in the plateaus of the Atlas Bange. 

The indigenous animals are fast disappearing, but buffaloes are 
found on the south coast, and the springbok is abundant. The 
ostrich, the secretary bird, the francolin, and the guinea fowl are 
common, while the weaver bird is found in the southern part. 
Amongst reptiles are a number of venomous snakes. The bite of 
the tsetse fly is fatal to most animals. 

PopiQation. — In 1911 the population of the Cape of Good Hope 
Province was 2,564,965, and of these 582,377 were Europeans; Cape 
Town, the capital, with its suburbs, had a population of 149,461 in 
the same year. 

The Bushmen, small in stature and of the lowest class of humanity, 
are the earliest known inhabitants, but the Bechuanas and Hotten- 
tots endeavored to exterminate them, and the latter, nomadic and 
pastoral in their habits, once dominated the colony but are now 
nearly extinct as a pure race. 



24 GENEBAL BEMABKS. 

The Griquas, a thin wiry race, of medium height, and also of 
pastoral habits, are the result of cross-breeding between the Boers 
and Kaffirs, the latter a fine, tall, muscular, intelligent race, also with 
pastoral proclivities. 

Products. — The eastern and southern portions of the Province 
are generally well wooded, and extremely fertile, having an abundant 
water supply, and in 1911 there were 468,936 acres under cultivation, 
2,764,603 acres under grazing, and 179,603 acres fallow. Cattle, 
horses, sheep, goats, pigs, mules, asses, and ostriches are reared, and 
the principal crops are wheat, oats, maize, pumpkins and tobacco. 
Diamonds, copper, and salt are the chief minerals from this Prov- 
ince, and only a comparatively small quantity of coal is mined. 

Trade. — ^In 1912 the diamond mines of the Province of Cape of 
Good Hope yielded 2,325,549 carats, of an aggregate value of 
$30,125,240, and 16,951 tons of copper matte and ore were valued at 
$2,471,129, while 19,844 tons of salt amounted to $139,809 ; the amount 
of coal mined in the same year was 74,701 tons. 

Ports. — ^There are good harbors at Simons Bay, Port Elizabeth, 
East London, and Mossel Bay, receiving artificial protection, as 
there are no natural harbors or sheltered anchorages for large ves- 
sels, and the coast, being exposed to the swell of the Southern Ocean, 
is dangerous, especially for sailing vessels, as also is landing, which 
is difficult even from anchorages. 

Communications — Steamships. — Cape Town is 5,979 miles 
from Southampton, the time occupied being usually 16 days. The 
principal line calling at the Cape is the Union Castle Mail Steam- 
ship Co., leaving Southampton every Saturday. 

Railways. — ^The railways, mostly the property of the Union 
Government, consist of the Western Division, which, starting from 
Cape Town, runs northeastward to Viyburg, a distance of 774 miles, 
with branches northward to Vredenburg and Olif ants River, south- 
ward to Simons Town, and southeastward to Kydosdie, via Caledon ; 
a branch also runs southeastward to Mossel Bay. The Midland Divi- 
sion, from Port Elizabeth, joining the Western Division at De Aar 
Jimction, 339 miles, and having branches at Naauwpoort and at 
Norvals Pont Junction, 270 and 829 miles, respectively, from Port 
Elizabeth, with other branches ; at the latter place what was before 
known as the Central South African Eailway commences. 

The Eastern Division runs from East London to Springf ontein, a 
distance of 814 miles, connecting with the other main lines from the 
Western and Middle Divisions. The Eastern Division has two 
branch lines connecting with the Midland main line and three 
branches extending toward the Natal system. 

The line connecting Cape Town with Simons Town, via Wynberg, 
is about 20 miles in length, and a private line of 3J miles runs from 



GENEBAL BEMARKS. 25 

Cape Town to Sea Point. In 1912 there were 3,492 miles of railway 
open for traffic in the Cape of Good Hope Province. 

Telegraph. — Cape Town is connected with Europe and with 
North and South America by two submarine cables. One of the 
cables touches at Swakopmund (Walfisch Bay), Mossamedes, Ben- 
guela, St. Paul de Loando, San Thome, Princes Island, and various 
places along the African coast and the Canary Islands. The other 
cable reaches these continents via St. Helena, Ascension, Cape de 
Verde Islands, and the Azores. 

Land wires connect the Cape with Port Nolloth, on the west, and 
with Mossel Bay, Port Elizabeth, East London, and other places on 
the south coast, and following the line of the railway a wire reaches 
Fort Johnson, at the south end of Lake Nyasa, and skirting the west 
side of that lake, crosses to Kituta at the south end of Lake Tan- 
ganyika. In 1912 there were 56,860 miles of telegraph and 54,997 
miles of telephone wire in operation in South Africa. 

Radio station. — A radio station is situated on Slang Kop Point, 
15J miles northwestward of the Cape of Good Hope. 

BoadSy which are numerous, but unmetaled except in or near 
large towns, are exceedingly heavy in consequence during the wet 
season. 

Climate. — Owing probably to the uniformity of temperature, 
the Province of the Cape of Good Hope possesses a healthy climate, 
which is much favored by Europeans suffering from pulmonary com- 
plaints. Summer commences in November and continues until April, 
the mean temperature at Cape Town being about 76** in February, 
and 59° in July. 

In the western portion of the Province, as far eastward as Cape 
St. Francis, the rainy season is during winter, the rains being due to 
the westerly winds from the South Atlantic, smart showers be- 
ginning about March, increase gradually up to June, which although 
usually the wettest month, has a fair proportion of fine weather. 
From June the rain decreases until October, and December and Jan- 
uary are dry months. 

Eastward of Cape St. Francis the rainy season is in summer, and 
the neighborhood of thaf cape, lying between the winter and sum- 
mer rains, has a fall nearly equally distributed throughout the year, 
but at Port Elizabeth the greatest quantity falls between July and 
December. 

The average rainfall at Cape Town is 23 inches, at Mossel Bay 
14 inches, and at Port Elizabeth 22 inches, but inland it is generally 
less, being 14 inches at Worcester, 50 miles from Cape Town, and 
8 inches the same distance inland from Mossel Bay. On Table 
Mountain, at McLears Beacon, 20 years' observations give a rainfall 



26 OENEBAL EEMABKS. 

of 73.4 inches in 1896, the dryest year, and 126.2 inches in 1902, the 
wettest year, a fall of 36.58 inches being recorded in the month of 
August, 1899. 

HataL — ^The next division northeastward of Cape of Grood Hope 
Province, and including Zululand and Amatougaland, has an area 
of 44,000 square miles, and a coast line of 360 miles, extending to 
about 2| miles northward of the Kosi Biver, the southern boundary 
of Portuguese possessions. 

Deriving its name from having been discovered on Christmas Day, 
1497, by the celebrated Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama, it was 
first settled in 1824 by a small party of British subjects, who landed 
on the coast where Durban now stands, but two unsuccessful attempts 
at forming a settlement were previously made by the Dutch. The 
country, at the time of its settlement, formed a part of the great 
Zulu Kingdom, under T'Chaka. 

Between 1835 and 1887 large parties of Dutch Boers from what 
was then Cape Colony trekked across country and established them- 
selves in the northern part of Natal, where to this day the Boers pre- 
dominate. In the year 1844 it was proclaimed as British and annexed 
to Cape Colony, but in 1866 it was made a separate colony, with rep- 
resentative institutions, and in 1893 acquired responsible govern- 
ment ; in 1910 it became part of the Union of South Africa. Zululand 
was annexed in 1897. 

The Government is administered by an administrator, assisted by 
a provincial council of 25 members, who are elected for 3 years; there 
is also an executive committee of 4 members. 

Physical features. — Inland from the coast the country forms a 
series of five almost regular steppes, rising from sea level to an 
altitude of 12,000 feet in a little more than 100 miles, the first of these 
from the sea extending about 14 miles inland, and attaining a height 
of about 1,000 feet; the second steppe, with a breadth of 20 miles, 
extending 34 miles from the sea, is about 2,500 feet; the third, 25 
miles in breadth, is about 3,700 feet; the fourth, about the same 
breadth, 6,000 feet. The fifth and last attains 6,000 feet, and from 
it rise Champagne Castle or Cathkin Peak, 12,000 feet; Giants Castle, 
11,000 feet; Mont aux Sources, of the same height; Tintwa, 7,500 
foct; and the Amajuba, 7,000 feet high, being peaks of the Drakens- 
berg, frequently clad with snow. The Province has pastoral lowlands 
and rich agricultural land between the slopes of the Drakensberg, 
and the scenery is in many parts extremely picturesque. 

Bivers. — The principal rivers are the Umzimkulu,the Umkomass, 
and the Tugela, which traverse the Province from the Drakensberg 
Mountains to the sea, but only the two last are navigable, and that by 
small craft for a short distance. The Tugela, rising in the Drakens- 
berg, falls over a precipice 1,800 feet high, and after a course of about 



GENERAL BEMAEKS. 27 

200 miles discharges into the sea about 45 miles northeastward of 
Port Natal ; it is said to be the most picturesque of the Natal rivers, 
and the falls even more so than those of Victoria on the Zambezi. 
About 32 less important streams, none of which are navigable, run 
into the sea on the Natal coast. 

Population. — In 1911 the population of Natal was 1,194,043, 
which included 98,114 Europeans and 133,439 Indians and Asiatics. 
Pietermaritzburg, the capital and seat of the provincial Government, 
is situated 54 miles inland from Port Natal, and had a population of 
30,555 in the same year. 

Products. — The coast region, extending about 15 miles inland, 
is highly fertile, and sugar, coflfee, tea, indigo, arrowroot, ginger, 
tobacco, rice, pepper, and cotton thrive well, while pineapples ripen 
in the open air. The following are the principal products in the 
order given : Coal, wool, sugar, maize, bark, skins and hides, tea, and 
whale products. The midland district is more adapted* to cereals and 
other European crops, and the upper district is chiefly grazing land, 
where sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, and horses are reared, and amounted 
to the following numbers in 1911: Sheep, 1,519,258; goats, 989,274; 
cattle, 456,087; pigs, 110,332. 

Coal, the chief mineral product, amounted to 2,608,408 tons in 1913, 
of which 1,196,460 tons were bunkered and 355,901 tons shipped as 
cargo at Durban. Salt totaled 19,844 tons in the same year; there 
are beds of iron ore and a small quantity of copper, while the yield 
of gold was only 1,242 ounces in 1912. Patent fuel is manufactured 
at Durban, the average production being 5,000 tons monthly. 

Ports. — ^Durban or Port Natal, completely landlocked, is the only 
harbor for large vessels, and small coasting steamers can use Port 
Shepstone at the mouth of the Umzimkulu River, both artificial ; the 
Umkomass River is available for small craft. 

Landing on the Natal coast is extremely difficult and dangerous at 
most times, and continues so as far northeastward as Delagoa Bay. 

Communications — Steamships. — Durban is 6,800 miles from 
Southampton, the time occupied on passage being about 20 days. 
Steam vessels of the Union Castle Mail Steamship Co. call weekly. 

Railways. — ^The main line of railway from Durban runs to Pie- 
termaritzburg, a distance of 73 miles, thence via Ladysmith to 
Johannesburg and Pretoria, Johannesburg being 483 miles from 
Durban; a line from Ladysmith also nms westward to Kroonstad. 
There are branch lines to Somkele, known as the North Coast Line ; 
to Port Shepstone, named the South Coast Line; to Mid Illovo and 
to Richmond ; also to Vryheid via Glencoe Junction. In 1912 there 
were 1,053 miles of railway in operation in this Province. 

Telegraph. — ^A submarine cable from Port Natal connects with 
Aden via Delagoa Bay, Beria, Kiliman, Mozambique, and Zanzibar, 



28 GENERAL REMARKS. 

and another cable is laid to Mauritius, from which a cable connects 
to the north with Seychelles and Zanzibar, and another to the east 
with Rodriguez and thence to Batavia, via the Cocos Islands. A 
land line skirts the south coast, passing through East London, Port 
Alfred, Port Elizabeth, Cape St. Francis, Plettenberg Bay, and 
Mossel Bay to the Cape of Good Hope, with several branches con- 
necting it with the main systems of South Africa. 

Sadio station. — A radio station at Durban is open to the public 
at all times. 

nnlfonn time. — ^The standard time kept in the Union of South 
Africa is that of the meridian of 30° east or two hours fast of Green- 
wich mean time. 

Climate. — The climate of the sea coast, although almost tropical, 
is extremely healthy, the siunmer heat being tempered by clouds and 
rain, whereas in winter the sky is usually cloudless ; May, June, and 
July are the finest months, with regular land and sea breezes. Frost 
in winter sometimes occurs at sea level on the coast, and snowstorms 
are experienced yearly in the uplands, covering the peaks of the 
Drakensberg. 

At Pietermaritzburg, 2,218 feet above sea level, the average yearly 
temperature is about 64°, rising on rare occasions in summer to 98° 
and sometimes falling in w^inter to 28° F., and at Durban these 
values are about 69^°, 98°, and 42°, respectively, but the daily range 
does not exceed 20°. 

The wet season is from October to February, the wind then being 
usually from the westward, but rain occurs at all seasons, and thun- 
der and hail storms are of frequent occurrence from October to 
April. The annual rainfall at Durban amounts to about 40 inches, 
rain falling on an average of 61 days, and at Pietermaritzburg it is 
about 38 inches, falling on 58 days on an average. The average fall 
in every summer month is about 5 inches and in every winter month 
2 inches. 

Trade. — ^The returns of trade and shipping are only given for 
the whole Province of the Union of South Africa, so that separate 
details are not available. The principal export, as regards value, is 
gold, which in 1912 was valued at $186,106,524, more than half of the 
value of the exports, which was $340,494,530. Diamonds come next, 
with a total value of $44,540,035, and the remainder of the chief 
exports are wool, ostrich feathers, and coal, of which latter 8,117,078 
tons were raised, 4,751,850 tons of this coming from the Transvaal. 

Other exports were hides and skins, mohair, copper (principally 
from the Cape of Good Hope Province), bark wattle, tin ore (*m- 
tirely from the Transvaal), whale oil, fruits, fish, fodder, buchu 
leaves, wines, sugar, tobacco, asbestos, and dynamite. Of these 91.4 
per cent was shipped to the United Kingdom. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 29 

The imports, which in the same year had an aggregate value of 
$188,990,379, were principally food and drink, cotton manufac- 
tures, apparel, machinery, hardware, leather manufactures, haber- 
dashery, wood and timber, iron and steel, drugs and chemicMls, 
woolen manufactures, oils, furniture, glycerin, bags, agricultural 
implements, electrical wire and fittings, arms and ammunition, hats 
aiid caps, candle wax, and tobacco. 

In the same year the ports of the Union were entered by 4,349 
vessels of an aggregate tonnage of 21,550,615 tons. 

The manufactures in the Union Province consist of furniture and 
sor.p making, lobster canning, cement, leather, matches, pottery, 
dynamite, starch, arrowroot, sugar, tea, rope, woolen cloth, s.ilt, etc. 

Money. — The currency of the Union of South Africa is the same 
as in Great Britain, but accounts are sometimes kept in shillings, 
f<liial to 8^ cents, and rixdoUars, equal to about 36 cents. 

Weights and measures are partly those of Great Britain and 

1 artly old Dutch. 

Morgen=2.11654 acres. 

Kheinland fuss=1.03 feet. 

The aam of 2 ankers, of 2 steeknen, of 8 stoopen, of 2 meiigeln, of 

2 pintjes, of 4 maajes=34.16 gallons. 

Old Amsterdam pfund=1.32 pounds troy, or 1.09 pounds avoirdu- 
pois. 

Ninety-two old Amsterdam pfunds=100 pounds avoirdupois. 

A muid of wheat, peas, or beans=200 pounds. 

A muid of oats or potatoes=150 pounds. 

A muid of barley =160 pounds. 

A muid of oninons=120 pounds. 

One ton =2,000 pounds. 

Portuguese East Africa. — From the northern boundary of Zulu- 
land to latitude 10° 40' south, near Cape Delgado, is the seaboard of 
Portuguese East Africa, about 1,400 miles in length, its boundary 
on the northeast being German East Africa ; on the west it is bounded 
by Bhodesia and the Transvaal and on the northwest by the British 
Central Africa protectorate, the total area of Portuguese territory 
being about 298,000 square miles. 

The territory being famed for its gold, the Portuguese first took 
possession from the Arabs in 1497, and in 1508 they built a fort at 
the Port of Mozambique, the town which grew up being made into 
the capital of the Province in 1813; but by a decree of 1891 the 
Province was constituted the State of East Africa and divided into 
two Provinces, that of Mozambique, northward of the Zambezi Eiver, 
with Mozambique for its capital, and that of LourenQO Marques, 
southward of the same river, the capital being the town of that name. 
In addition each of these Provinces has three intendencies. 



30 GENERAL REMARKS. 

It is administered by a royal commission, appointed for three 
years and residing in the capitals of the Provinces alternately. 

Physical features. — ^There is a marked difference between the 
coastline, 1,430 miles in length, southward and northward of Mozam- 
bique, as the former is low, sandy, and lined with mangroves, with 
few and poor harbors, while to the northward it is considerably 
indented and has rocky headlands, rugged cliffs, and an almost con- 
tinuous fringe of islets. 

A mountain chain, forming the backbone of the territory, and the 
steep declivity of the continental plain is not always abrupt in 
its descent but in the lower Zambesi district and other parts slopes 
gradually to the coast. The Lebombo Mountains, within Delagoa 
Bay, are only about 2,000 feet, but farther north mountains rise to 
nearly 8,000 feet, and the chief range is north of the Zambezi, where 
Namuli Peak, of the mountains of the same name, rises to 8,860 
feet, this and other mountains of nearly similar height being covered 
with magnificent forests. 

Near Lake Nyasa the southeast side of a range attains a height 
of about 6,000 feet, with an abrupt descent to the lake, and the plateau 
lands westward are from 2,000 to 2,500 feet high. 

Rivers. — ^The rivers, besides the Zambesi, which is the largest, 
are the Limpopo, Saba, Buzi, and Pungue to the southward of it 
and to the northward the Likugu, Lurio, Montepes, or Mtepwesi, 
the Msala, and the Bovuma, some of which are navigable for light- 
draft steam vessels for a considerable distance. 

The Limpopo, rising in the Cats Rand Mountains, flows through a 
gold-bearing country past Johannesburg and Pretoria for a distance 
of about 1,500 miles, being joined by the Lipalule at about 120 miles 
from its mouth; it is said to be navigable for about 60 miles for 
light-draft steam vessels. 

The Zambezi, rising in mid- Africa in about latitude 15° south, has 
a course of about 1,400 miles and is joined by the Shire at about 110 
miles from its mouth. It rims into the sea through a delta of several 
mouths and having an extent of 87 miles. At about 950 miles from 
the sea are the Victoria or Mosivatunya Falls, the most magnificent 
in the world, being about 1 mile in width. The Zambesi is navi- 
gable for light-draft and stem-wheel vessels for a considerable dis- 
tance, and the Shire is also navigable but is exceedingly shallow in 
the dry season. 

Gteology. — On the coast between Delagoa Bay and Mozambique 
there is an outcrop of cretaceous rocks from beneath superficial 
deposits, and sandstones and shales occur in a narrow belt at the 
edge of the foot plateau ; but the central plateau consists of gneiss, 
granite, and schists, tlie next oldest rocks being of the Karroo 
period, containing workable seams of coal in one part ; the Cenoman- 



GENERAL REMABKS. 31 

ian, highest Cretaceous and Eocene formations, are represented, and 
some basalts. 

Flora and fauna. — ^A varied and abundant flora includes iron- 
wood, ebony, mangroves, sandal wood, gum copal, bombax, baobab, 
dracaenas, candalabra euphorbia, and several species of creepers, 
flowering shrubs, vitex, and ficus, while six varieties of palms are 
found. Coffee, cotton, indigo, tobacco, and castor oil are amongst 
the plants, and bananas, mangoes and pineapples amongst the fruits, 
while of flowers, crinum lilies, lotus, gentian, gladiola, lobelia, and 
violets may be mentioned. Bamboos and the spear grass {Pha'agrrdtes 
conymum%) , growing from 12 to 14 feet high, are both common. 

The carnivora includes yellow and black-maned lions, the leopard, 
spotted hyena, jackal, serval, civit, genet, hunting dog, mongoose, 
and spotted otter, and other mammals are the elephant, rhinoceros, 
hippopotamus, wart and red hog, buffalo, antelopes, waterbuck, 
hartebeeste, reed and bush buck, impala, etc.; the giraffe is not 
found, and the kudu is rare. Hares, rabbits, and several species of 
monkeys are abundant. 

Of reptiles, crocodiles, lizards, chameleons, pythons, cobras, puff- 
adders, and vipers are very numerous, and mosquitoes, locusts, the 
tsetse and other flies are common plagues. 

Raptorial birds include the eagle, vulture, kite, buzzard, and crow, 
and game birds are the guinea fowl, partridge, bustard, quail, geese, 
teal, widgeon, mallard, and other ducks ; parrots, hornbills, buntings, 
finches, doves, and various other birds are found. 

Population. — ^The population of Portuguese East Africa is esti- 
mated at about 3,200,000; Lourengo Marques had 9,849 inhabitants 
in 1910, and Mozambique about 8,000. 

Forts. — ^The principal ports, enumerated from the south, are: 
Lourengo Marques, Innamban, Chiluan, Beira, Chinde, mouth of the 
Zambezi, Kiliman, Angoche, Mozambique, and Ibo. Delagoa Bay, 
on account of its fine harbor and railway communication with the 
Transvaal, is of considerable importance. 

Landing on the coast of the southern part of the colony is difficult, 
dangerous, and in many places impracticable; but on the northern 
portion the coast being broken up into bays, and fronted in places 
by islands and reefs, protection is afforded between them and the 
shore. 

Products. — ^A considerable portion of the country is suitable for 
the growth of sugar cane, rice, ground nuts, coffee, and tobacco, and 
rubber vines are grown in the Mozambique district, where are large 
plantations of coffee and sugar. Wheat and other cereals are grown 
in the Zambezi Valley, the soil being fertilized by the river inunda- 
tions, and the natives raise crops of maize, cassava beans, and 



32 GENEBAL BEMABKS. 

oleagmous crops. There are large herds of cattle, and fish are 
plentiful. 

Extensive deposits of coal are situated near Tete and Delagoa Bay, 
where ironstone is plentiful ; malachite and copper are found in the 
interior, and gold mines are worked. 

Trade. — The exports consist of rubber, sugar, coal, beeswax, 
coconuts, copra, mangrove bark, ivory, skins, ground and monkey 
nuts, mealies, cattle, cotton, tobacco, gold, and other minerals; and 
imports are foodstuffs, cotton goods, and hardware. In 1910 the com- 
bined exports and imports were valued at $29,196,000. 

Communications— Steamships. — The Union Castle Mail Steam- 
ship Co. have a weekly service of steamers to Delagoa Bay and 
monthly to Beira and to Mozambique. 

The British India have fortnightly steamers from Bombay to 
Beira via Zanzibar, calling monthly at Mozambique on their passage 
south, and at Beira steamers of the following lines call irregularly : 
Messrs. Rennie & Co., Clan and EUerman-Harrison, Natal Direct, 
Bucknall, Houston, Empreza Nacional de Navegagao, the latter line 
also calling regularly at Mozambique and other ports of Portuguese 
territory. 

Railways. — ^A railway runs from Lourengo Marques to Groot- 
spelonken, with a branch at Komati Poort to Pretoria, to which place 
there is also a line from Grootspelonken, with a branch northward to 
the Messina mine, near the Limpopo River. A railway to the border 
of Swaziland is under construction and nearing completion. From 
Beira a railway runs northwestward to Salisbury, connecting with 
the British Ehodesian system and with several branches at that place. 

Telegraphs. — A cable connects with Durban, to the south, and 
another with Beira, to the north, between which place and Kiliman 
is a cable, and one between Kiliman and Mozambique. Mozambique 
is connected with Madagascar by a French cable. Land lines run 
from Delagoa Bay to Pretoria and to Innamban, which latter is 
connected by wire with Chibatu and the subdivisions of Villa Luiza, 
Mahica, Labie, Maqude, and Bella Vista. 

Beira has a land wire to the main system of South Africa, and to 
Mazoe via Fort Salisbury, also to Fort Johnson, which latter is 
also connected by wire with Kiliman via Blantyre, and there is a 
land wire between Kiliman and Molecue via Bajone. Mozam- 
bique has land wires to Angoche, to the south, and to Kirondo, via 
Port Amelia and Palma, to the north. 

Climate. — Nearly the whole of the coast of Portuguese East 
Africa between Delagoa Bay and Cape Delgado consisting of marshy 
land, and the large rivers bringing down immense quantities of 
decayed vegetable matter, particularly in Delagoa Bay and the delta 
of the Zambezi, the exhalations produced by the powerful sun, the 



GENEBAL REMABKS. 33 

heavy rains which succeed the great heat, and the nightly dews all 
tend- toward the general insalubrity of this coast, and malaria is 
endemic, but the upper plateaus are cool and healthy. 

Innamb'an is considered to be the least unhealthy of the Portuguese 
stations, the temperature being as low as 62° F. in July, but from 
November to May fevers are very qpmmon, and the best safeguard 
against them is temperate living and nonexposure to the hot sun. 

About Delagoa Bay the rainy season is from September to March 
or April, very little rain falling in winter, and the Gaza country, 
between High Transvaal and Matabele Kafir land, is a rainless 
region. 

Between the Limpopo and Zambezi Rivers the wet season is from 
November to April, but the valley of the Zambezi is reached by 
lesser rains late in October, when the sun is passing southward, these 
diminishing in December, and being heaviest from January to the 
end of March or middle of April, when the sun is going northward ;- 
the river then begins to fall and the district is most unhealthy. At 
Ibo the worst season is said to be between January and March, during 
the heavy rains. 

On the coast the coolest season generally is from April to August ; 
the rainy season from December to March ; the dry season from May 
to the end of September; and light rains fall in November. From 
November to March is the rainy season at Mozambique, but a con- 
siderable fall has been experienced in May, a total fall for a year 
being recorded as 38.9 inches. Between Mozambique and Lake 
Nyasa the rainy season is from November to May. 

Money. — The money is the same as in Portugal, the unit being 
the rei — 

Rei = ^ cent. 

100 centavos=l escudo=about 97 cents. 

The silver coins are 1,000, 500, 200, 100, and 50 reis, jind oO and 
20 centavos, while the copper' coins are 20, 10, and 5 reis. 

Notes are issued for £1, £5, and £10. 

£1=5,250 reis, is the average rate of exchange. 

There is a diflference in the value of the milreis in Mozambique and 
in Kiliman, its value being considerably greater in the latter place. 

Weights and measures. — The weights and measures are those 
of Portugal. The following native weights are in use at Mozam- 
bique^: 

1 bahar=20 frasils=240 pounds. 

(German East Africa. — Between the parallel of 10° 40' south, near 
Cale Delgado and the mouth of the TJmba River, in latitude 4° 41' 
south, is the coast of German East Africa, having a total length of 
415 miles, not including sinuosities. In its southern portion it ex- 

30511—16 3 



34 GENERAL REMARKS. 

tends westward to the east shore of Lake Nyasa, and farther to the 
northward to the similar shore of Lake Tanganyika, while its north- 
em boundary is British East Africa, and it includes the southern 
half of Victoria Nyanza Lake. Mafia Island, about midway oflf the 
whole extent of coast, is also German territory, the whole having an 
trea of 384,318 square miles. 

The German East Africa Co. founded several stations in 1885, but 
these were destroyed by a native outbreak in 1889, and it was not 
until the next year, on the restoration of peace, that commercial en- 
terprise recommenced. The State is administered by an imperial 
governor. 

Physical features. — ^The coast is generally low and composed 
of coral, partly covered with sand or with rich alluvial soil with 
dense bush or mangroves, and is little indented; it is from 10 to 30 
miles in width, extending inland to the precipitous eastern side of 
the interior plateau, which attains its greatest height to the north- 
ward of Lake Nyasa, where its general elevation is from 3,000 to 
4,000 feet, with one peak reaching 9,600 and several 7,000 feet, from 
which it slopes to the northwestward. 

The middle of the plateau is traversed by a deep, narrow gorge, 
known as the eastern Riff Valley, and several valleys are situated in 
the northern part, from one of which rises Kilimanjaro, an extinct 
volcano, 19,230 feet high, and the highest mountain in Africa; 
Moimt Meru, a volcanic peak with a double crater, is 14,955 feet 
high, and situated 40 miles westward of Kilimanjaro, and southeast- 
ward of the latter are the Pare Mountains and Usambara highlands, 
with Nuguru and other mountainous regions, farther south on the 
eastern edge of the plateau. 

Rivers. — ^The Rovuma and Rufiji, rising in the central plateau, 
are the largest rivers, and the Pangani, rising at Kilimanjaro, has a 
southeast course of about 250 miles before entering the sea; the 
Wami and the Kingani are other rivers, and there are four inland 
river systems. All the rivers are shallow and scarcely navigable for 
anything larger than a steam launch. 

Lake Tanganyika, the eastern shore of which is in German terri- 
tory, is about 350 miles in length, north and south, with a greatest 
width of about 45 miles, the greatest depth being 698 fathoms. 

Geology. — The narrow foot plateau is mostly covered by rocks of 
the Tertiary ages, while Cretaceous marls and limestones, underlain 
by Jurassic rocks, appear at intervals to the edge of the upper 
plateau, and the central plateau consists almost entirely of meta- 
morphic rocks, with some extensive tracts of granite; in the vicinity 
of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika are sandstone and shales of the 
Lower Karroo age, with seams of coal. Fossil remains of enormous 
saurians have been found. 



GENERAL BEMABKS. 35 

Flora and fauna. — ^Mangroves and a rich tropical bush are the 
characteristics of the coast; the central plateau is partly grassland 
and partly steppe, covered with mimosa bush, while the banks of 
rivers are lined with belts of dense forest, in which the Hyfc^ne 
palm is frequent, with other gum-producing mimosas and some useful 
timber trees. 

On the slopes of the plateau the silk-cotton trees, the miomba, 
tamarisk, and copal tree grow, besides sycamores, banyan trees, and 
the deleb palm, while the LandolpMa -florida^ which yields the best 
rubber, is found. 

The fauna includes elephants, the rhinoceros, the hippopotamus, 
the giraffe, the lion and other camivora, buffaloes-, elands, water, 
bush, and reed bucks, zebras, wart hogs, roan antelopes, the greater 
and lesser kudu, the beisa and fringed-eared oryx, the impalah, the 
wilde and the hart beest, the topi, and five different species of gazelle 
are found ; while geese, both spur- winged and Egyptian, snipe, and 
ducks are numerous on marshes and lakes, the latter including pin- 
tails, pochards, wood ducks, mallard, teal, and several others. 

Population.— The population was about 7,680,122 in 1912, the 
white inhabitants numbering 5,536, of which 90 were British and 321 
British colonial subjects. Dar es Salaam is the capital. 

Products. — ^Agriculture and the products of the forests consti- 
tute the chief wealth of the territory, the latter including rubber, 
copal, bark, fiber, teak, mahogany, etc., and the cultivation consists 
of coffee, coconut palms, tobacco, sugar cane, cotton, vanilla, sorghum, 
ground nuts, sesame, maize, rice, beans, peas, bananas, yams, manioc, 
and hemp, while animal products are ivory, hides, tortoise shell, and 
pearls. Cattle, goats, and sheep are reared in large numbers on the 
plateau. 

Gold, coal, iron, graphite, copper, and salt are found, the chief 
gold and iron deposits being near Victoria Nyanza, and of precious 
stones are the topaz, moonstone, and the agate, while garnets are 
plentiful. 

Trade. — ^The chief products are gum copal, coconuts, copra, ses- 
ame, caoutchouc, and ivory, and fish are plentiful on the coast in the 
vicinity of Kilwa, Dar es Salaam, and Mafia Island, pearl oysters 
being found in the latter, and in several parts shell fish are abundant. 
In 1912 the exports amounted to $7,650,206, and the imports of 
cotton goods, colonial wares, rice, oil, spirits, wine, and beer io 
$1,223,026, the amount of fish sent to the Persian Gulf being $19,454, 
but this will probably be increased by improved means of capture. 

In 1912 the ports were entered by 1,034 vessels, with an aggregate 
tonnage of 81,951 tons. 



36 GEXEBAL REMARKS. 

Ports. — Besides Dar es Salaam the ports, enumerated from the 
southward, are Mikindani, Lindi, Kilwa Kisiwani, Kilwa Kivinje, 
Bagamoyo, Panzani, and Tanga. 

Communications — Steamships. — Steam vessels of various lines 
call irregularly. 

Railways. — The Central Railway from Dar es Salaam runs to 
Kigona, on Lake Tanganyika, and the Usambara Railway from 
Tanga reaches New Moschi,atthefoot of Mount Kilimandjaro, trains 
to that place running twice weekly, and daily trains between Tanga 
and Buiko, on the same line, run a distance of 110 miles. 

Telegraph. — A cable connects Bagamoj'o with Zanzibar, and 
from Dar es Salaam there is a land wire south of Mikindani, via 
Kilwa; northwest to Muansa, on Victoria Nyanza, and north to 
Tanga, via Bagamoyo. 

Radio station. — A radio telegraph station, open to the public 
between certain hours, is situated at Dar es Salaam. 

Climate. — Northward of Cape Delgado the climate, with some 
exceptions, has a bad reputation, as a severe and sometimes fatal 
type of fever is common, although perhaps not so much so as sup- 
posed ; but, until acclimatized, it would be as well for Europeans to 
avoid being on shore during the night, especially in the vicinity of 
rivers, the worst season for whites being between February and May. 

Malarial fever was on the increase in 1912, and there were cases of 
blackwater fever and sleeping siclaiess, while in the Kilimandjaro 
district an outbreak of plague, due to rats, was experienced. 

Money. — ^The unit is the heller, of which there are 100 to the 
rupee, the latter having a value of about 32^ cents, and the silver 
money in the rupee, half, and quarter rupee. There is no gold in 
circulation, but the Deutsche Ost-Afrika Bank issues notes to the 
value of 5, 10, 50, and 100 rupees. 

Weights and measures. — ^The following weights and measures 
are used in addition to -ose of !e metric system: 

CAPACITY. 

Kibada =0.704 quarts. 
Pischl=2.8175 quarts. 

LENGTH. 

1 schibiri=9.4699 inches. 

1 mlkoro=2 schlblri =18.9398 Inches. 

1 pima=4 mikoro=5.9024 feet. 

1 doti=2 pima=11.8048 feet . 

WEIGHTS. 

1 wakla=l ounce, nearly. 

1 ratel=16 wakia=l pound, nearly. 

1 man=3 ratel=2.998 pounds, 

1 fraslla=35 ratel=34.987 pounds. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 37 

British East and Central Africa. — Between the mouths of the 
Umba Eiver and Mto Ya Vumbu, extending westward on the south 
side as far as Belgian Kongo, and including the northern half of 
Victoria Nyanza, also northwestward to and including Uganda, with 
the small Witu protectorate, is all British territory, with a coast line 
of about 360 miles and a total area of 441,000 square miles, including 
Xyasaland and Zanzibar. A small portion of the Kongo State, 
northwestward of Lake Albert Nyanza, has recently become British 
territory. 

In 1888 the Imperial British East Africa Co. received a royal 
charter, having also a few years previously been granted the rights 
of the Sultan of Zanzibar over his mainland possessions, and in 1890 
the respective spheres of Great Britain and Germany having been 
settled by mutual agreement, Zanzibar and Witu became British 
protectorates. The Imperial Government, through the colonial office, 
took over the administration of the East Africa, Uganda, and Soma- 
liland protectorates in 1905, British Central Africa, now named 
Nyasaland, having been similarly transferred the previous year. 

For administrative purposes the protectorate is divided into eight 
Provinces, which are again subdivided into districts and subdistricts ; 
the Provinces are Seyidie, Ukamba, Tanaland, Jubaland, Kenya, Nai- 
vasha, Nyanza, and the Northern Frontier District, the centers of 
administration being, respectively, Mombasa, Nairobi, Lamu, Kisi- 
mayu, Nyeri, Naivasha, Kisumu, and Marsabit. Of the Provinces, 
Ukamba and Naivasha are the most suitable for European coloni- 
zation. 

Witu, the small tract of country at the mouth of the Tana River, i6 
for administrative purposes included in Tanaland. 

The administration is carried out under the colonial office, bv a 
governor, assisted by legislative and executive councils. 

Physical features. — Beyond the coast plain the land rises in 
well-defined steppes to about 800 feet, forming a wide, level plain, con- 
taining large waterless areas, and from this the ascent is marked by 
an intermittent line of mountains, stretching north-northwestward, 
sometimes in parallel chains, and varying from 5,000 to 8,000 feet. 

Farther inland are grassy uplands, varied with cultivated ground 
and forest, the largest plains being those of Kapte, Kapote, and Athi, 
and the elevations about the same as those previously given, but this 
zone contains the highest elevations in the protectorate, the Kenya, 
Sattima, and Nandarau Ranges reaching, respectively, 17,007, 13,214, 
and about 12,900 feet. 

Besides Lake Eudolf , in the northwest part of the territory, which 
has an area of about 3,500 square miles, there are several smaller 
lakes, some at considerable elevations, as Lake Naivasha, Nakuro, and 



38 GENERAL BEMARKS. 

Elmenteita are 6,135, 5,845, and 5,860 feet, respectively, above sea 
level. 

Lake Victoria Nyanza, the northern half of which is in British and 
the southern half in German territory, is 3,726 feet above sea level, 
and about 180 miles in length in an east and west and 150 miles in 
breadth in a north and south direction; it has an area of about 
27,000 square miles. In Ugowe Bay, on the northeast side, is. Port 
Florence, the terminus of the Uganda Railway, besides which are 
several other towns on its shores, the principal being Mwanza, on the 
south, which is the terminus of the route from Bagamoyo, Bukoba, 
on the west, and Schirati, on the east, shores, and a service of small 
steamers calls at all the chief towns. 

Gteology. — ^The formations are Archean, consisting of gneisses, 
granites, schists, and quartzites ; Carboniferous, of shales ; Karroo, of 
flags, sandstones, and grits of shales; Jurassic, of shales and lime- 
stones; Pleistocene, of gravels with flint instruments and glacial beds; 
and recent, of alluvia and superficial sands, lake deposits, and living 
and raised coral rock. A belt of volcanic rocks extends from and 
beyond the southern to beyond the northern boundary of the 
territory. 

Flora and fauna. — ^The characteristic trees of the coast regions 
are the mangrove and the coconut palm, ebony growing in the scrub 
jungle. Olives and junipers form vast forests on the declivities in 
the locality of Mau, and in a similar position in the Kikuyu district 
the cotton, the fig, and the bamboo are found, while in several regions 
are dense forests of large trees, whose lowest branches are at least 
50 feet from the ground. 

Near the coast and in the forests are two varieties of rubber vines, 
Landolphia florida and L. Kirkii, 

The fauna, which is not abundant, except in large mammals, 
includes those already given for German East Africa, and crocodiles 
are common in Victoria Nyanza and in the large rivers, but snakes 
are somewhat rare, the puff adder being the most dangerous; centi- 
pedes, scorpions, and mosquitoes are less common than usual in 
tropical countries. 

The birds include the ostrich, the stork, the greater bustard and 
secretary bird, the guinea fowl, the lesser bustard, wild pigeon, 
weaver bird, and hornbill, and various spur fowl, while near lakes 
and rivers cranes, pelicans, and flamingoes are abundant. 

Population. — The estimated populations are: East Africa Pro- 
tectorate 4,000,000, and Uganda 2,500,000; Nairobi, the capital of the 
protectorate, has about 25,000 inhabitants, of which number 1,200 are 
Europeans. 

There are two branches of Somali in East Africa, the Darud and 
the Isaak, the former being about the Mto Ya Vumbu. The Somali 



GENERAL REMARKS. 39 

musselmen are lazy and religious, but if treated with confidence and 
consideration, they are cheerful, intelligent, willing to learn, and are 
true to their code of honesty, but if treated harshly or unjustly they 
become sulky, obstinate, mutinous, and dangerous; they are good 
scouts, excellent marchers, and are proud of any confidence placed in 
them. 

Products. — ^The products are tropical, and rice, maize, and other 
grains are grown in large quantities, there being numerous planta- 
tions owned by Europeans; cotton and tobacco are also cultivated. 
Plantations of coconut palms yield excellent copra, and in some 
parts of the interior beans of castor oil are a lucrative article of com- 
merce. Sugar cane, growing freely in various parts, is chiefly culti- 
vated by the natives. 

In the upland regions, oats, barley, wheat, coffee, and vegetables, 
including large crops of potatoes, are grown, and clover, lucerne, 
rye grass, and other grasses have been introduced as fodder, as this 
part is adapted for raising stock, and large flocks and herds are 
possessed by settlers. 

Fiber industry, cotton-ginning, and bacon-curing are amongst the 
manufactories, and the natives make mats, baskets, and weave cloth. 

Trade. — ^The principal exports from the East African Protecto- 
rate, consisting of ivory, grain, rubber, fiber, and copra, were valued 
at $7,221,506 in 1913-14, and the imports at $10,460,453.19 ; the ag- 
gregate tonnage of steam vessels entering the ports was 1,734,564 
tons. 

Ports. — Mombasa has perhaps the finest harbor on the east Afri- 
can coast, it and Kilindini being the principal ports, while others 
are Kilifi, Lamu, and Kisimayu. 

Landing may generally be effected from most of the anchorages, 
but on those parts of the coast exposed to the ocean it is sometimes 
difficult, and northward of Pemba, with on-shore winds, it may be 
dangerous; where the coast is fronted by islands and detached reefs 
it can be generally effected in the smooth water. 

Communications— Steamships. — ^The British India Co.'s ves- 
sels, between Bombay and Zanzibar, ckll monthly at Mombasa each 
way, and there is also a service to some ports by the Union Castle 
Mail Steamship Co.'s vessels. 

Railways. — Mombasa, the terminus of the Uganda Eailway, is 
connected with the mainland by a bridge 1,732 feet in length, the 
total length of the railway to Port Florence, on Lake Victoria 
Nyanza, being 584 miles. 

A railway between Port Herald and Blantyre, 113 miles from 
Port Herald, with a branch to the north bank of the Zambezi, will 
probably be extended to Lake Jfyasa, via Zomba. 



40 GENERAL BEMABKS. 

Telegraph. — Mombasa is connected by cable with Zanzibar, and 
thus by cables with Aden, Bagamoyo, Mozambique, and Seychelles. 
Land lines run to Lamu on the coast, and northwestward to Port 
Florence via Tsavo and Nairobi, while Port Florence is connected by 
wire with Entebbe, on the north shore of Lake Victoria Xyanza, and 
with Nimule, on the Nile. 

Climate. — For descriptive climatic conditions the protectorate 
may be divided into three zones, consisting of the coast belt, the high- 
lands, and the Victoria Nyanza district, and of these the coast belt, 
comprising a strip about 100 miles broad, extending from the Anglo- 
German frontier to the Mto Ya Vumbu, is essentially tropical, the 
atmosphere being always charged with a considerable amount of 
moisture, rendering it more trying to Europeans than it would other- 
wise be, considering that the temperature is equable and never 
very high. 

Malaria and other tropical diseases are infrequent, and the climate 
is not, as a rule, unhealthy for Europeans, but after a long residence 
it is likely to be enervating; on the coast, particularly during the 
southwest monsoon, cool breezes blow constantly, but about 10 or 15 
miles inland, where the scrub country commerces, the heat, untem- 
pered by these breezes, becomes less bearable, and malaria is more 
common. These remarks also apply to the Tana River Valley, 
which, in addition, at certain seasons, is rendered almost intolerable 
by the presence of swarms of mosquitoes. 

From January to March, inclusive, is the hottest season, although 
the nights are generally fairly cool, except in the lull between the 
monsoons, when they are often oppressive; most rain falls during 
April, May, June, and November, but the rainfall varies greatly in 
different parts of the protectorate, and the rainy seasons are some- 
what variable. At Mombasa, Malindi, and Kisimayu the average 
annual rainfall is 52^, 38, and 14^ inches, respectively. 

The highlands, or inland district, where, after a gradual rise from 
the coast, until an altitude of 9,000 feet or 18,000 feet on snow-clad 
Mount Kenia is reached, the climate is generally exceedingly healthy. 

At Machakos and Nairobi, in this district, the rainfall is 36J and 
38i inches, respectively. 

Victoria Nyanza district, lying in a depression, to which the land 
makes a somewhat rapid descent from the highlands, is 3,726 feet 
above sea level, but the climate is again tropical, the heat approach- 
ing, and even exceeding, that on the coast, so that the climate is 
probably less agreeable than that of other parts of the protectorate ; 
malaria is common, and if not carefully treated may lead to attacks 
of black-water fever. 

Violent thunderstorms are frequent, and at Mumias and Port 
Florence in this district the rainfall is 73^ and 50 inches, respectively. 



GENERAL EEMARKS. 41 

Money — ^Weights and measures. — ^The money, weights, and 
measures are the same as those of Great Britain. 

2Sanzibar. — The island of Zanzibar, lying off the coast northeast- 
ward of Bagamoyo, is about 47 miles in length north and south, and 
about 20 miles in greatest breadth, and has an area of 640 square 
miles; it, with Pemba, was first taken possession of in 1505, by the 
Portuguese, who rounded the Cape of Good Hope, but owing to their 
tyrannical treatment of the natives these were taken from them by 
the Imams of Muscat in 1698 ; Zanzibar was first visited by /British 
war vessels in 1799, and it has been a British Protectorate since 1890. 
A resident is stationed at Zanzibar. This island, Pemba, the coast 
between Wanga and Kipini, and the Lamu, Manda, Patta, and Siwa 
Islands, are under the administration of the governor of the East 
Africa Protectorate. 

Physical features. — Standing on a coral flat, the island, 440 
feet high, and undulating, has ridges stretching north and south, 
with plains between them, which in several instances, show a coral- 
line surface worn into points and ridges ; portions of it are extremely 
fertile, and although the soil is sandy in places, even there tropical 
cereals and edible roots grow in profusion. 

Fopulation. — In 1911 the population of Zanzibar and Pemba 
combined amounted to 198,914. 

Products. — Beyond cloves there are no considerable products, but 
the island, owing to its geographical position, may be considered as a 
large storehouse for the whole east African coast, and the port of 
Zanzibar is a large transshipment and distributing center. 

Trade. — The export of cloves averages about $1,461,000 per annum, 
and the other exports are ivory, copra, hides, gum copal, etc., the 
whole being valued at $5,107,977 in 1913, while the imports, consist- 
ing of piece goods, ivory, copra, groceries, rice, and coal, were valued 
at $5,373,299 in the same year, during which period the port of Zan- 
zibar was entered by 310 steam, and 196 coasting vessels, with aggre- 
gate tonnages, respectively, of 1,355,628, and 84,426 tons, besides 
4,642 dhows of 62,866 tons. 

Ports. — ^Zanzibar harbor is the chief and only port used by ves- 
sels engaged in ocean traffic, but there are several good anchorages. 

Commuiucatioiis. — ^The Union Castle Mail Steamship Co., and 
the Clan, EUerman, and Harrison, and the British India Steam Navi- 
gation Co. furnish a direct service of steam vessels between Zanzibar 
and the United Kingdom. The Messageries Maritimes have through 
steamers to Europe. The British India Steam Navigation Co. main- 
tain a fortnightly service to India and South Africa. The Societa 
Nazionale de Servize Maritime occasionally call at Zanzibar. 

Telegraph. — Submarine cables connect to the southward with 
Mozambique; to the eastward with Seychelles Islands; to the west- 



42 GENERAL REMABKS. 

ward with Bagamoyo; and to the northward with Aden; there is 
also a wireless station open to the public. The town of Zanzibar has 
a telephone installation. 

About 75 miles of roads are suitable for motor traffic. 

Climate. — ^The bad reputation which the climate has obtained is 
probably due to the severe and sometimes fatal type of fever, the 
virulence and effects of which are perhaps somewhat exaggerated, 
but Europeans should avoid spending the night on shore except in 
the town, until acclimatized, and especially when in the vicinity of 
rivers, the worst season for whites being from February to May, 
although the natives appear to suffer more in July and August. 

During the coolest months, from July to September, inclusive, the 
day temperature on board vessels ranges from 77° to 81°, falling 
occasionally to 73° F. by night; in the hottest months, from January 
to March, inclusive, the day range is from 83° to 90°, rarely falling 
below 80° by night. 

Money. — ^The British Indian rupee of about 32| cents value, the 
standard coin of the protectorate, is a legal tender at a fixed rate of 
15 rupees to the pound up to any amount. British sovereigns are also 
a legal tender to any amount at 15 rupees, but are only obtainable in 
small quantities. Seyyidieh copper pice, which are a legal tender 
at the rate of 64 pice to 1 rupee for the payment of an amount not 
exceeding 5 rupees, are useful for the purchase of small local supplies. 
There is also a Government note issue. 

Femba, lying 22 miles northeastward of Zanzibar, is 38 miles in 
length, about 13 miles in width, and rises to about 300 feet high, its 
surface being broken into ridges and valleys, covered with luxuriant 
vegetation. ' The early history of Pemba is similar to that of Zanzi- 
bar, but it was not visited by British war vessels until 1822, and on 
the African dominions of Muscat becoming independent in I860, it 
came under the rule of the Sultan of Zanzibar ; slavery in this island 
and Zanzibar was not entirely abolished until 1897, although Pemba 
became a British Protectorate in 1890. 

Flora and fauna. — Coconut and borassus palms, baobab trees, 
orange and mango trees, and several others that yield rubber, are the 
principal trees, while bamboos, mimosa scrub, and lemon grass grow 
in places, and mangroves on the whole of the west coast ; orchids and 

ferns are found. 

There is no large carnivora, the wild pig being the largest and most 
numerous mammal; small grey monkeys and lemurs are common, 
and there are a few wildcats. The birds are also few— chiefly black 
and white crows, curlews, egrets, a small species of kingfisher, and 

some parrots. 

Froducts. — Cloves are the chief product of the island, the quan- 
tity exported being about three times that sent from Zanzibar; the 



GENERAL REMARKS. 43 

* 

soil is rich, and all tropical cereals and edible roots flourish; coco- 
nuts are abundant, and there are some considerable herds of cattle. 

Coininunication. — ^A weekly service between Zanzibar and Peinba 
is carried on by a Zanzibar Government steamer, and a large num- 
ber of dhows trade between the two islands. There is a wireless 
telegraph station on the island. 

Climate. — ^The heat is considerable, especially at the change of 
the monsoon, when the winds are light; April and May are the 
seasons of heavy rains, while the lesser rains are in November. 

Malarial fever, caused by the Anopheles mosquito, is common, espe- 
cially inland, and Europeans sleeping there by night are almost sure 
to be attacked by it ; black-water fever, to which both Europeans and 
Indians are liable, does not appear to affect Africans greatly, and 
of Europeans suffering from it usually about 40 per cent recover. A 
tick fever, caused by a microbe carried by a small tick, is accom- 
panied by biliousness and jaundice, and quinine is no use as a remedy 
for it 

Italian East Africa. — From the Mto Ya Vumbu to and beyond 
Ras Asir, is the coastline of Italian East Africa, known as the 
Benadir coast, on account of its containing four ports; bander 
signifying a port, and benadir being the plural. The Somali coast 
was conquered by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century, by the 
Imams of Muscat in the seventeenth century, and by the Sultan of 
Zanzibar in the nineteenth century, who leased the Benadir ports to 
Italy for 50 years in 1892, and they have been administered by the 
Benadir Co. since 1898. The remainder of this Italian territory, 
which is not described in this work, reaches to longitude 49° east, 
where British territory again commences. 

The Benadir country, which is little known, is generally flat with 
thorn and other bushes, and for a distance of 115 miles from the 
southern boundary, has reddish sand dunes, sparsely covered with 
bushes and mimosa thorn, and backed by high sand hills; farther 
north it becomes bare, and with the exception of some high land 
between Eas Asswad and Ras Awath, and a break, caused by the 
Wadi Nogal, just to the northward of Ras al Khyle, the coast is low, 
rocky, and sterile, but inland there are areas of pasture land; the 
whole of Italian Somaliland has an area of about 131,000 square 
miles. 

Oeolog^. — The formations in this territory consist almost entirely 
of gneiss, granite, and schists. 

Bivers. — The Haines, Doho, or Webbe Shebeli River, the only 
permanent stream except the Mto Ya Vumbu, and discharging into a 
marshy lake apparently connected with that river, has tributaries, 
some of which rise in the highlands of Gurage, the river flowing with 
sometimes a rapid current, through a famous pastoral region, sup- 



44 GENERAL REMARKS. 

porting Somali herds of camels, ponies, cows, and sheep, and having 
numerous agricultural settlements along its banks. 

The Mto Ya Vumbu, ascended to rapids distant by the sinuosities 
of the river about 407 miles from its mouth, but only about 130 miles 
in a direct line from the sea, is supposed to have its source a consider- 
able distance inland, and in its vicinity are also park-like plains, on 
which numbers of cattle, camels, and goats are pastured. 

Population. — The population of Italian Somaliland is estimated 
at about 300,000, the inhabitants of the coast towns being the Amaran 
Tribe, a mixture of Arab and Somali blood, and Swahili, Arabs, and 
Indians. 

Products. — A large amount of land is barren, but the soil is 
fairly good in the Doho River and Webi Nogal Valleys, while the 
most fertile district is the valley of the lower Mto Ya Vumbu, where 
is a narrow strip of land not exceeding about 4 miles in width, and 
only about 100 yards at its narrowest part, which extends for a dis- 
tance of over 100 miles, and being annually inundated by the rise of 
the river, grows rich crops of millet and other grains ; in other parts 
various species of resinous plants are found. 

The articles generally exported from this coast are ivory, hides, 
orchilla weed, gums, sesame, earthen pots, and homespun cloth, and 
cattle, sheep, and goats are raised in considerable numbers; camels 
might be obtained for transport service if required. 

Ports. — The ports are only open anchorages, Brawa, Merka, 
Mogadiscio, and Athelet being the principal. 

Communication — ^Wireless telegraph. — ^There are- wireless 
telegraph stations on this coast at Brawa, Merka, Mogadiscio, and 
Athelet, and inland at Giumbo and Bardera, on the Mto Ya Vumbu, 
Lugh, and Mahaddei. 

Uniform time. — The standard time kept in the Italian colonies 
of Benadir and Somali is that of longitude 45° east, or 3 hours fast 
of Greenwich mean time. 

Climate. — The climate of the Mto Ya Vumbu is generally 
healthy for Europeans, for the heat is dry, although often intense; 
the average coastal temperature is 80° F., but it is considerably 
greater inland. Gu, the heavy rains, are from March to July ; hagar, 
(he dry season, from July to August; dair, the lesser rains, is 
from September to November; and derar, the dry season, from 
December to February, the rainfall being less on the coast than 

inland. 

On the Italian coast the rainy season is from the end of March 
to the end of June, and to July in the interior, the remaining months 

are dry. 

The climate at Brawa and the neighborhood is said to V3e healthy. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 45 

Money. — One erythraischer taler=about 94 cents; 1 maria the- 
resientaler=about 45 cents. 

Weights. — One occa=2 rotoli=40 oncia=2f pounds. 

Measures are metric system. 

Winds and weather— South Africa. — ^The area under consid- 
eration lies between latitudes 30° and 50° south, and the meridians 
of 10° and 40° east, and near the coast of South Africa, easterly 
and westerly winds alternate, the former prevailing in summer and 
the latter in winter. Southerly winds, between southwest and south- 
east, prevail throughout the year in the northwestern part of the 
district, northwestward of the Cape of Good Hope, but they extend 
farther southward in summer than in winter. 

Northerly and northeasterly winds prevail on the eastern side of 
the area, off and southward of Natal, but at Natal northeasterly and 
southwesternly winds appear to be equally divided. Local winds are 
mentioned with the descriptions of the different ports. 

Summer. — From October to April, the summer months, the pre- 
vailing winds are southeasterly, this being the worst time for 
anchoring off the ports of South Africa, as these winds occasionally 
rise to the strength of gales, last for three or more days, and are 
followed by calms and light westerly winds. The wind follows the 
trend of the coast, being nearly from east between Natal and Algoa 
Bay; southeast from Algoa Bay to Cape Agulhas, and south-south- 
east into False Bay. 

In strength the southeasterly winds are sometimes singularly local, 
as they may be light at Cape Hangklip and Point Danger from the 
southeastward, when it is blowing a heavy gale from the same 
quarter in Simons and Table Bays. Westerly winds and heavy 
westerly gales are, however, not uncommon at this season; the best 
chance of avoiding them is to keep well in with the land, and there 
is less sea over the Agulhas Bank than southward of it. 

Winter. — From April to October westerly winds prevail, and 
gales are especially severe and frequent southeastward of the Agul- 
has Bank in June and July. In May, August, and September, be- 
tween the coast and latitude 37° south, easterly and westerly winds 
are about equally divided; easterly winds occasionally occur in the 
other winter months. 

The Bearing Forties. — ^The westerly winds on the fortieth par- 
allel, or farther south, assume such force that they are known to 
seamen as the " Roaring Forties," but the supposition that between 
latitudes -40° and 50° south the wind is constant from the westward 
has been disproved, and it is now known that the winds in that area 
are cyclonic in character, and that the central depression is generally 
southward of latitude 45° south, and the system of large area with a 
progressive movement eastward. 



46 GENERAL REMARKS. 

The wind in the northern semicircle commencing between north 
and northwest may therefore be expected to veer westward, f resi:- 
ening as it does so, and frequently shifting more or less suddenly 
to southwest, from which quarter will probably be the strongest 
blow, with a rising barometer. 

A sailing vessel steering eastward will, therefore, hold a fair wind 
for a longer or shorter time in proportion to the comparison of the 
vessel's speed with the progressive motion of the cyclonic system. 
When the progressive movement of the latter is not much greater 
than the vessel's speed westerly winds may be carried for days ; also, 
after losing their benefit and experiencing a day or two of light and 
variable winds, the vessel may probably be overtaken by another 
system, and so repeat the process. 

In accordance with the well-known cyclonic law as to the wind 
being strongest and changes more rapid as the centers of depressions 
are approached, it follows that a vessel in about latitude 40° south 
may expect more steady westerly winds with less sea than if farther 
south. Hence this parallel is recommended as the best for making 
easting, whether rounding the Cape of Good Hope or bound from 
it either to Mauritius, India, China, or Australia. 

From the shortening of distance effected by following an approxi- 
mation to the great circle track to Australia, vessels sometimes make 
quicker passages, but it is frequently at the expense of much straining 
of the vessel and anxiety to the navigator. 

Should the area of lowest depression of any system be farther 
northward than usual, and thus northward of a vessel's track, which 
is occasionally, but not often, the case if the fortieth parallel be 
followed, the wind will shift to the eastward instead of to the west- 
ward, and a hard easterly or southeastrly gale will probably follow, 
this being much more likely to occur jn the high latitudes of a great 
circle route than in following the course recommended. 

Qales. — The severity of gales off the Cape of Good Hope, the 
rapidity with which they succeed each other, and their violence dur- 
ing the winter months, are all generally known to navigators; their 
approach, fortunately, can usually be accurately predicted. A falling 
barometer, with a southerly wind and threatening weather, is a most 
useful warning, and experience has shown that a fall of the barome- 
ter to 29.5 in summer, or to 29.75 in winter, is an almost certain indi- 
cation of approaching bad weather. 

The greater number of gales are experienced between the south- 
eastern edge of the Agulhas Bank and about latitude 40° south, where 
the Agulhas current being deflected to the southward by the bank, 
meets the northeast drift from the Antarctic, as here the conflict 
takes place between the warm and cold currents of the air and those 
of the sea. In the months of June and July about 30 per cent of the 



GENERAL REMARKS. 



47 



winds on this edge of the Agulhas Bank are recorded as gales, but it 
often happens that the most prolonged of these storms are either 
quite moderate, or are not felt near the shore. 

Gales in this locality are frequently of small area, so that the shifts 
of winds are sudden, violent, and may come from any direction ; this, 
and the usually heavy sea, particularly during the southwest gales, 
render this neighborhood one to be avoided by seamen. 

The proportion of gales in the usual outward and homeward 
tracks of vessels, is as follows : 







Outward 








route lati- 








tude 40" 


Homeward 




Direction. 


south and 


route, near 






to the 


the coast. 


• 




southward 
of it. 








Per cent. 


Percent. 


Northwest 




42 

29 

5 

7 

17 


27 


Southwest 


36 


Northeast 


8 


Southeast 


13 


KxP^t*OTlftl. . - _ , , 


16 







The probability of experiencing gales about the following months 
of the year is as follows: 



Month. 


Outward 
route lati- 
tude 40" 
south and 

to the 

southward 

of it. 


Homeward 
route, near 
the coast. 


January 


Percent. 

8 
10 
14 

9 


Per cent. 
6 


April 


6 


July 


13 


October 


10 







Westerly gales, amounting to about two-thirds of the whole num- 
ber experienced, consist of northwest and southwest gales, the former 
generally commencing with the falling barometer, sometimes do not 
attain their full force until the wind is about west. Southwest gales 
begin from the same quarter as those from the northwest, the first 
fall of the barometer coming with a northerly wind shifting to 
northwest, the chief difference being that with southwest gale systems 
the northwest wind does not attain the force of a gale. 

Violent westerly gales of winter, raising a heavy sea, frequently 
extend on the coast from Table Bay to Cape Corrientes, but north- 
west gales of summer seldom last long between these points ; during 
both summer and winter, the approach of northwest gales is indi- 
cated by a low barometer, a clear atmosphere, and generally a bank 



48 GENERAL REMARKS. 

of clouds to the westward, the wind commencing to blow after a 
slight increase of atmospheric pressure, the barometer continuing to 
its greatest force at west-southwest, with the barometer about 30° 
and a low temperature. 

Some of the hardest westerly gales succeed moderate east winds, 
when the barometer, at about 30°, has ceased to rise with the wind at 
west. During October and November fierce gales from northwest^ 
lasting for days, are occasionally experienced between Cape St. 
Francis and Cape Agulhas, the barometer reaching 29.60°, and the 
temperature about 60° F. 

Easterly gales. — Northeast gales, forming about 6 per cent of 
the whole experienced in the cape region, are usually met with in 
the eastern portion of the area contained between longitude 30° to 
40° east, and are generally short, not severe, and frequently losing 
the force of a gale before the lowest reading of the barometer is 
reached ; lightning sometimes accompanies them. 

In connection with these gales it is important to remember that 
they are generally followed by winds from northwest, southwest, to 
south, or even from southeast, and that these winds may in many 
cases attain the force of a heavy gale, the second gale sometimes 
setting in with a sudden change of wind; it is therefore necessary 
during a northeast gale, especially when near the southeast coast of 
Africa, that the barometer, the weather, and the sea should be care- 
fully watched, as through the neglect of this many sailing vessels, 
particularly in the neighborhood of Algoa Bay, have been taken 
aback, and so foundered. 

Southeast gales^ forming about 10 per cent of those experienced 
off the Cape of Good Hope and south coast of Africa, are of two 
classes, namely, those preceded by north or northwest winds and 
those preceded by south or southeast winds. 

Those following north winds resemble southwest gales in their 
character, commencing after the lowest barometer reading; with 
these lightning often occurs before the change of wind from the 
northward and westward to southeast. 

Gales preceded by southerly winds may be again subdivided : 

(1) Fine- weather gales, generally met with near the Cape of Good 
Hope, more especially during the summer months ; these are accom- 
panied by a slight fall of the barometer, and are closely related to 
the southeast gales common to Table Bay. 

(2) Gales related to the southwestern side of a cyclonic wind sys- 
tem, moving southward or southeastward, are generally accompanied 
by bad weather and are sometimes very severe ; as they progress the 
wind often backs to the westward of south, the change generally 
taking place after the lowest fall of the barometer. If necessary to 



GENERAL REMARKS. 49 

heave to in such a gale the starboard tack should be preferred, as it is 
the coming-up tack. 

The southeast gale of Table Bay, which is an extension of the 
southeast trade, caused by a high-pressure area to the westward, 
differs from the southeast gale experienced eastward of Cape Agul- 
has, being a clear, dry wind, during the continuance of which the 
atmospheric pressure remains steady, or perhaps increases, whereas 
the latter is a damp, hot wind, blowing from higher latitudes and 
circulating round an area of low pressure. 

There is a marked change both in wind and weather off Cape 
Agulhas, and although a southeast gale may prevail from Cape St. 
Francis to the southward and westward, in about 70 per cent of these 
gales the wind will shift to the northward off Cape Agulhas, and 
southeast gales blowing hard between the Cape of Good Hope and 
Cape Agulhas generally moderate off the latter cape. 

Exceptional gales, forming about 16 per cent of the whole on 
this coast, change quickly from one quarter to another, or, from 
some cause, can not be classed with those previously referred to, and 
a dangerous type of these gales, frequently met with, more especially 
near the southeast coast of Africa, is one that changes rapidly from 
northeast to northwest or southwest. 

Shifting suddenly from one quarter to another, it is impossible to 
maneuver to avoid these gales, so that when lightning or when other 
signs in the weather or the direction of the swell indicate such 
change, a sailing vessel should reduce sail, especially on the main and 
mizzen masts. 

In gales shifting from northeast to northwest, in which the barom- 
eter begins to rise as the wind goes to the latter quarter, or in those 
which shift quickly from nortb^ast, through north, to southwest, the 
port tack should be preferred if heaving to. 

Natal coast. — Easterly gales occur on the Natal coast during the 
wet season, from October to February, and also from May to July, 
which are the finest months on that coast. One of these gales may 
conmience under the following conditions: Calm weather with the 
barometer standing at 30.60 in the morning, the temperature being 
about 70° F. in the shade, and, but for a bank of cirro-stratus in the 
southeast and cirro-cumulus over the same quarter, a cloudless sky, 
only a peculiar haze hanging over the horizon. 

A considerably increasing temperature with a decreasing atmos- 
pheric pressure occurs toward noon, and about that period or, per- 
haps, soon after low water an easterly breeze springs up and soon 
freshens to a moderate gale, with a falling barometer and a shift of 
wind to the northward of east as the afternoon advances. Some 50 
or 100 miles seaward the direction of the wind will be southeast, but 

39511—16 4 



50 GENERAL REMARKS. 

on arriving at the coast it takes its direction about east-northeast, 
increasing to a strong gale, moderating toward sunset or shortly 
afterwards. A long, heavy swell sets in from the southeastward. 

About simrise next day or soon after low water the breeze again 
freshens, with rapidly decreasing barometric pressure and increasing 
temperature, till about noon or when the barometer has fallen to about 
30 the gale will probably have reached its height; a thin line of cirro-- 
stratus stretches along the western horizon and continues to deepen, 
while cirrus appears in the northwest sky. 

The gale blows steadily until about three hours before sunset or 
till when the mercury has fallen to 29.70 or 29.80 inches, with rap- 
idly decreasing temperature, while a bank of clouds, rising in the 
northwest, throws out long streaks of cirrus across the sky; the 
wind becomes puffy, moderating, often suddenly, with the barometer 
as low as 29.60, directly the mercury ceases to fall, and the sea having 
the appearance of boiling water. 

Although thfe wind may probably die away altogether after sunset 
and a heavy dew fall, often the change of wind comes immediately 
after the cessation of the previous gale, when the barometer com- 
mences to rise, and usually with the turn of the tide, and in this case 
particularly between October and December, both inclusive, the wind 
may blow suddenly from the northwest with great violence and heavy 
driving rain. 

The wind generally increases as the pressure rises, and it may shift 
to southwest in a rain squall and blow itself out with a rising barom- 
eter, but the hardest gales occur when the wind changes slowly to 
west or west-southwest, with drizzling rain, the mercury oscillating 
between 30 and 30.10 inches, and these southwest gales extend, as a 
rule, from Cape St. Francis to Mozambique, lasting for 48 hours or 
even more, the weather moderating directly the mercury rises, and 
fine, settled weather following. 

The foregoings are the prognostics of typical easterly gales on this 
coast, but naturally there may be many variations. 

Mozambique Channel. — The winds in the Mozambique Channel 
depend on those of the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea. The seasons 
are distinguished, as those of the northern and southern monsoons, 
but the winds do not blow here with the same regularity as farther 
north, and gradually lose the character of monsoons altogether in 
proceeding southward. The northern monsoon commences between 
mid-September and mid-October, the southern monsoon between mid- 
March and mid- April, and the change of season is generally accom- 
panied by squally weather. 

Southward of latitude 20° south, from abreast of central Mada- 
gascar, the northern monsoon ceases and the winds become variable, 



GENERAL BEMABKS. 51 

south and south-southeast winds prevailing, particularly on the 
Madagascar side, near the southwestern end of which island south- 
east and east-southeast winds are experienced all the year around, but 
do not extend far up its coast. 

Northern monsoon. — ^In the Mozambique Channel the northern 
monsoon, from its commencement to nearly the end of December, is 
light and variable, with smooth water and usually fine weather ; the 
wind, as the southern monsoon dies away, changing gradually to the 
left, westerly winds and calms intervening until the northern mon- 
soon becomes established in the end of October; though it is really 
only during November and December that the prevalence of north- 
easterly winds deserves the name of monsoon, and even then westerly 
winds are not rare. Toward the end of December the monsoon 
becomes strong; for three consecutive years the first decided blow 
was observed to occur at Comoro Islands on December 25. 

This monsoon continues blowing with some force until about the 
beginning of February, at which time, in the southern part of the 
channel, the southerly wind begins to make itself felt, and about the 
end of February it is fully established, though not attaining force 
until April. As a rule, the northern monsoon, being the season of 
least wind, is consequently that of smoothest water in most of the 
anchorages from Delagoa Bay northward; it is also the most un- 
healthv season. 

Near the Mozambique coast, from and after December, calms, 
variable winds, and rains are met with, although in mid-channel it 
is usually fine with a fresh breeze. During the northern monsoon the 
southerly wind, prevailing at the southern end of the channel, often 
amounts to a gale, producing a heavy sea; such winds commonly 
force their way northward, overcoming the monsoon even as far 
north as the Comoro Islands, and blow with a force of about 7 of 
Beaufort notation. This weather does not last long and is usually 
preceded by heavy banks of cloud to the southward, with gloomy 
weather. 

Southern monsoon. — ^The southern monsoon blows from south- 
southeast to south-southwest between Europa Island and the Comoro 
group, attaining its greatest westing in May and June; from July 
it gradually veers to the eastward ; in September and until Novem- 
ber calms and light winds are prevalent until the northern monsoon 
is again established. The southern monsoon is considered the fine 
weather and healthy season, and is generally free from gales, but 
there is much more wind and sea at this time in the Mozambique 
Channel than during the northern monsoon, and vessels proceeding 
southward frequently encounter a wind with a force of about 7, and 
a heavy sea. 



52 GENERAL REMARKS. 

On the coast of Madagascar, land and sea breezes prevail, the 
former being very light and lasting from about midnight till noon; 
the sea breeze generally sets in during the afternoon, increasing in 
force until sunset, when it subsides and gradually dies away toward 
midnight, followed by the land wind. In the evening, within 20 
miles of the coast, lightning and thick banks of cloud, having a 
threatening appearance, are common, but generally harmless. 

At the Comoro Islands the southern monsoon sets in about the 
middle of March, when heavy squalls from the westward and much 
rain may be expected; from thence the monsoon makes its way up 
the African coast. 

Calms. — ^During the northern monsoon the frequency of calms is 
about 25 per cent, and in the southern monsoon 10 per cent ; in No- 
vember they are most prevalent, being about three times as many as 
in June, and the Madagascar coast is most subject to them. At all 
times of the year calms are most common northward of the twen- 
tieth parallel, but southward of that, and as far as the twenty-fifth 
parallel, they are rare during the southern monsoon, although farther 
southward they are most common during that monsoon. 

G-ales. — The Mozambique Channel is occasionally subject to hard 
gales and severe weather, besides an occasional cyclone may be ex- 
perienced. The gales, generally occuring during the northern mon- 
soon, mostly commence by the monsoon freshening to a force of 6 
or 7 ; the wind then slackens, with a steady barometer, shifts rapidly, 
through west, and finally sets in as a violent gale from south to south- 
west, although occasionally the wind shifts through east. 

Sometimes the steep gradients are to the eastward when the north- 
erly wind, remaining steady in direction, will increase to a violent 
gale generally foretold by a threatening sky to the westward, with 
lightning; or these gales may occur after several days' calm. 

Cyclones. — Indian Ocean cyclones, sometimes doing considerable 
damage in the vicinity of Mauritius between the months of Decem- 
ber and April, are usually intercepted by the high land of Mada- 
gascar before reaching the Mozambique Channel, but occasionally 
one crosses the island, or more often passes northward of it, into that 
channel. One of these crossed the Mozambique Channel on January 
2&-30, 1887, in a westerly direction from northward of Capt St. 
Andrew, its center passing over the Castle Line steamship Courland 
in latitude 20° south, longitude 37° east, about 50 miles southward of 
the Zambezi. 

Proceeding up the coast from Delagoa Bay, this vessel experienced 
strong south-southeast winds with violent squalls, a constantly in- 
creasing sea, and falling barometer, and was compelled to head the 
terrific sea when passing through the center of the storm. The only 
noticeable feature, in an almost uniformly overcast sky over which 



GENERAL HEMABKS. 53 

the drift scudded furiously, was a peculiariy leaden hue in the 
zenith, but there was no heavy solid banking up of clouds, and very 
little thunder and lightning, although the rain was heavy and con- 
tinuous. 

The barometer fell from 29.61 at noon on the 29th to 28.98 at 
8 p. m. on 30th, at which time the center passed over the ship, and 
the stars became visible overhead. The wind in this cyclone, blowing 
from the northward on the coast of Madagascar, caused an extraordi- 
narily high tide and heavy sea at Morondava. 

In February, 1894, a cyclone passing over Diego Suarez Bay, on 
the northeast coast of Madagascar, and doing considerable damage 
there, then crossed the Mozambique Channel and took much the same 
direction southward as that experienced by the steamship Courland. 
In 1899 two cyclones followed much the same courses after crossing 
the northern end of Madagascar and passed southward a short dis- 
tance off Mozambique. 

The latest similar cyclone recorded, and one of the most violent 
and extensive, occurred in December, 1904. It first struck the north- 
ern part of Madagascar in its approach from the Indian Ocean, 
doing much damage between December 14 and 16 at Diego Suarez, 
and along the northwestern coast of Madagascar at least as far as 
Mojanga. The northern limit of its track was clearly defined by 
the island of Grand Comoro escaping, whilst the other islands of 
the Comoro group all suffered from the visitation. 

In its course down the Mozambique Channel it apprently occu- 
pied the whole width of the narrowest part. 

Cyclones have occurred toward the latter end of January in 
Mozambique Harbor, notably in the years 1841-1843, and that place 
was visited by a severe one on April 1 and 2, 1858, during which 
vessels were driven from their anchors in the harbor and much 
damage was done. The last recorded was in December, 1899, which 
temporarily destroyed lights, leading marks, etc., with other damage. 

It is doubtful whether all the cyclones recorded as " stationary " 
were really so, as some so classed were only one day under observa- 
tion, but with every allowance for error from this cause it may still 
be inferred that as the cyclone season approaches its height the 
proportion of rapidly progressing cyclonic areas increases, and that 
at the beginning and end of the season they may be more or less 
stationary. 

A cyclone, the only one on record at Zanzibar, commenced at 9 
p. m., on April 14, 1872, blowing strongly from south-southwest, 
accompanied by rain, and increased in force and veered to south till 
about 1.30 p. m. of the 15th, when it suddently fell calm, the barom- 
eter having fallen 0.9 inch below the normal height. At 2.15 p. m. 
the barometer commenced to rise, and the cyclone burst upon the 



54 GENERAL REMARKS. 

town and harbor from north-northeast, the opposite quarter, veering 
by north to west-northwest, where it settled, but moderated consider- 
ably between 4 and 8 p. m. 

The cyclone swept over the island of Zanzibar, destroying all in its 
path, but leaving the southern part uninjured; it was not experienced 
in Pemba. 

East coast of Africa. — On the coast to the northward of Cape 
Delgado, and on the ocean to the eastward, the winds consist of 
the northeast and southwest monsoons. 

Northeast monsoon. — The northeast monsoon, commencing in 
the Arabian Sea about the middle of October, sometimes does not 
reach the coast of Africa and Zanzibar until the middle or end of 
November; the changes of monsoon, which may occupy a fortnight 
or more, are accompanied by shifts of wind, calms, squalls of rain, 
and obscured sky. Occasionally the northeast monsoon is so light 
that many dhows from Arabia fail to reach Zanzibar, and have to 
put into Mombasa. 

From Cape Delgado to the Equator, in February and March, al- 
though during the time of the northeast monsoon, the winds are be- 
tween east-northeast, and east-southeast. During these months, 
therefore, it is possible for dhows to make their way thus far north- 
ward. The weather also, in this locality, is then generally fine, with 
occasional showers and sometimes thunder and lightning, but no 
heavy squalls. 

Southwest monsoon. — After an interval of calms and light 
winds the southwest monsoon sets in, reaching Zanzibar some time in 
March, Bas Asir about the end of April, and Bombay about the first 
week in June. Southward and eastward of Sokotra it attains its full 
force in June, and so continues until September, blowing stronger 
and steadier, and accompanied by a heavier sea at a distance from the 
land than near it. 

On the east coast of Africa it blows strongly from about south- 
southwest, following the land, and continues with full force through 
the channel between Sokotra and Ras Asir. In May it has been ob- 
served to be influenced by land and sea breezes near Ras Asir, the 
wind hanging a great deal to the southward and eastward, with 
heavy squalls, rain, and overcast sky. 

Off Zanzibar and to the southward as far as Cape Delgado, the so- 
called southwest monsoon blows from south-southeast, hauling to 
SQuth and south-southwest as it approaches the land. 

From 20 to 40 miles from the coast of Africa, during the southwest 
monsoon, the following are the results of observations on wind and 
weather for a period extending over many passages by vessels of the 
British India Steam Navigation Co., namely : 



GENERAL BEMABKS. 55 

From Zanzibar to latitude 4® north. — ^May, June, July: Strong 
southeast, south, south-southwest winds with rain. August: Light 
to moderate. September: Light south-southeast, south. October: 
Light, southerly. 

From latitude 4° north to Ras Hafun — May: Light, variable, 
squalls, and rain. June: Strong wind, increasing, south-southwest. 
July, August: Moderate gale south-southwest. September: Strong 
wind, south-southwest. October: Light winds, calm, northeast to 
3ast, rain. 

Ras Hafun to Ras Asir — May : Light variable winds. June, July, 
August: Strong gale, south-southwest. September: Strong wind, 
south-southwest. October : Light from east to northeast. 

Weather sig^nal. — ^A weather chart, from information tele- 
graphed by the meteorological commission of the Union of South 
Africa, is exhibited, at each of the seaports in the colony soon after 
10 a. m. daily, for the information of masters of vessels and others. 

Barometer. — ^The average range of the barometer in the higher 
latitudes between 50° and 60° is about 1.5 inches, but extraordinary 
ranges of 2.75 and 3 inches have been recorded. 

In the track of outward-bound vessels round the Cape of Good 
Hope, on the parallel of 40° south, the average height of the baro- 
meter is 29.9 inches, being about 0.15 higher in winter than in sum- 
mer; it is higher toward the coast and lower toward the pole. The 
mean reading at Cape Town is 30.07, and at Durban 30.11; this, 
however, gives but an imperfect representation of the pressure in a 
district through which the areas of high and low pressure are con- 
stantly moving eastward, accompanying their respective systems of 
wind. 

In the intertropical regions the range varies from 0.4 to 0.2 inch, 
and in the neighborhood of the Equator it seldom exceeds 0.15 inch, 
tlHS small change being in great measure due to the regular diurnal 
variations, the barometer being highest at 10 a. m. and 10 p. m. and 
lowest at 4 a. m. and 4 p. m., and the difference about one-tenth of an 
inch. The average movement of the barometer within the Tropics 
being thus confined within small limits, any interruption of the law 
may be deemed a warning of the approach of bad weather. 

The mean reading at Lourenco Marques is 30.02, at Beira 30.05, 
and at Mombasa 29.96, During the southwest monsoon period, at 
Mozambique it is 0.5 higher, but at Zanzibar it varies but little. 

The fall of the barometer in and near cyclonic disturbances ranges 
from 1 to 2.5 inches; the rapidity of the fall and the depression of 
the mercury increase as the center of the storm approaches. 

Currents — General remarks. — The primary cause of the cur- 
rents on the south and east coasts of Africa is the great trade drift 
of the South Indian Ocean, which, advancing westward, and meet- 



56 GENERAL BEMABKS. 

ing with the obseruction caused by Madagascar, divides in the vicin- 
ity of Mauritius, forming two great streams, one flowing toward the 
northern end of Madagascar, the other toward the southern end; 
the strength of each stream being greatest as the island is approached 
at a few miles offshore. 

The northern stream, flowing toward the Comoro Islands and the 
African coast at from 2 to 3 knots an hour, extends about 50 miles 
northward of Madagascar ; beyond which, at times, a counter current 
runs northeastward at about 1 knot. During the southwest monsoon 
the main current strikes the African coast in the neighborhood of 
Cape Delgado, or southward of 11° south, but during the northeast 
monsoon, and especially in December, January, and February, it is 
as far north as latitude 10° or 9° south. 

From the southern limit it again subdivides, one portion flowing 
southward through the Mozambique Channel along the coast, past 
Cape Corrientes and on to Natal. The southern portion of the main 
drift, having passed southward of Mauritius and of Madagascar, 
runs direct for Natal, imiting with the stream from the Mozambique, 
the two together forming the great Agulhas current. 

During the southwest monsoon, the northern branch of the current 
dividing near Cape Delgado, flows northward past Zanzibar, and 
from thence to Ras Asir. During the northeast monsoon it is 
deflected eastward from the land before reaching the Equator, which 
it skirts on the southern side, or passes a little to the northward, thus 
forming a zone of counter current sometimes attaining a rate of 2^ 
knots, or even more, and extending as far southward as latitude 6° 
or 8° south. Both winds and currents in this zone are subject to 
great uncertainty. 

The main currents will now be described in detail. Those prevail- 
ing off the various ports are mentioned with the local descriptions. 

Agtilhas current, occasioned by the two streams before men- 
tioned, uniting northeastward of Natal in about latitude 28° 30' 
south, longitude 35° east, forms an enormous body of warm water, 
which runs southwestward and westward, skirting the coast of 
Africa, and extending from 3 to about 120 miles off; it attains con- 
siderable velocity between Port Natal and the meridian of about 23° 
east, sometimes running with a velocity of from 3 to 4J knots an hour, 
the greatest rate being near the edge of the bank. 

In its progress southwestward the current becomes weaker, and 
on reaching the Agulhas Bank, does not, as a rule, run over the bank, 
but follows its edge with a tendency to branch off to the southward ; 
in about longitude 22° east, the main body is deflected in that direc- 
tion as far as the parallel of 40° south, from whence a large part, 
being opposed by the northeasterly set from the Antarctic, recurves 



GENERAL BEMABKS. 57 

eastward, thus flowing back into the Indian Ocean, but with dimin- 
ished strength and temperature. 

The Agulhas current does not appear to vary much in volume, 
strength, or direction throughout the year, although it is said to be 
checked at times by westerly gales and to run with increased strength 
afterwards; it usually attains great strength in the teeth of the gale, 
causing a high and dangerous sea, especially near the southeastern 
edge of the bank. 

A small portion of the Agulhas current passing around and over 
the southern part of the Agulhas Bank, and branching off north- 
westward past the Cape of Good Hope, is joined by the connecting 
current of the South Atlantic Ocean, collectively forming a wide 
stream running northward along the coast, at from 1 knot to 1^ knots 
an hour, with sometimes a tendency to an indraft toward the coast 
which must be guarded against. 

This warm water seldom reaches Table Bay, where the water is 
much colder than in Simons Bay, the sea temperature in the latter 
being from 62° to 64° in November, but during long northwesterly 
gales this warm water is occasionally driven out. and replaced by 
water from the South Atlantic at a temperature of about 50° with a 
counter easterly set. At such times the northern branch of the Agul- 
has current is probably deflected southward with the main body. 

Caution. — Although the southern edge of the Agulhas current has 
a tendency to set from the land, the northern or inner edge has a 
tendency to set toward it, and especially so when westward of Algoa 
Bay, where during and after southeasterly, westerly, or northwesterly 
gales the current is at times deflected from its general course and 
turned directly toward the land, forming a very dangerous element 
in the navigation of the southern coast of Africa. 

This onshore set has caused the loss of a large nimiber of vessels 
between Algoa Bay and Cape Agulhas, and the necessity of guarding 
against this danger, as well as against the inshore countercurrent 
mentioned below, can not be too strongly impressed on the mariner. 

Agulhas countercurrent. — ^The remarkable recurving of the 
main body of the Agulhas current is due to the action of a polar or 
cold water current flowing from the southwest; the junction of the 
hot and cold waters of the two streams taking place off the Agulhas 
Bank giving rise to the confused sea, to the irregular set of the cur- 
rents, and, by their effects on the atmosphere, to those severe and 
fitful gales experienced off the Cape of Good Hope and the coast of 
South Africa. 

The meeting of these currents is frequently denoted by a confused 
and heavily breaking cross sea ; the warm current is also indicated by 
a marked change in the color of the water, which, combined with the 



58 GENERAL REMARKS. 

agitation of the sea, frequently conveys the impression of the vessel 
being in soundings. 

The large body of water, deflected and turned eastward, runs 
chiefly between the parallels of 37° and 40° south, and, though its 
strength varies, its average rate may be about 1^ knots an hour. It 
is rather stronger and more northerly in the summer than in the 
winter, owing possibly in some degree to the melting of the ice in 
high southern latitudes and to the smaller amount of westerly winds 
experienced northward of latitude 40° south in summer. It expands 
wider than the Agulhas current, and eastward of longitude 28° 
east it is traced northward to about latitude 36° south. A current 
of 3 knots an hour has been experienced in latitude 39° south. 

Inshore countercurrent. — Near the coast, between Capes Hang- 
klip and Agulhas, the current occasionally sets in an east-southeast 
direction, or dangerously toward the land, with sometimes a rate 
exceeding in this locality 1 knot an hour ; many vessels have been lost 
through not allowing for this possible set by keeping a sufficient offing. 

Between Cape Agulhas and Kowie River, the latter in about longi- 
tude 27° east, an inshore current setting eastward at about the same 
rate is also frequently experienced in fine weather, and, except off 
the mouths of the rivers, it follows the trend of the land, extending 
probably from 1 mile to 6 miles off it. 

Mozambique Channel Currents. — ^This channel, being screened 
by Madagascar from the free action of the currents in the Indian 
Ocean, but affected by the varying force of the streams flowing around 
or past either end of that island, as well as by many local disturb- 
ances, its currents are somewhat uncertain. 

That portion of the northern branch of the Indian Ocean trade 
drift which subdivides in the neighborhood of Cape Delgado and 
turns southward along the Mozambique coast, flowing without inter- 
mission throughout the year, has a velocity varying from 36 to 72 
miles in 24 hours during the northern monsoon, sometimes at its 
height attaining a rate of 100 miles in the same period and decreasing 
during the southern monsoon from 1 knot to 2 knots, sometimes being 
inappreciable during the strength of that monsoon. 

The stream is strongest at from 60 to 80 miles offshore, although 
varying somewhat in volume, and eastward of it a counter or variable 
current is generally experienced ; in the southern part of the Mozam- 
bique Channel the temperature of the water may indicate the presence 
of this countercurrent, and if below 68° it may be concluded that the 
ship is certainly eastward of the south-going stream. 

Off Mozambique the current has been known to set southeast by 
east at a rate of 4 knots an hour; and 60 miles to the southward, 
from north-northwest to west-northwest at from 1 knot to 2^ knots ; 
whilst sometimes under certain circumstances it has altogether ceased 



GENERAL REMARKS. 59 

to run. At Cape Corrientes it sets almost constantly to the south- 
ward at about 2 knots an hour. 

In the large bight of Sofala, on the African coast, commencing 
nearly as far to the southward as Cape Corrientes and extending 
northward beyond Ealiman, there is often a countercurrent setting 
northeastward and extending a considerable distance offshore; this, 
experienced especially off Sofala and during the strength of the 
southern monsoon, has been known to attain a rate of 35 miles in 
24 hours in the month of May. 

Between the Comoro Islands and the outer edge of the south-going 
coast current, and from thence southward until past the narrow part 
of the Mozambique Channel, no dependence can be placed on the 
direction or force of the current, as it may run with a velocity of 3 
knots an hour for a day in one direction and at a similar rate in 
another direction on the next day. 

In the vicinity of the Comoro Islands the current generally runs 
westward, but a little southward of them a countercurrent frequently 
sets eastward. Northward of these islands a northwesterly current 
of from 1 knot to 1^ knots an hour is generally found. 

Between May and August, the strength of the southern monsoon, 
a current apparently sets northwestward from the southern extreme 
of Madagascar, as far westward as 40° east, up past Europa Island 
and then turns more northward, but it should not be depended on, 
and in the vicinity of that island, in November, a current has been 
experienced setting northwestward from 2 to 2^ knots an hour, caus- 
ing strong tide rips, but neither rate nor direction of these currents 
may be the same for two consecutive days. 

In the middle of the Mozambique Channel, southward of latitude 
18° south, there is more often a northerly than a southerly current, 
the wind being generally from the southward. 

It is stated, on the authority of an officer of the Union Castle Line, 
that the tide has a considerable influence on the currents, to the 
southward of Cape Delgado, and at a distance of not more than 10 
miles from the coast, the stream of the rising tide setting with, and 
the other stream against, the current, which in the former case has 
its velocity sometimes doubled, and in the latter case may be entirely 
overcome; this tidal influence is greatest in the vicinity of Mozam- 
bique. 

Caution. — The great strength, variety of direction, and general 
uncertainty of the currents in all parts of the Mozambique Channel 
renders it necessary for a ship's position to be constantly verified by 
observation. These rapid changes are especially remarkable near 
the Mozambique coast, near Europa Island, and along the western 
shore of Madagascar. In the last-named locality the current, usually 
of no great strength, appears to follow the direction of the wind; 



60 GENERAL REMARKS. 

sometimes, however, it changes to an opposite direction and with 
considerable strength, preceding a change of wind. 

The currents on the coasts of Madagascar will be found fully 
described in the South Indian Ocean Pilot. 

East African coast current. — ^The velocity of the north-going 
branch of the stream which, as before described, subdivides near 
Cape Delgado, is much influenced by the monsoons ; its average rate 
is generally about 2 knots an hour, but during the southwest monsoon 
it runs past Mafia, Fungu Kizimkazi, Zanzibar, and Pemba Islands 
and channels at from 2 to 4 knots an hour; and, in the northeast 
monsoon, at from 1 knot to 2 knots an hour, as far as about latitude 
2° south. 

During the southwest monsoon the whole mass of water con- 
tinues northeastward along the coast across the Equator toward Ras 
Hafun and Ras Asir, at from 36 to 100 miles a day ; the greater rate 
has been experienced on the Equator near the coast, and also near 
Ras Hafun and Ras Asir during the strength of the monsoon, but 
it has been observed both by the Italian and German war vessels, 
stationed on this coast, that this northeast-going current is appar-: 
ently at its least velocity between Pemba and Formosa Bay, from 
which it gradually increases in rate, until off the coast between 
Brawa and Warsheik, where it seems to attain its maximum, decreas- 
ing to the vicinity of Negro Bay and Ras Hafun. 

The following rates were observed: Between Pemba Island and 
Formosa Bay, If knots; between Formosa Bay and Brawa, 3f knots; 
between Brawa and Warsheik, 5 J knots ; between Warsheik and Ras 
Asswad, 2 knots; between Ras Asswad and Negro Bay, IJ knots; and 
between Negro Bay and Ras Hafun, 1^ knots. 

It passes through the channel between Ras Asir and Sokotra at 
about the same rate, the main body pursuing a northeasterly direction 
until it mingles with the current setting along the Arabian shore out 
of the Gulf of Aden. At Ras Asir the inshore portion of the current 
iiets close around that cape and westward along the African shore ; in 
the ofl^g the direction may vary from north to east-northeast, but 
always toward the Asiatic shore. 

The East African northerly coast current generally becomes 
weaker as the distance from the shore is increased, almost disappear- 
ing on the Equator, in from longitude 48° to 62° east, or about 300 
miles from the land ; the northerly current has also been found and 
lost at about 100 miles eastward of Zanzibar. In the early part of 
August it has been found setting nearly due westward, continuing 
so with little variation at from 1 knot to 2 knots an hour until north- 
ward of latitude 6° south, in longitude 49° east, from whence to the 
Seychelles, northward of that parallel, an easterly set of about } knot 
an hour has been experienced. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 61 

About 150 miles southward of Sokotra there is a great whirl of 
current, caused possibly by the interposition of that island; or, it 
may be, that shoaler water exists at this spot; it commences about 
the parallel of Ras Haf un, when the current strikes off eastward to 
the fifty-fifth meridian, then to the southward, to the sixth parallel, 
whence it again curves to the northeastward, through west, forming 
a complete whirl. At the northern limit, the velocity is about 4 
knots, but at the southern extreme only about 1 knot an hour. A 
very heavy confused sea is created by this whirl, and in making the 
coast of Africa from the eastward, care should be taken to avoid the 
strength of it by keeping well to the southward. 

Although the strength of the coast current may be less near the 
end of the southwest monsoon, and at other periods capricious, yet, 
up to the first week in December, it is occasionally felt strongly as 
far as latitude 4° north ; but as the time of the change of the monsoon 
varies, so at other periods the current may set to the southward a 
month or more earlier, and thus no dependence can be placed on the 
exact time of change. 

During the nortlieast znonsoon the northerly set from Cape 
Delgado meets the southerly set from the Arabian Sea and Sokotra, 
between Lamu and Castle Point in from latitude IJ® to 2^° south, 
the two producing an offset from the land. In the ofiing the south- 
erly set continues, gradually curving eastward and forming the 
easterly set to the Seychelles in the track of the northwest monsoon. 

The meeting, however, of the two currents in the vicinity of Castle 
Point (as at Cape Delgado) must be accepted with considerable limi- 
tation, as it probably varies with the season, extending southward 
according to the strength of the northeast monsoon, the full force 
of which is between December and March. 

During the month of February, 1891, the southerly set of the 
current along the coast was experienced by several vessels, consid- 
erably southward of Lamu, the northeast monsoon being then un- 
usually strong. 

Although the current in the Arabian Sea sets southwestward from 
about the middle of October, it does not reach Mogadiscio, on the 
African coast, until about the second week in December; it is said 
to begin to run off that place almost invariably with bad weather 
from the northeast ; at a distance from the land it sets southwestward 
a month earlier. It is also stated that the southwesterly current does 
not continue for a longer period than about three months, its strength 
generally being from 1 to 2 knots. 

Temperature. — Southward of South Africa the temperature of 
the air and the sea is warmest in February and coldest in July, being 
strongly influenced by the temperature of the Agulhas current ; near 
the coast it is 70° and 60°, and on the parallel of 40° south, it aver- 



62 GENERAL BEMABKS. 

ages 62° and 56°, respectively, in these months, but the temperature 
is about 10° lower oflF the western than off the eastern coast, and 
along the south coast of Africa areas of great change are found be- 
tween January and March, inclusive. 

The range of sea temperature near the land is greatest in January 
and February, being about 20° ; between August and October, both 
inclusive, it is less than 15°, and the area in which the range amounts 
to 15° is greatest in April. Off Natal the average temperature is 73°, 
and off the southeastern edge of the Agulhas Bank 67°. In the 
neighborhood of latitude 40° south, where the warm and cold cur- 
rents meet, a 20° range of temperature exists throughout the year; 
its area is rather larger in the winter and spring than in the summer 
and autumn. 

Ice. — Icebergs are rarely fallen in with off the Cape of Good 
Hope northward of latitude 40° south, or even of latitude 43° south, 
bergs having been seen northward of latitude 40° south only three 
times in the last 50 years ; they were all in the vicinity of the cape, 
and in the months of April and September. It is, however, desirable 
to keep a lookout for them at all seasons. 

Icebergs are most numerous near and southward of latitude 45° 
south, and between the meridians of 40° and 60° east. Between lati- 
tudes 45° and 50° south they may be met with anywhere westward of 
longitude 90° east; farther eastward they are very rare. Fogs are 
also prevalent southward of latitude 45° south. Icebergs are likely 
to be farthest north from November to February, and least so in 
June and Julv. 

Between the Cape of Good Hope and Tasmania ice is seldom met 
with north of latitude 40° south. During the last 70 years only ten 
bergs have been reported northward of this, and they were in tlie 
immediate vicinity of the cape. Between latitudes 40° and 45° south 
they are mostly seen between longitude 40° and 60° east. Between 
latitudes 45° and 50° south, ice may be met with anywhere westward 
of longitude 90° east. Eastward of that meridian it is much rarer. 

It will be observed that the liability to encounter ice is much in- 
creased the farther a vessel goes southward of latitude 40° .south; 
and though the length of the days in summer in high latitudes de- 
creases the danger of accident by night, yet the prevalence of i'og, 
snow, and thick weather makes it quite possible for a vessel to run 
foul of an iceberg in the daytime, and mariners are cautioned accoid- 

ingly. 

Buoyage — Portuguese East Africa. — The term starboard de- 
notes that side of a channel which is on the right or starboard hand 
when entering, and the term port hand is the left or port side under 
the same circumstances. 



GENERAL BEMARKS. 63 

The starboard sides of channels are marked by red conical louoys, 
surmounted by a black staff and a black triangle. 

The port sides of channels are marked by black conical buoys, sur- 
mounted by a black staff and a black cylinder. 

Oerxnan system. — ^The following uniform system of buoyage 
and beaconage is used for the purpose of marking channels and 
shoals: 

The term starboard hand denotes that side of a channel which is 
on the right or starboard side when entering, and the term port 
hand is the left or port side under the same circumstances. The 
starboard hand of a channel connecting two parts of the sea, or two 
sheets of water, separated by banks, is that lying on the right side 
when entering from the westward, and the port hand is that on tlie 
left, the term westward including the whole of the western semicircle, 
from 180° to 360°. 

Seaward entrances to channels, not marked by lightvessels, beacons, 
or moles, have buoys with cage-like superstructures; these, known as 
" Bakentonnen," are of the same color as the channel buoys, and are 
moored in such a position that the nearest channel buoys can be 
plainly seen from them. 

Spar buoys, or can buoys, where several channels are near each 
other, or the water is not deep enough for spar buoys, are on the 
starboard hand, and painted red, and port hand buoys are conical 
and painted black. 

The extremes of shoals extending from the shore, or branching 
fairways, are marked by buoys with topmarks. 

The extremes of middle grounds are marked by buoys, painted 
red and black in stripes, and surmounted by a cross. 

Mid-channel buoys, which may be passed on either hand, are 
spherical in shape, and painted red and black in stripes. 

The edges of shoals, seaward of channels, are marked by white 
buoys and beacons, surmounted by vertically placed triangles, 
arranged as follows : 

1. When on the northern edge of the shoal, both triangles pointing 
upward. 

2. On the southern edge of a shoal, both triangles pointing down- 
ward. 

3. On the eastern edge of a shoal, both triangles bases together. 

4. On the western edge of a shoal, both triangles bases apart. 

5. The topmark of a shoal so small that it can be marked by a 
single buoy or beacon, and be passed on either side, is a cylinder, 
the beacon or buoy being black and white in stripes. 

The full, or abbreviated, name of a shoal is painted in black letters 
on the buoys or beacons marking it, also the letters " N.S.E." or " W." 
in black are on those marking, respectively, those sides of shoals. 



64 GENERAL REMABKS. 

Beacons, when used, are red on the starboard and black on the 
port hand, and piles of logs, known as Dalben (Due d'Alben), are 
distinguished by those on the starboard hand having a pole as a 
topmark. 

The starboard sides of small channels are marked by perches con- 
sisting of single stakes, with or without branches or brooms as top- 
marks, and the port sides of the same channels are marked by 
pricken, consisting of branches, or young trees with branches. 

Wrecks marked by lightvessels have these painted green, with 
" Wrack " in white letters on the sides, and they do not show anchor 
lights. 

Lightbuoys marking wrecks exhibit a green flashing or occulting 
light, and a wreck itself when marked by lights has a green light over 
a white one. 

Pilot vessels' lights. — Pilot vessels, when engaged on their sta- 
tions on pilotage duty, do not show the lights required for other 
vessels, but carry a white light at the masthead, visible all around the 
horizon, and also exhibit a flare-up light, or flare-up lights, at short 
intervals, never exceeding 15 minutes. 

On the near approach of, or to, other vessels, their side lights are 
shown or flashed at short intervals, to indicate the direction in which 
they are heading, but the green light shall not be shown on the port 
side, nor the red light on the starboard side. 

A pilot vessel of such a class as to be obliged to go alongside a 
vessel to put the pilot on board may show the white light instead of 
carr3dng it at the masthead, and instead of the colored side lights, 
may use a lantern with a green glass on one, and a red glass on the 
other side, to be used as prescribed above. 

A steam pilot vessel, exclusively employed for the service of pilots, 
licensed or certified by any pilotage authority, or the committee of 
any pilotage district, when stationed on pilotage duty and not at 
anchor, shall in addition to the lights required for all pilot vessels, 
carry at a distance of 8 feet below the white masthead light, a red 
light visible all around the horizon, and of such a character as to be 
visible from a distance of at least 2 miles, on a dark night and with 
a clear atmosphere, and also shall carry the side lights required to' be 
carried by vessels when under way. 

A similar vessel when stationed on pilotage duty and at anchor 
shall carry, in addition to the lights required for all pilot boats, the 
red light before mentioned, but not the colored side lights. 

Pilot vessels, not engaged on their stations on pilotage duty, shall 
carry lights similar to other vessels of their tonnage. 

Steering commands. — The system of steering commands, in 
which the terms starboard and port signify that the vessel's head is 



GENERAL REMABKS. 65 

to be directed to starboard and port, and not the helm, have been 
adopted by France, Germany, Portugal, and Spain. 

Tides. — High water, full and change, which is about 11 hour 40 
minutes at the Cape of Good Hope, is nearly 2 hours later at Port 
Natal, the latter establishment being approximately maintained along 
the east coast of Africa to the Equator, and being about 2 hours later 
at Ras Asir. The spring rise, from 4 to 6 feet in South Africa, is 
maintained to the southern boundary of Portuguese territory, and 
then increases until it is 20 feet at Beira, but on the remainder of the 
coast, as far north as Kismayu, it varies between 10 and 15 feet, 
decreasing to 6 feet at Eas Haf un. 

Variation of the compass. — The variation of the compass at 
the Cape of Good Hope is about 27° 20' west; at Zanzibar, 6° 0' 
west; at Delagoa Bay, 18° 40' west; and the line of no variation 
passes near Ras Hafun. The variation decreases about 5' annually 
at the Cape of Good Hope, this decrease becoming 10' annually near 
Algoa Bay, and this amount of change continues along the coast as 
far as Zanzibar, from which the annual decrease becomes less and is 
about 2' annually at Ras Asir. 

Lloyd^s signal stations. — ^There are Lloyd's signal stations at 
Cape Point, Cape of Good Hope, Cape Agulhas, Cape St. Francis, 
Cape Recife, and the Bluff, Port Natal; at the last station arrange- 
ments have been made to receive pyrotechnic night signals, also to 
receive and transmit night signals by Morse code. 

Life saving stations. — ^Lifeboats and rockets apparatus are sta- 
tioned at East London, Port Elizabeth, Port Natal, and Table Bay ; 
and there are rocket stations at Port Alfred, Cape Hermes, Port St. 
John, Cape St. Bl'aize, Port Shepstone, Simons Bay, and Umgeni 
River. 

Naval establishment. — ^The only naval establishment belong- 
ing to "His Majesty's Government is at Simons Bay, where there is 
a dockyard with a dry dock, basin, cambers, jetties, etc. 

Coal — ^A stock of coal, amounting to more than 500 tons, is kept 
at each of the following places: Mossel Bay, Port Elizabeth, East 
London, Port Natal, Lourengo Marques (Delagoa Bay), Mozam- 
bique. Mombasa, Kilindini, and Zanzibar, and less than 500 tons 
will probably be found at Beira and Tanga. The amount stocked, 
with facilities for coaling, is given with the descriptions of the 
several places. 

Docks. — ^There is a dry dock at Simons Bay, floating docks at 
Port Natal and Dar es Salaam, and patent slips at Simons Bay, 
Mossel Bay, Port Elizabeth, East London, and Port Natal. The 
dimensions of these docks and slips, with all information concerning 
them, will be found in Appendix II. 

39511—16 5 



66 GENERAL REMARKS. 

British consular stations — Portuguese East Africa. — Con- 
suls and vice consuls are stationed at Chinde and Lourenc^o Marques, 
and vice consuls at Beira, Mozambique, and Kiliman. 

Regulations — South Africa— Signals regarding search- 
lights. — Any vessel approaching a defended port in the Union of 
South Africa when searchlights are being worked, and finding that 
they interfere with safe navigation, may make use of the following 
signals, either singly or combined: 

(a) By flashing lamp, four short flashes followed by one long 
flash. 

(&) By whistle, siren, or fog horn, four short blasts followed by 
one long blast. 

Whenever possible, both flashing lamp signals and sound signals 
should be used. 

On these signals being made the searchlights will be worked, as far 
as circumstances will permit, so as to cause the least inconvenience, 
being either extinguished, raised, or their direction altered. 

The signals, which should be repeated until the inconvenience is 
removed, are not to be used without real necessity, as unless the 
vessel is actually in the rays of the searchlight it is impossible to 
know which searchlight is affected. 

These signals are designed to assist mariners and do not render 
the Government liable in any way. 

Passages — Greneral remarks. — ^Full-powered steam vessels 
always make their passages by the most direct possible safe route, 
with occasionally some slight divergence to secure a favorable current 
or to avoid a heavy sea, etc. 

Low-powered steam vessels usually take nearly the same route 
as sailing vessels, but in some cases they may take the full-power 
steam route, being guided by the extent of their steaming capacity. 

Sailing vessels adopt the routes by which they are most likely to 
be favored by leading winds and by current, distance being a sec- 
ondary consideration and often greatly increased. 

Bounding the Cape. — There is but little difficulty for vessels of 
either class in passing eastward around the Cape of Good Hope at 
any time, though a greater proportion of gales will be met with from 
April to September, the winter season. 

From the South Atlantic or from the Cape of Good Hope low- 
powered steam or sailing vessels, bound eastward, are recommended 
to cross the meridian of 20° east in latitude 39° or 40° south. Vessels 
may make quicker passages by going farther to the southward, espe- 
cially from November to March, but better weather will, as a rule, 
be found on or about the parallels recommended. Should a south- 
easterly wind be blowing on leaving Table or Simons Bays, stand 



GENERAL BEMABKS. 67 

boldly to the southwestward until the westerly winds are reached or 
the wind changes to a more favorable direction. 

In all cases where vessels are making for the fortieth parallel south- 
ward of the Cape of Good Hope they should steer nothing eastward 
of south, so as to avoid the area southeastward of the tail of Agulhas 
Bank, where gales with heavy and dangerous breaking cross seas 
prevail. If not bound for an Australian port or beyond, the amount 
of easting to be made depends on the prevailing monsoon in the 
Indian Ocean, for which see the passage required. 

From October to April easterly winds prevail as far south as the 
tail of the Agulhas Bank (about 37° south), with variable but chiefly 
westerly winds beyond it. In May and September, at the tail of the 
bank, easterly and westerly winds are in equal proportion, but be- 
tween these months westerly winds prevail, extending sometimes close 
in to the coast. 

June, July, and August are therefore the worst months and Jan- 
uary and February the best months for low-power steam or sailing 
vessels proceeding westward around the Cape of Good Hope, and it 
sliould be borne in mind that there is much less sea on the Agulhas 
Bank in depths of from 60 to 70 fathoms or less during heavy gales 
than there is near its edge and southward of it. If it is found neces- 
sary to heave-to, the port tack should be chosen, as, with the exception 
of southeasterly gales beginning with southeasterly winds, the shift 
of wind is almost invariably against the hands of a watch, and the 
vessel will come up to the sea. 

Caution. — Mariners should remember that off all parts of the 
south coast of Africa, and especially off salient points, simken wrecks 
or uncharted dangers may exist close to the shore, and that it is not 
advisable to approach this surf-beaten shore, even in full-powered 
steam vessels, within a distance of 3 or 4 miles, and sailing vessels 
should give Cape Agulhas a berth of 7 or 8 miles. With a strong 
adverse current the temptation to approach the shore is great, but 
westward of Algoa Bay nothing is to be gained by so doing, and a 
breakdown in the machinery or any temporary error in the course 
may lead to disaster. 

Routes. — The following are the routes to and from more or less 
distant ports found by experience to be the best and most suitable 
for each of the three classes of vessels named : 

Great Britain to the Cape of Good Hope— Full-powered 
steam vessels. — As direct as possible, giving a wide berth to 
Ushant and to Cape Finisterre, remembering that the current from 
the Atlantic sets directly on the coast ; from thence, steer direct f or^ 
and through, the Canary Islands, proceeding along the coast of 
Africa, skirting, as near as circumstances permit, the shoals off it 
until well southward of Sierra Leone, when the Equator should be 



68 GENERAL REMABKS. 

crossed in about longitude 9° west and the cape steered for direct. 
The distance from Plymouth to the cape by this route is 5,840 miles. 

Near this line of route coal may be obtained at the following 
places, the distances given against each being from Plymouth : Vigo, 
650 miles; Lisbon, 768 miles; Madeira, 1,213 miles; Las Palmas, 
1,428 miles; Sierra Leone, 2,749 miles; and St. Helena, 4,224 miles; 
the distance to the Cape of Good Hope being 5,874 miles. 

An alternative route, after passing Sierra Leone is to coast along 
Africa as far as Cape Palmas and then steer for the cape, crossing 
the Equator in about longitude 2° west and curving in toward the 
coast, which enables a vessel to call at the Kongo or at St. Paul de 
Loando for coal. The distance by this route is about 6,000 miles. 

The steam vessels of the Shaw, Savill, and Albion Co., the New 
Zealand Shipping Co., and the White Star Line adopt the following 
route : After leaving the English Channel and passing Ushant at a 
distance of 20 miles, course is shaped to pass 50 miles westward of 
Cape Finisterre, between Tenerife and Grand Canary Islands, and 
at least 60 miles from Cape Blanco, Cape Verde, and the Bijouga 
Breakers, crossing the Equator in longitude 10° west, whence a di- 
rect course for Green Point, Cape Town, is shaped, or if not calling 
at Cape Town, passing 50 miles westward of the Cape of Good Hope, 
and thence to a position in latitude 43° 10' south, longitude 40° east. 

Sailing route. — A sailing vessel, on leaving the English Chan- 
nel, should inmiediately make westing, to counteract the prevailing 
winds from that quarter, and even with a fair wind off the Lizard a 
west-southwest course should be steered, until an offing is gained in 
longitude from 10° to 12° west. Should the wind be from the west- 
ward, the tack which will enable the vessel to gain this offing, and 
so keep clear of the Bay of Biscay, should be taken, even standing to 
the northwestward until well able to weather Cape Finisterre on the 
starboard tack. 

Nothing is lost by making a long board to the westward, for the 
wind will generally veer, and when put on the other tack the vessel 
will probably be able to pursue a course with a free wind; whereas, 
if embayed in the Bay of Biscay, any changes of wind to the west- 
ward would necessitate beating to windward against the current. 

A vessel from Liverpool should pass to the northward or south- 
ward of Ireland, as most convenient, considering the direction of 
the wind when leaving. 

Cape Finisterre should be given a wide berth, as the current from 
the Atlantic sets usually directly on shore in that locality, and from 
longitude 10° or 12° west a course should be steered to pass Madeira 
at any convenient distance; but in winter it is preferable to pass to 
the westward of it, as the strong westerly gales between November 
and January, inclusive, produce heavy squalls and eddy winds to the 



GENERAL REMARKS. 69 

eastward of that island. From Madeira pass westward and only 
just in sight of the Cape Verde Islands, as the winds are stronger 
and steadier to the westward than to the eastward of those islands. 

The positions for crossing the Equator vary considerably at differ- 
ent seasons of the year, the direction of the southeast trade wind 
being more southerly when the sun is north than when south of the 
Equator; and although a vessel crossing well to the westward will 
have less interval of doldrums to pass through, still it might become 
necessary to tack to weather the South American coast. From a 
large number of logs of vessels examined by the meteorological office, 
the following crossings are deduced : 

From January to April, stand to the southward on about the 
meridian of 26° west, and when the southerly winds are met with, 
keep on the tack which gives most southing, endeavoring to cross the 
Equator not westward of longitude 26° or 28° west. 

In May, do not cross to the westward of longitude 25° west. 

In June and July, when the southerly winds are first encountered, 
probably in latitude about 6° north in June and 10° north in July, 
keep on the starboard tack as long as any southing can be made until 
a fair amount of easting has been obtained, and cross the Equator 
in about longitude 25° or 26° west. 

In August the requisite easting should be made with the first of 
the southwesterly winds in latitude 10° or 12° north and the Equator 
crossed in about longitude 23° west. In September, proceed as in 
August, but cross the Equator in about longitude 25° west. 

In October, proceed also as in August, but the southerly winds will 
first be met with in latitude 8° or 7° north, and the Equator should 
not be crossed to the westward of longitude 28° west. 

In November and December, keep slightly to the eastward so as to 
cross longitude 25° west in about latitude 6° north ; then take the tack 
which gives most southing and cross the Equator not westward of 
longitude 29° west. 

The equatorial current is not so strong in the northern winter as 
in the summer and autumn months, but it should be remembered 
that its strength increases as it nears the American coast. 

The position of the vessel should be frequently checked by observa- 
tions, so that the set of the current may be allowed for when in the 
vicinity of the St. Paul Bocks, a good lookout being kept, as they 
are steep-to and are only visible about 10 miles in clear weather. 
Similar precautions are necessary when passing westward of Fer- 
nanda Noronha and approaching the dangerous Kocas Reef, although 
a light is exhibited from it. 

Having crossed the Equator according to the foregoing directions, 
a vessel should stand across the southeast trade wind on the port 
tack, although falling off even to west by south, as the wind will 



70 GENERAL REMARKS. 

draw more to the eastward farther south and will probably be east 
at the southern limit of the trade; vessels usually sight Trinidad 
Island to check the chronometers and obtain a fresh departure. 

During the greater part of the year the southeast trade wind fails 
on a line drawn from the Cape of Good Hope to Trinidad and 
Martin Vaz Islands, this limit varying about 3°, according to the 
position of the sun. When to the southward of the southeast trade, 
fresh winds, but variable in direction, will be met with, and those 
from northeast, through north, to northw'est, if accompanied by 
cloudy weather, often shift suddenly to southwest or south, but 
sometimes the wind steadies between west and west-southwest. 

From Trinidad Island a course to the southeastward should be 
shaped to cross the parallel of 30° south in about longitude 22° west, 
and the meridian of Greenwich in about latitude 35° to 37°, from 
which to the Cape of Good Hope westerly and southerly winds 
usually prevail. 

After passing the meridian of Greenwich a strong north-going cur- 
rent is frequently experienced, and if bound to Table Bay great 
attention to the set of the current is necessary when nearing the land, 
where a strong north-going current is almost constant, as it might 
cause considerable difBculty and loss of time in reaching the bay. 
Bound to Simons Bay, during the summer months, the land should 
be made about Cape Hangklip, as a strong current sets at that period 
across the entrance to False Bay toward Cape Point. 

Approaching the Cape of Good Hope from the westward. Cape 
Point Light should be visible in clear weather from a distance of 36 
miles, except where it is obscured by the land, and a vessel near the 
coast by night, with the land not visible, should be kept to the 
southwestward until the position is ascertained. 

The wind seldom blowing from east or northeast (directly off the 
peninsula), sailing vessels, bound for Table Bay or around the Cape 
of Good Hope, should insure a weatherly position to the northward 
or southward, according to the season, and vessels bound for Simons 
Bay are sometimes detained for several days by southeasters off 
Lions Head and Hout Bay, in consequences of making the land too 
far to the northward, during the summer season, when the same 
winds would have been fair had they been about 30 miles farther 
south. 

During the winter season a vessel may find it difficult to make Table 
Bay from a position off the Cape of Good Hope during the continu- 
ance of north or northwest winds, notwithstanding the generally 
prevalent north-northwest current. 

Low-powered steam vessels. — The same route should be fol- 
lowed as that for sailing vessels, except with a calm when leaving 
or foul wind, if not too strong, a good offing should be obtained on a 



GENERAL REMARKS. 71 

west-southwest course from the English Channel until well able to 
weather Cape Finisterre, and the Equator should at all times be 
crossed in about longitude 23° west. 

The distance by the sailing and low-powered steam route from Ply- 
mouth to the Cape of Good Hope is about 7,450 miles, but it varies 
considerably according to the season. 

Return route — Full-powered steam vessels. — ^The reverse of 
the outward route. 

Sailing vessels. — A good offing to the northwestward should be 
obtained at once, as squalls from northwest and west-northwest are 
not uncotnmon at all seasons until well clear of the land, and, an 
offing being obtained, course should be shaped for St. Helena in 
cloudy weather, getting on its parallel well to the eastward if going 
to call there to avoid missing it. 

From St. Helena steer direct for Ascension, passing it from 10 to 
20 miles distant on either side and crossing the Equator between 
longitudes 25° and 30° west (or in July, to insure better winds, 
between longitudes 20° and 25° west). Then a northerly course 
should be made to gain the northeast trade, in July and August 
crossing latitude 10° north in about longitude 25° west, running 
through it until it is lost, which will probably be in about latitude 
26° or 28° north and longitude from 38° to 40° west, when westerly 
winds may be expected and a course shaped for the English Channel. 

It is seldom advisable to pass eastward of the Azores, but if the 
wind shifts to northwest when near them, the most convenient pas- 
sage between the islands may be taken. Should easterly winds be 
encountered after passing these islands, it is best to keep on the 
£:tarboard tack, when westerly winds will probably be soonest found. 

Low-powered steam vessels. — Similar to the sailing route, but 
crossing the Equator in about longitude 20° west ; or from the Cape 
of Good Hope make direct for the Cape Verde Islands and thence, 
running through the northeast trade as before, pass near the Azores 
as in the sailing route. From June to September a vessel might 
pass eastward of the Cape Verde Islands, where southwesterly winds 
are then prevalent. 

New York to the Cape of Good Hope — Full-powered steam 
vessels. — A direct course should be steered unless coal is required, 
in which case tho great circle route to St. Vincent, Cape Verde, may 
be taken and thence direct to the Cape of Good Hope. By direct 
course the distance is about 6,800 miles; by the great circle course to 
St. Vincent the distance is increased by 60 miles, but considerable 
adverse current is avoided. 

Sailing vessels from New York cross latitude 30° north in 
about longitude 35° west and then run to the southward through the 
northeast trade wind, steering so as to cross the Equator between 



72 GENEBAL REMARKS. 

longitudes 23° and 29° west nearest to the former in August and to 
the latter in November and December. On entering the southeast 
trade wind proceed as already described from the English Channel. 

Low-powered steam vessels. — Similar to the sailing route, but 
crossing latitude 30° north, 5° or 6° westward, and crossing the 
equator in about longitude 25° west at all seasons. 

Return route. — Direct for all classes of vessels. 

St. Helena to the Gape of Good Hope. — Full-powered steam 
vessels take the direct course both ways, the distance being 1,700 
miles. 

Low-powered steam and sailing vessels' route. — Stand to 
the southward on the port tack through and out of the southeast 
trade wind and then southeastward, crossing the meridian of Green- 
wich between latitudes 35° and 37° south and keeping between these 
parallels, as in the passage from England to the Cape of Good Hope, 
making the cape from the southwestward. 

Return route. — ^Direct for all classes of vessels, but sailing ves- 
sels should get a good offing on leaving the cape in order to avoid the 
squally weather so prevalent near the land and then shape course 
for St. Helena, making it from the eastward on its parallel in cloudy 
weather to avoid the risk of missing it, as although high it is fre- 
quently hidden by cloud or mist. 

Rio Janeiro to the Cape of Good Hope. — Full-powered steam 
vessels should take the great circle track. Distance 3,270 miles. 

Low-powered steam and sailing vessels should keep as much 
southward of the great circle as the rhumb line is northward of it 
(it is about 40 miles longer than the great circle) , crossing the merid- 
ian of 30° south, 20° west in latitude 35^° south, 10° in latitude 
37° south, the meridian of Greenwich in latitude 37^° south, and 
10° east in latitude 37° south, making the Cape of Good Hope as 
before from the southwestward. 

Return route. — Full-powered steam vessels should follow the 
rhumb line. Distance, 3,310 miles. 

Low-powered steam and sailing vessels should keep well 
within the southern limit of the southeast trade wind until nearing 
Trinidad Island, and then edge off toward Kio Janeiro. 

Montevideo to the Cape of Good Hope — ^Full-powered steam 
vessels should not go to the southward of latitude 36° south 
until in longitude 25° west; from thence follow the great circle track, 
w^hich passes just southward of Tristan da Cunha Island. By this 
route ice is usually avoided. Distance, 3,640 miles. 

Low-powered steam and sailing vessels should follow the 
route f6r full-powered steam vessels until past Tristan de Cunha; 
then keep on the parallel of about latitude 37° south, until the Cape 
of Good Hope bears about northeast, when steer direct for it 



GENEKAL REMAKKS. 73 

Betuni route. — ^Full-powered steam vessels should follow the 
rhumb line the whole distance, 3,710 miles; or, follow the rhumb line 
toward Rio Janeiro as far as longitude 20° west, and then that to 
Montevideo; the distance by this latter route is about 180 miles 
greater, but it is most probably more than made up for by lighter 
winds and favorable currents. 

Low-powered steam and sailing vessels should keep well 
within the southern limit of the southeast trade wind until nearing 
Trinidad Island ; from thence direct. 

Cape of Good Hope through Mozambique Channel. — ^Full- 
powered steam vessels should at all seasons shape a direct course, 
keeping at a safe distance along shore as far as Algoa Bay, thus 
avoiding the strength of the ^Vgulhas current, and being sometimes 
assisted by a countercurrent extending from 1 mile to 6 miles offshore, 
especially between Cape Agulhas and Kowie River, but guarding 
against indraft and avoiding all salient points. 

From Algoa Bay, if calling at Natal, continue the coasting passage, 
but if not calling there or at other intermediate ports, a vessel should 
edge off to about 80 or 100 miles from the coast, where the current 
is weak, and from thence steer direct for the middle of the Mozam- 
bique Channel, edging in again for Port Mozambique when nearing 
it, if bound for that port, but bearing in mind that the current runs 
from 2 to 4 knots to the southward when within about 60 or 70 miles 
of that coast, and is at its strongest during the northeast monsoon. 

If bound for Zanzibar, pass westward of the Comoro Islands, and 
from thence direct, sighting the northern end of Mafia Island and 
passing inshore of Fungu Kizimkazi (Latham Island). 

On account of the uncertain set of the currents in the Mozambique 
Channel, frequent observations for ascertaining a vessel's position are 
imperatively necessary. 

If bound to Aden, after passing through the Mozambique Chan- 
nel as directed, take the most direct route for Ras Asir, and rounding 
it, steer direct for Aden. In rounding Ras Asir, see Red Sea and 
Gulf of Aden Pilot. 

Distances. — The full-power distances from the Cape of Good 
Hope to the principal ports on the south and east coasts of Africa 
are as follows: To Algoa Bay, 390 miles; to Port Natal or Durban, 
780 miles; to Delagoa Bay, 1,090 miles; to Beira, 1,550 miles; to 
Mozambique, 1,850 miles; to Zanzibar, 2,470 miles; to Mombasa, 
2,590 miles ; and to Aden, 3,980 miles. 

Sailing vessels. — From October to Aprils when the prevailing 
winds on the southern coast of Africa are easterly, and at any season 
if southeasterly winds are blowing, a vessel should first make south- 
ing until in latitude 39° or 40° south, or even farther southward in 



74 GENERAL REMARKS. 

the month of January, when, with favorable winds and current, 
easting may be made until about on the thirtieth meridian. 

From this, edging gradually to the northward, the fortieth merid- 
ian may be crossed between latitudes 32° and 33° south, the course 
inclined still more to the northward, and the thirtieth parallel crossed 
in 42° east, from thence about true north, an allowance being made 
for southwesterly current, and so continuing past the western side of 
Madagascar, at a convenient distance outside the reefs. 

In this track, vessels will avoid the strongest part of the south- 
westerly current, and will be nearly sure of a fair wind until about 
half-way through the Mozambique Channel, when adverse winds may 
be expected; should such occur, it is better to make easting on the 
port tack rather than westing, thus avoiding the African coast with 
its prevailing southerly current. 

The passage on the eastern side of Europa Island is recommended, 
but vessels should not approach that island nor the Bassas da India 
Reef at night, the currents in their vicinity being very strong and 
uncertain. If bound to Mozambique, edge in when abreast, and make 
the land northward of it, as both wind and current at this season 
tend to set a vessel to the southward. Vessels bound to the north- 
western coast of Madagascar should pass close westward of the island 
of Juan de Nova, and when near the Madagascar coast, advantage 
may be taken of the alternating land and sea breezes. 

If bound for Bombay, for African ports northward of the 
Mozambique Channel, or for Aden, it is often preferable to 
avoid that channel altogether and to pass eastward of Madagascar. 
With this intention, after leaving the Cape of Good Hope, easting 
should be made in about latitude 39° or 40° south, until in about 
longitude 45° east, when the vessel should edge away northeastward, 
crossing latitude 30° south in about longitude 53° east, afterwards 
standing to the northward, passing westward of Reunion and around 
the northern end of Madagascar, from whence both wind and current 
are favorable for Zanzibar; this route can be taken all the year round. 

From April to October, inclusive, when westerly winds prevail 
off the Cape of Good Hope, vessels may make the first part of the 
passage near the coast, where they will sometimes be favored by a 
countercurrent, but must guard against indraft. They should not, 
however, go northward of about latitude 35° south until in longitude 
37° east, crossing latitude 30° south in about longitude 42° cast, and 
afterwards passing northward through the Mozambique Channel as 
before directed, carrying probably at this season a fair wind right 
through. 

On leaving the Cape of Good Hope, if southeasterly winds prevail, 
vessels should at once stand to the southward and make their easting 
in latitude 39° or 40° south. In all cases vessels making for these 



GENERAL REMARKS. 75 

parallels should steer nothing to the eastward of south, in order to 
avoid the area, southeastward of the tail of the Agulhas Bank, where 
gales and heavy cross seas prevail. 

When nearing Mozambique, if calling there, edge in for it, allow- 
ing for the strong south-going current when within 60 or 70 miles of 
the African coast. 

If bound to Zanzibar, pass westward of the Comoro Islands, and 
from thence direct, sighting the northern end of Mafia Island and 
passing inshore of Fungu Kizimkazi. 

Vessels should enter Zanzibar from the northward during the 
northeast monsoon, November to March, and from the southward 
during the southwest monsoon, April to October. 

Low-powered steam vessels — October to April. — ^The same as 
the sailing route, but using steam in the Mozambique Channel, when 
calms or northerly winds are met with. If bound northward of the 
Mozambique, the route eastward of Madagascar should be taken, in 
which case, probably, steam would not be required. 

From April to October. — As in the sailing route through the 
Mozambique Channel. In all probability steam would only be re- 
quired in the event of meeting with calms or light winds in that 
channel. 

If bound to Aden — October to April. — Sailing vessels stand 
to the southward from the Cape of Good Hope, and make easting 
in latitude 39° or 40° south (or even farther south in January) to 
about longitude 50° east. From thence, stand northeastward and 
cross latitude 30° south in about longitude 59° east and then run to 
the northward through the southeast trade wind and the northwest 
monsoon. Cross the Equator in about longitude 68° east, and from 
thence steer direct for the Gulf of Aden, passing northward of 
Sokotra, if possible. 

From April to October. — Proceed either through the Mozam- 
bique Channel, or take the passage eastward of Madagascar as de- 
scribed at page 55, and when clear of Madagascar, make direct as 
possible for Ras Asir, rounding it and working along the African 
coast as far as Burnt Island before standing across to Aden. 

Low-powered steam vessels. — October to April. — Follow the 
sailing route eastward of Madagascar for this season. Steam will 
probably be required between the southeast trade wind and the north- 
west monsoon, and again between the northwest and northeast mon- 
soons. 

April to October. — Take the sailing route through the Mozam- 
bique Channel, using steam after rounding Ras Asir. 

Betum routes — October to May, inclusive — ^Full-powered 
steam vessels. — Direct to Ras Asir, then direct for and through 
the Mozambique Channel, keeping in the strength of the Mozam- 



76 GENERAL REMARKS. 

bique and Agulhas currents as far as Mossel Bay, and from thence 
steer direct for and round Cape Agulhas. 

June to September, inclusive. — After rounding Ras Asir, steer 
to cross the Equator in about longitude 55° east, and thence make for 
the Mozambique Channel and Cape of Good Hope as before. The 
distance by this route is 4,260 miles, about 280 miles more than by 
the other, but this excess of distance is more than compensated for 
at this season by the avoidance of strong head winds and current. 

Sailing vessels — ^May to September. — Pass northward of So- 
kotra, run through the southwest monsoon, cross the Equator in 
about longitude 72° east, or even run through the One-and-a-half 
degree Channel and then cross the Equator, thence making southing 
into the southeast trade wind, passing eastward of the Chagos group. 
Run through the southeast trade, passing southward of Mauritius 
and about 100 miles southward of Madagascar, and make the African 
coast about 200 miles southward of Natal. From thence keep in the 
strength of the Agulhas current until abreast of Mossel Bay, and 
hence direct round Cape Agulhas. With westerly winds, after pass- 
ing Algoa Bay, keep within 40 or 50 miles of the shore. 

October to March. — Work along the Arabian coast until able to 
weather Ras Asir, then run down the coast of Africa and through 
the Mozambique Channel, taking advantage of the full strength of 
the Mozambique and Agulhas currents as before. 

Low-powered steam vessels — May to September. — The same 
route as sailing vessels at this season, but using steam through the 
variables between the southwest monsoon and the southeast trade 
wind. 

October to March. — The sailing route for the season, but steam- 
ing out of the Gulf of Aden, and also if meeting with southerly winds 
in the Mozambique Channel. 

Betum route from Zanzibar, etc. — Full-power ed steam 
vessels. — Direct along shore at all seasons, as described through 
the Mozambique Channel from Aden. Distance to the Cape of 
Good Hope from Zanzibar 2,400 miles, and from Mozambique 1,830 
miles. 

Sailing vessels — Northeast monsoon, October to April. — 
Keep well off the land until up to Cape Delgado, as the wind some- 
times hangs well to the eastward and even southward of east; from 
thence, stand down the coast, inside the Lazarus Bank, keeping in 
the strength of the Mozambique and Agulhas currents and making 
Cape Agulhas. A vessel will probably have to work to windward 
in the southern part of the Mozambique Channel, the prevailing 
winds there being southerly. 

Southwest monsoon, April to October. — Stand out to the east- 
ward on the starboard tack until able to weather Cape Delgado on 



GENERAL REMARKS. 77 

the port tack, then make the best of the way down the coast, keeping 
in the strength of the current, and acting as previously directed along 
the southern coast. 

Low-powered steam vessels take the sailing route, but use 
steam against light contrary winds. In the southwest monsoon, on 
leaving Zanzibar, a vessel will gain by using the Mafia Channel, 
where smoother water and less adverse wind and current are found. 

Cape of Good Hope to Bombay (possibly touching at Seychelles 
or Mauritius). — This route is given because vessels taking it and 
requiring to replenish their coal, can not depend upon doing so to 
any great and certain extent except either at Seychelles or Mauritius. 

Full-powered steam vessels proceed from the Cape of Good 
Hope through the Mozambique Channel as already directed, passing 
westward of Mayotta Island and of the Cosmoledo group, and thence 
direct to Bombay. Distance, 4,582 miles. If calling at Seychelles 
for coal, after passing Juan de Nova Island, a vessel should steer 
as direct as possible for Seychelles and from thence to Bombay, the 
distance in this case being increased by about 25 miles only. 

If passing eastward of Europa Island, in the Mozambique, the 
distance in each case is about 40 miles greater, but the currents are 
more favorable. 

An alternative route is to round the south end of Madagascar, at 
about 200 miles distant, and from thence steer direct for Bomba}'. 
but calling, if necessary, at Mauritius or Seychelles for coal. By this 
route the distance is 4,750 miles, but if calling at either of the 
islands named, it is about 70 miles farther. 

Sailing vessels — ^April to October. — Four distinct routes may 
be taken during this season, vi», by the Mozambique Channel, cast 
of Madagascar, the Boscawen Passage, and the Middle Passage. 

The Mozambique Channel route should only be taken when 
certain of reaching India before the close of the southwest monsoon. 
By it, a vessel after passing Juan de Nova Island, should puss 
through the Comoro Islands, cross the Equator in longitude 53° or 54° 
east, and then steer direct for Bombay. 

The passage eastward of Madagascar should also be taken 
only when certain of reaching port before the end of the southwest 
monsoon; it is often preferred to the Mozambique Channel, as less 
dangerous and the winds being more steady, especially in August 
and September, when light and variable airs prevail in that channel. 
Proceed by it as directed, passing westward of Reunion and of the 
Amirante Islands, and having crossed the Equator in longitude 03° 
or 54° east, steer direct for Bombay. 

The Boscawen Passage is to be preferred when there is doubt 
as to reaching port before the beginning of the northeast monsoon. 
Proceed as before from the Cape of Good Hope, but make easting 



78 GENEBAL REMARKS. 

to about longitude 50° east, then edge away northeastward and 'ivoss 
the parallel of 30° south in about longitude 59° east; from thi-^ um 
northward through the trades, passing between Reunion and Mauri- 
tius, and westward of the Saya de Malha Bank, and crossing '.he 
Equator in about 62° east steer direct for Bombay. 

The Middle Passage is sometimes adopted by vessels toward the 
end of the southwest monsoon, but it is not recommended, as cnlms 
and light winds are more likely to be expected than by the Boscnwon 
Passage. The difference between the two passages consists only in 
crossing the Equator from 6° to 8^ farther eastward of it than by ihe 
Boscawen Passage. 

In case the northeast monsoon has commenced, vessels should clo.se 
with the land after passing the Maldive Islands. 

November to March. — From the Cape of Good Hope stand to 
the southward and make easting in latitude 39° or 40° south, or even 
farther southward in January, until in longitude 65° east, then stand 
to the northward and enter the southeast trade wind in from latitude 
26° to 28° south and longitude 80° to 83° east. Run through the 
trade and northwest monsoon, and cross the Equator in from 80° to 
85° east, the farther eastward the safer, and having made northing 
into the northeast monsoon, stand for Cape Comorin and work up 
the Malabar coast, taking advantage of the land and sea breezes. 

Low-powered steam vessels — April to October. — Follow 
either of the sailing routes described and under the same conditions. 
The distances are, by the Mozambique Channel route (according to 
the parallel on which easting is made), from 4,930 to 5,370 miles, 
by the east of Madagascar route 5,740 miles, and by the Boscawen 
route 5,760 miles. 

November to March. — As in the sailing route, but classing the 
Equator in from 80° to 81° east and steaming into the northeast 
monsoon as well as along the Malabar coast. 

Return route — Full-powered steam vessels. — Direct for the 
Mozambique C'hannel and by it to the Cape of Good Hope. During 
the height of the southwest monsoon steer to cross latitude 5° north 
in about longitude 65° east, thus avoiding the strongest part of the 
monsoon. From thence pass westward of the Seychelles and then 
down the Mozambique Channel as before. 

Sailing vessels — February to October. — Stand down the coast 
of India and across the Equator into the southeast trades, then 
steer to pass southward of Mauritius and about 100 miles southward 
of Madagascar and make the African coast about 200 miles south- 
westward of Port Xatal. From thence keep in the strength of the 
Agulhas current until abreast of Mossel Bay and then direct round 
Cape Agulhas. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 79 

In the early part of the monsoon during June and July, when the 
wind is more southerly than later on, vessels should get an offing 
from Bombay into about 60 fathoms water before standing down the 
coast, afterwards keeping in about 40 or 50 fathoms to insure being 
well inshore of the Laccadive Islands. 

November to January. — Direct through the Mozambique Chan- 
nel and along the African coast, keeping in the strength of the 
Mozambique and Agulhas currents. In rounding the Cape of Good 
Hope, if westerly winds prevail, keep on the Agulhas Bank at not 
more than 40 or 50 miles from the coast, where the sea is smoother 
than elsewhere. 

Low-powered steam vessels — March to October. — The same 
as the sailing route. 

November to February. — As in the sailing route through the 
Mozambique Channel. 

Cape of Good Hope to Calcutta and Bay of Bengal^ etc, — 
Full-powered steam vessels.- -In this passage also it is fre- 
quently necessary to call at either Seychelles or Mauritius for coal, 
according to the route taken, there being two. One, through the 
Mozambique Channel, calls at Seychelles, as just now described, and 
from thence through the One-and-a-half Degree Channel and round 
the south end of Ceylon. The other, passing 200 miles southward of 
Madagascar, and coaling at Mauritius, is then direct round the south- 
ern end of Ceylon. 

By the first route, at all seasons, there will be less adverse wind 
and less sea to encounter than by the second and, in consequence, less 
wear and tear to a vessel. 

The distances are as follows: From the Cape via Seychelles to 
Trincomali, 4,730 miles; to Madras, 5,000 miles; to Calcutta and to 
Rangoon, 5,640 miles. The distances to the same places via Mauritius 
are about 130 miles less in each case. 

Return route. — Direct past the southeastern end of Ceylon and 
eastward of the Chagos group, calling at Mauritius, if necessary, for 
coal, and making the African coast as before directed, about 200 
miles south westward of Natal ; from thence, keep in the strength of 
the Agulhas current until abreast of Mossel Bay, proceeding as 
direct as possible around Cape Agulhas. The return distances are 
less than the outward ones, thus : From Calcutta and Rangoon to the 
Cape of Good Hope, 5,510 miles; from Madras, 4,870 miles; and from 
Trincomali, 4,600 miles. 

From Rangoon, during June, July, and August, it is best to pass 
eastward of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and proceed to the 
Cape of Good Hope via Mauritius, increasing the distance by about 
180 miles. 



80 GENEBAL KBMABKS. 

Cape of Good Hope to Mauritius — ^Full-powered steam ves- 
sels. — Direct along shore out of the Agulhas current as far as Algoa 
Bay, but carefully guarding against indraft and avoiding all salient 
points. From Algoa Bay, as direct as possible, but keeping about 
200 miles from the southern end of Madagascar. Distance, 2,290 
miles. 

Sailing and low-poweo^ed steam vessels. — Make southing and 
cross the meridian of 20° east in from latitude 39° to 40° south, and 
then make easting as far as longitude 50° east, edging away to the 
northeastward and crossing latitude 30° south in about longitude 
59° east, and from thence steer direct for Mauritius in the southeast 
trade wind. Vessels from this direction bound for Port Louis should 
pass eastward and around the northern end of Mauritius in order to 
avoid the calms caused by the high land near the southwest extreme 
of the island. 

Beturn route. — Full-powered steam vessels should pass 
about 100 miles southward of Madagascar and make the African 
coast about 200 miles south westward of Natal, afterwards keeping 
in the strength of the Agulhas current until abreast of Mossel Bay ; 
from thence steer direct to round Cape Agulhas at a prudent dis- 
tance. 

Low-powered steam and sailing vessels. — The same as with 
full-power steam vessels except that when nearing the Cape of Good 
Hope, with strong westerly winds, they should keep on the Agulhas 
Bank, not more than 40 or 50 miles from the shore, where the water 
will be smoother than elsewhere. 

Natal to Mauritius. — Full-powered steam vessels should take 
the direct route round the southern end of Madagascar, giving that 
island a berth of about 100 miles to avoid the strength of the westerly 
current. Distance, 1,600 miles. 

Low-powered steam and sailing vessels. — Stand to the 
southeastward, making easting in about latitude 35° south, and from 
about longitude 50° east keep gradually more to the northward 
crossing the parallel of 30° south in about longitude 58° or 50° 
east, and then direct through the trade wind to Mauritius. 

Beturn route. — Direct for all vessels, passing about 100 miles 
southward of Madagascar and making the African coast well north- 
ward of Port Natal. 

Zanzibar to Mauritius. — Full-powered steam vessels take 
the direct route at all seasons. Distance, 1,340 miles. 

Low-powered steam and sailing vessels — April to Octo- 
ber. — Stand to the eastward, regardless of crossing the Equator in 
so doing, until eastward of the Chagos group, when southing should 
be made into the trade wind, and then a direct course steered for 
Mauritius. 



GENERAL REMAEKS. 81 

November to April. — Make easting with the northeast and 
northwest monsoons, and cross latitude 10° south, in about longitude 
70° east, and from thence steer direct through the trade for Mauri- 
tius. Vessels should keep northward of a line drawn from Zanzibar 
to the Seychelles until in the northwest monsoon. 

An alternative route at this latter season is to stand down through 
the Mozambique Channel, taking advantage of the current on the 
African coast, and from the southern end of the channel stand south- 
eastward into the westerly winds and make easting southward of the 
thirty -fifth parallel, recrossing latitude 30° south, in about longitude 
58° or 59° east, and then proceeding direct for Mauritius through 
the trade. 

This being the cyclone season, the first route is the safest, as the 
path of these cyclones is then more easily avoided. 

In leaving Zanzibar in either season it is best to run through the 
lee pass for the time being, and although if bound to the southward 
during the southwest monsoon this appears to put a vessel a long way 
to leeward, as a rule nothing is lost by it, for in order to work to the 
southward an offing of 90 miles must be gained to be clear of the 
north-going inshore current, and this can be accomplished in a 
shorter time by running out with a fair wind. 

After the necessary easting is made, low-powered steam vessels 
may use steam until in the southeast trade, between April and 
October, and also to get into the northwest monsoon, and after losing 
it to reach the southeast trade, between October and April ; the north- 
west monsoon is sometimes found in about longitude 45° east. 

Bretum route. — Direct for all vessels. 

Zanzibar to Seychelles — Full-powered steam vessels. — 
Direct route at all seasons. Distance 1,000 miles. 
- Sailing vessels — April to October. — Stand eastward on the 
starboard tack and, if unable to fetch the islands, continue on past 
them until able to fetch them on the other tack. About June and 
July vessels can generally fetch them without tacking. 

October to April. — Keep northward of the direct route while 
working eastward until the northwest monsoon is picked up, which 
may be expected after passing longitude 45° east, but is very uncer- 
tain. Light winds and calms render this generally a tedious passage. 

Low-powered steam vessels — April to October. — Steam out 
of Zanzibar to the southward, and then stand across under sail. 

October to April. — Steam out to the northward and through the 
Pemba Channel ; from thence proceed direct. 

Return route — Full-powered steam vessels. — Direct. 

Sailing vessels — April to October. — Direct, but allowance must 
be made for the probability of the wind heading and for the strong 

39511— IC C 



82 GENERAL REMARKS. 

northerly current to be entered on nearing the African coast. It is 
best to sight the northern end of Mafia Island and then to pass 
inshore of Fungii Kizimkazi. 

October to April. — Stand to the southwestward, round the south- 
ern end of the Amirante Islands, and from that proceed direct. 

Low-powered steam vessels — April to October. — As with the 
sailing route at this season. 

October to April. — Direct. 

Mossambique to Seychelles — Fidl-powered steam vessels 
bound for Mahe, in the Seychelles, take the direct route. Distance, 
1,080 miles. 

Sailing vessels — ^April to October. — Direct, keeping as far to 
windward as possible. 

November to March. — Stand over to the coast of Madagascar 
and work northeastward along that coast until near Cape Amber, 
then stand northward across the current rounding that point from 
the eastward, and pass eastward or westward of the Amirante Group, 
as the wind may permit. This is always a tedious and uncertain 
passage. 

Low-powered steam vessels — April to October. — Direct. 

November to March. — Stand across to the Madagascar coast, 
then northeastward along that coast until near Cape ^Vmber, then 
northward, using steam through the light winds and calms, and pass- 
ing^astward of the Amirante (Jroup. 

Return route — Full-powered steam vessels. — Direct. 

Sailing vessels — April to October. — Stand out on the star- 
board tack until able to weather the southern end of Mahe; then, on 
the port tack, pass to windward of Alphonse Island and just to lee- 
ward of Providence Island ; from thence proceed as direct as possible. 
Toward the end of the season a vessel may even weather the F"arquhar 
Islands. 

November to March. — As direct as possible. 

Low-powered steam vessels — April to October. — The same 
as the sailing route. 

November to March. — Direct. 

Mozambique to Mauritius — Full-powered steam vessels. — 
Direct as possible round the northern end of Madagascar. Distance, 
1,210 miles. 

Sailing vessels — April to October. — Work to the southward, 
keeping in the strength of the current on the African side of the 
channel as far as Cape Corrientes or even beyond that cape; from 
thence, stand southeastward and make easting on about the parallel 
of 30° south until on the meridian of Mauritius, from which proceed 
direct in the southeast trade. If bound to Port Louis and approach- 
ing from the southward, pass eastward of the island and round the 



GBNEBAL REMABKS. 83 

northern end, in order to avoid the calms and baffling winds under 
the high land near its southwestern part. 

November to March. — Stand down the African coast, keeping 
in the strength of the current, and from the southern end of the 
Mozambique Channel steer southeastward into the westerly winds 
making easting southward of latitude 35° south and recrossing the 
parallel of 30° south in about longitude 58° or 59° east, when make 
direct for Mauritius through the trade wind. 

An alternative route, in the event of a southwesterly wind blowing 
in the Mozambique Channel at the time of leaving port, which some- 
times happens during the season of the northeast monsoon, is to 
stand over to the Madagascar coast, working northeastward along it 
to near Cape Amber, then keep to the northward to make easting 
southward of the Amirante and Seychelles Groups until beyond the 
Saya de Malha Bank; from thence proceed direct for Mauritius. 
This is generally a slower route than the other and there is more 
danger of meeting with cyclonic disturbances. 

The distance is about the same by both routes, viz, 3,000 miles. 

Low-powered steam vessels — ^April to October. — The same as 
for sailing vessels. 

November to March. — As in the sailing routes, but when taking 
the southern route using steam in light adverse winds; and when 
taking the northern route using steam when necessary along the 
northwestern coast of Madaga^ar and also to make easting south- 
ward of the Amirante and Seychelles Groups. 

Betum route — Fiill and low powered steam vessels. — Direct 
as possible round the northern end of Madagascar. 

Sailing vessels — April to October.— Round the southern end 
of Madagascar, passing up the Mozambique Channel on or about the 
forty-second meridian and when nearing Port Mozambique edge in 
for it, making allowance for the strong south-going current when 
within 60 or 70 miles of the land. 

November to April. — Direct as possible round the northern end 
of Madagascar, passing up the Mozambique Channel on or about 
when approaching Port Mozambique and making the land northward 
of that port. 

N. B. — Vessels bound to the northwestern coast of Madagascar 
should always go round the northern end of that island ; and those 
bound to the western coast, or to any ports on the African coast 
southward of Kiliman round the southern end. 

Cape of Good Hope to Straits of Sunda. — Fnll-jpowered 
steam vessels proceed alongshore as far as Algoa Bay, as previ- 
ously directed, and then follow the great circle route to the Straits of 
Sunda. This route passes just southward of the Keeling or Cocos 



84 GENERAL REMARKS. 

Islands. The distance is about 5,040 miles, but if calling at Mauri- 
tius the distance is increased by about 140 miles. 

Sailing vessels — April to September. — On leaving the Cape 
of (xood Hope, sailing vessels should stand to the southward and 
then make their easting in latitude 39° or 40° south keeping between 
these parallels, then edge away to the northeastward, crossing lati- 
tude 30° south in about longitude 100° east, and latitude 20° south 
in about longitude 150° east, passing close westward of Christmas 
Island and up to Java Head ; but care must be taken to keep well to 
the eastward, especially in June, July, and August, when the south- 
east monsoon is at its strongest, or the vessel may fall to leeward of 
Java Head and find great difficultly in regaining it against wind and 
current. 

From October to Aprils after passing St. Paul Island, cross 
latitude 30° south in about longitude 95° east and then steer direct 
for Sunda Strait, taking care at this season to pass well westward of 
Java Head, as westerly winds then blow at times with great strength 
along the southern coast of Java. Should contrary winds be met 
with after passing St. Paul Island, stand at once to the northward 
through the southeast trade into the northwest monsoon, and then 
proceed direct to the Straits of Sunda. 

Low-powered steam vessels take the same route as sailing 
vessels. 

Return route — Pull-powered steam vesdels. — From Sunda 
Strait follow the rhumb line across the Indian Ocean to make the 
Africaji coast about 200 miles southwestward of Natal, and then 
proceed as if from Mauritius. 

Low-powered steam, and sailing, vessels — ^May to Octo- 
ber. — From the Straits of Sunda, when fairly in the Indian Ocean, 
shape course to pass about 100 miles southward of Madagascar and 
from thence as in the passage from Mauritius. 

November to April. — This being the seascm of the northwest 
monsoon, vessels from the Straits of Sunda should stand to the south- 
ward into the southeast trade and tlien proceed toward the Ca):)e as 
before, bearing in mind that this is the cyclone season in the Indian 
Ocean. 

Cape of Good Hope to Australia. — Full-powered steam ves- 
sels stand to the southward across the Agulhas Current and then 
eastward on about the fortieth parallel. If for Swan River, this 
parallel is left for the great circle, when in longitude 74° east; if for 
St. George Sound, when in about longitude 85° east; and if for Port 
Adelaide, when in 106° east. If bound for Melbourne or through 
Bass Strait, when in about 127° east, proceed direct for and make 
Moonlight Head, westward of Cape Otway, and then through Bass 
Strait and along the coast to the destination. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 85 

If bound to Hobart, Tasmania, when across the Agulhas Current, 
follow the rhumb line to the south extreme of Tasmania. 

The following route in the South Indian Ocean has been adopted 
by the steam vessels of the Shaw, Savill & Albion Co., the New 
Zealand Co., and the White Star Line. 

The respective meridians are crossed on the parallels given : Lon- 
gitude 40° east in latitude 43° 10' south; longiture 60° east in lati- 
tude 44° 50' south ; longitude 60° east in latitude 45° 25' south ; lon- 
gitude 70° east in latitude 45° 40' south ; longitude 80° east in latitude 
45° 55' south : longitude 90° east in latitude 46° 30' south ; longitude 
100° east in latitude 47° 0' south; longitude 110° east in latitude 
46° 45' south; and longitude 120° east in latitude 46° 20' south. 

The distance from the Cape of Good Hope by these routes is as 
follows : To Swan River, 4,780 miles ; to King George Sound, 4,810 
miles; to Port Adelaide, 5,760 miles; to Melbourne, 6,030 miles; to 
Sydney, 6,550 miles ; and to Hobart, 5,960 miles. 

Low-powered steam, and sailing, vessels. — Make southing 
from the Cape of Good Hope as previously described until in latitude 
39° or 40° south, and run to the eastward about on these parallels. 
If bound to Swan River, when in about longitude 100° east proceed 
direct; if for King George Sound, when in longitude 105° east; if 
for Port Adelaide, proceed direct for Cape Borda when on the me- 
ridian of Cape Leeuwin. 

If bound for Port Philip, or to Sydney through Bass Strait, pro- 
ceed direct for Moonlight Head when in about 135° east. 

A higher latitude than 40° south is not recommended on account 
of the more severe weather, danger of meeting with ice, etc. Many 
vessels do, however, now follow a more southerly route, going as far 
to the southward in summer as the fifty-second parallel. 

Betum route — Full-powered steam vessels. — As direct as 
possible, keeping northward of latitude 40° south, and even as far 
as 34° south, the distances all being increased from 100 to 250 miles. 

Low-powered steam^ and sailings vessels. — ^There are two 
return routes from Melbourne and the southeastern ports of Aus- 
tralia. 

The northern route, taken from April to October, when the 
southeast monsoon connects the southeast trade of the Pacific with 
the southeast trade of the Indian Ocean, is made either by the inner 
or the outer route to Torres Strait, low-powered steam vessels always 
taking the inner route, and from thence through the Arafura Sea into 
the Indian Ocean; and, if not calling at Mauritius, passing south- 
ward of it and of Madagascar, and making the African coast and the 
Cape of Good Hope as though from Mauritius. 

The southern route. — Easterly winds being prevalent on the 
southern coasts of Australia from December to April, vessels then 



86 GENERAL REMARKS. 

take the southern route from all the ports mentioned. Those from 
Sydney should keep in the strength of the south-going current about 
15 or 18 miles offshore along the southeastern coast of Australia. 
From thence, through Bass Strait and direct for Cape Leeuwin, not 
going southward of latitude 40^ south. When round Cape Leeuwin, 
stand to the northwestward into the southeast trades, and thence run 
down the trades as in the northern route, but bearing in mind that 
this is the cyclone season in the Indian Ocean. 

Cape of Oood Hope to New Zealand — Fiill-powered steam 
vessels. — Stand to the southward across the Agulhas Current, and 
thence steer a fairlv direct course for the southern end of New Zea- 
land; then pass between the Snares and South Trap and along the 
eastern coast of New Zealand for the destination. Distance to Wel- 
lington, 7,170 miles. 

Low-powered steam, and sailing, vessels. — Proceed as if for. 
Australia until on the meridian of Gape leeuwin. From thence, in 
the summer months, southward of Tasmania, but in the winter months 
pass through Bass Strait. If bound to Auckland, proceed round the 
northern end of New Zealand; if for Wellington, through Cook 
Strait; and if for Otago or Lyttelton, southward of New Zealand 
through Foveaux Strait, or, in thick weather, southward of Stewart 
Island. The distance from the Cape of Good Hope via Hobart to 
Auckland is 7,440 miles; to Wellington, 7,220 miles; and to Otago, 
6,970 miles. 

Beturn route. — ^The reverse of the above routes to Tasmania 
and Australia, and thence to the Cape of Good Hope by the northern 
or southern route across the Indian Ocean, according to season, as 
described on the preceding page. 



CHAPTER II. 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO CAPE A6ULHAS. 

General remarks. — The description of the coast northwestward 
of the Cape of Good Hope will be found in Africa Pilot, Part II. 

Cape Peninsula. — This remarkable peninsula, extending for a 
distance of about 28 miles in a south-southwest direction from Table 
Bay to the Cape of Good Hope, its southern termination, is from 
5 to 8 miles in breadth, with heights varying from 3,550 feet at Table 
Mountain and 3,200 feet at Constantia Berg, to only a few feet above 
sea level between Chapman Bay, on the west, and Fish Hoek Bay, on 
the east, this lowland being only visible between certain bearings; 
the neck of land between Table Bay and False Bay, a distance of 
about 11 miles, and connecting the peninsula with the mainland, is 
also low. 

The peninsula is generally rocky and barren, with a stunted growth 
of trees in places, but fertile valleys, in the vicinity of Constantia 
and Wynberg, are exceptions. From the westward the peninsula 
presents a high and rugged appearance from Table Bay as far south 
as Paulsberg, 4 miles northward of Cape Point, and between these 
latter places the land is high and even, with the exception of two 
peaks near the southern extreme, which, from a considerable distance, 
have the appearance of an island in the form of a saddle. 

Depths ofPshore. — A bank, with depths under 20 fathoms, sur- 
rounds the Cape of Good Hope, being about 2 miles southwestward 
of Cape Maclear, the southwest extreme, and fully 2 miles southward 
and 1^ miles southeastward of Cape Point. Southwest Eeefs, con- 
sisting of patches of from 4 to 5 fathoms, extend about 1 mile south- 
westward of Cape Maclear, and near the southern and southeastern 
edges of this bank, respectively, are Bellows Rock, awash at high 
water, and Anvil Rock, with less than 1 fathom over it. 

Approaching the cape, especially in thick weather or with any 
doubt of the vessel's correct position, the precaution of using the 
lead should never be omitted. 

Cape of Good Hope. — ^The southern extreme of the Cape Penin- 
sula, terminates in two points about IJ miles apart. Cape Maclear 
being the western and Cape Point the eastern, the latter forming a 
high precipitous cliff, surmounted by two peaks, nearly 1 mile from 

87 



88 CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO CAPE AGULHAS. 

each other in a northwest and southeast direction; Vasco da Gama 
Peak, 880 feet high, is the northwestern of these, and the southeast- 
em, 800 feet high, near the pitch of Cape Point, has the lighthouse 
on it. 

Light. — From a white iron tower 30 feet in height, on Cape Point, 
is exhibited, at an elevation of 816 feet above high water, a white 
revolving light, visible in clear weather 36 miles. For obscured arcs, 
see Light List. 

Caution is necessary when approaching this light, as from its great 
height above the sea it is frequently obscured by mist, although at 
the same time it may be clear round the horizon. 

Lloyd's signal station. — ^A Lloyd's signal station, situated on 
Cape Point close to the lighthouse, is connected with the telegraph 
system of Cape Colony, and passing vessels communicating by Inter- 
national Code, or show^ing their numbers, will be duly reported. 

Vessels can also communicate through a wireless telegraph station 
at Slang-kop Point, about 15 miles to the northward of the cape, the 
station being open to the public at all hours and the call letters 
" V. N. C." 

Dangers. — Southwest Beefs^ generally breaking, appear to be 
patches on the outer projection of a rocky ledge, extending 1 mile 
south westward from Cape Maclear; the outer patch, of 5 fathoms, is 
about 2 miles westward of Cape Point. Under no circumstances 
should vessels attempt to pass inside these patches, and, coming 
from the northward, Siang-kop Point open of Olifants Bosch Point, 
bearing 340°, leads about IJ miles westward of the outer patch, and 
the vessel may be kept to the eastward when Cape Point bears 52°. 

Bellows Bock, awash at high water, and always breaking, lies 
a little more than 2 miles southward of Cape Point Lighthouse ; the 
water is deep close round this rock except on its southwestern side, 
where sunken rocks, on which the sea does not always break, extend 
about 200 yards. 

Anvil Book, with a depth of 6 feet at low water, springs, lies 
on the eastern end of a 3-fathom rocky patch about 400 yards in 
length, and is situated IJ miles southeastward of Cape Point; it 
breaks only at low water with a heavy swell, and the depths close to 
seaward are from 14 to 18 fathoms. Vasco da Gama Peak open 
northward of the lighthouse hill, bearing 299°, leads northeastward, 
and Constantia Berg well in sight, bearing 339° leads eastward of 
Anvil Eock. 

Dias Bock, about 8 feet high, and connected with Cape Point by 
a sunken reef, has deep water at 400 yards seaward of it, but three 
pinnacle rocks, with depths of 4J and 5 fathoms, lying between Dias 
and Anvil Eocks, render the passage between unavailable for vessels 
of deep draft, or even for smaller vessels in bad weather. 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO CAPE AGULHAS. 89 

Socky Bank. — ^A bank of rock and coral, nearly 2i miles in 
length in a west-northwest and opposite direction, and about 1 mile 
in width, with a least depth of 13 fathoms over it, lies about 4^ miles 
southeastward of Cape Point. 

Directions — Prom the westward. — Vessels approaching the 
Cape of Good Hope from the westward in clear weather should see 
Cape Point Light from a distance of about 36 miles, unless within 
the arc over which it is obscured by Vasco da Gama Peak, and cau- 
tion is necessary not to continue a course for the light in the obscured 
arc, especially when making the land at night or in hazy weather. 
A vessel near the coast at night, and the land not visible, should be 
kept to the south westward until the position is ascertained. 

As the wind scarcely ever blows from east or northeast, i. e., 
directly off the peninsula, sailing vessels bound round the Cape of 
Good Hope should insure a weatherly position to the northward or 
southward, according to the season of the year, as southeast gales 
may detain a vessel bound for Simons Bay for some time if the land 
is made too far to the northward during the summer season. 

Bounding the caj)e from the westward. — Vessels rounding 
the cape from the westward, and bound into False Bay, should pass 
about i mile southward of Bellows Eock, the breakers on which are 
always visible, and then steer 63° until Constantia Berg is well in 
sight bearing 339°, or until Vasco da Gama Peak opens eastward of 
the 800- foot hill near the cape, bearing 229°, these marks leading 
eastward and northeastward, respectively, of Anvil Eock. 

Vessels bound eastward along the coast, having passed the cape at 
a prudent distance, should take careful bearings of the Cape of Good 
Hope Light as long as it is in sight, and make every allowance for a 
possible easterly onshore set, so as to avoid the dangerous neighbor- 
hood of the Birkenhead Eock, bearing in mind also that Cape 
Agulhas Light is not visible when bearing southward of 95°. 

Steam vessels bound into Simons Bay often pass inside the Bellows 
and Anvil Eocks, but the pinnacle rocks of 4J and 5 fathoms, already 
mentioned, make it advisable for large vessels to pass southward and 
eastward of the Anvil Eock. Vessels taking the inside route, when 
nearing Cape Maclear, must not bring the Bellows Eock to bear 
southward of 113° until Dias Eock bears 54°, or until Cape Maclear 
is midway between Vasco da Gama Peak and a gap which separates 
the lighthouse from that peak, about 24°, which will lead clear of 
the southwest reefs ; then steer to pass from 300 to 400 yards south- 
ward of Dias Eock, or about midway between it and the 4rJ-fathoms 
pinnacle rock, lying off it, making due allowance for the scend of 
the sea according to the state of the weather. 



90 CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO CAPE AGULHAS. 

Beaching. — A small sandy cove lies between the lighthouse and 
Cape Maclear, and in it vessels, in a sinking state, may be beached 
in greater safety than on any other part of the adjacent coast. 

From the eastward. — ^When Cape Point Light is in sight ves- 
sels standing in toward the land should be guided by frequent bear- 
ings of it and of Point Danger Light, to avoid the rocks off the 
latter. When westward of Point Danger, Cape Point Light should 
not be brought more westerly than 285°, which bearing clears all 
danger off Point Mudge and Cape Hangklip. As Cape Hangklip 
and the narrow neck of land connecting it with the shore are very 
low, great caution is necessary when passing it in hazy weather. 

When approaching the Cape of (Jood Hope, the use of the lead 
should never be omitted. 

False Bay, entered between the Cape of Good Hope and Cape 
Hangklip, about 16 miles apart, from this extends to the northward 
about 18 miles, and has several dangers in it, but the middle and 
eastern sides are clear, though the bottom is foul and generally unfit 
for anchorage. 

The general depth varies from 46 fathoms at its entrance to 20 
fathoms about 5 miles from its head, whence it gradually shoals to 
the breakers, which break in from 4 to 5 fathoms about ^ mile from 
the beach. Rocky Bank, with a least depth of 13 fathoms, toward 
the western side of the entrance to the bay, has been mentioned. 

Western shore. — Rockland Point is about 7^ miles north-north- 
eastward of Cape Point, the first 5 miles of this shore of False Bay, 
being occupied by a long bight in the middle of which is Buffals 
Bay, known by a white sand patch and two beacons hereafter men- 
tioned. 

There are depths of 4 or 5 fathoms near the shore of the bay, and 
in a northwesterly breeze a vessel may anchor off it in from 8 to 
20 fathoms, over sand, if desiring to await a change, when, if in the 
greater depth, and a southeast gale comes on, a sailing vessels will 
find room to weigh, cast, and run up to Simons Bays. A fishing es- 
tablishment and landing place are situated in Buffals Bay. 

Between Buffals Bay and Smithwinkle Bay, BJ miles farther north- 
ward, the shore is backed by four sharp peaks. Off both points of 
Smithwinkle Bay are rocks, some above water, projecting 600 to 800 
yards offshore, Batsata Rock, 8 feet high, being the highest of those 
off the southern point. 

Rockland Point, the most prominent point between Cape Point 
and Simons Bay, slopes off to a ledge of dry rocks, at 400 yard^ 
beyond which to the southeastward is Bakkoven Rock, isolated and 
9 feet high, with 11 fathoms close-to. Castle Rock, 600 yards south- 
ward of Bakkoven Rock, dries at low water. 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO CAPE AGULHAS. 91 

At 1^ miles northwestward of Rockland Point is Oatland Point, 
with a few rocks off it, on one of which stands one of the beacons 
marking Whittle Rock. Between these points sunken rocks extend 
from 600 yards to i mile offshore. 

Whittle Rock, with H fathoms water, is about 6 feet in diam- 
eter and seldom breaks. It lies 26°, distant nearly 7J miles from 
Cape Point and on the southern side of a rocky patch nearly 1 mile 
in circumference, on which the depths vary from 7 to 10 fathoms. 

Beacons. — The position of Whittle Rock is shown by two pairs 
of beacons, w^hich in line lead over it, the rock being at the intersection 
of the two lines. 

The first pair of beacons is situated at Buffals Bay, the front 
beacon, with a white staff and ball, standing near the sea on its 
northern side; the rear beacon, with a black staff and ball, is on a 
ridge of hills behind the bay. These beacons are in line bearing 233"^. 

A beacon, 35 feet high and 56 feet above high water, painted white 
with a red band in the center, stands on a flat-topped rock near Oat- 
land Point and is 1,700 yards from an inner white diamond-shaped 
beacon, 30 feet in height, on the shoulder of the hill beneath Simons- 
berg. A large whitewashed patch on a hill northwestward of Simons 
Town is also in one with these latter beacons, when they are in line 
bearing 296°. 

Clearing marks. — Chapman Peak well open westward of Elsey 
Peak bearing 315°, leads 800 yards westward of Whittle Rock; and 
Elsey Peak, in line with Roman Rocks Lighthouse 328°, leads mid- 
way between Whittle Rock and Miller Point. Also, if the beacons 
or either of the respective pairs are kept open of one another, 
Whittle Rock will be cleared. 

West shore. — From Oatland Point the west shore of False Bay 
trends to the northwestward, for about 1^ miles, to the root of the 
east breakwater of Simons Bay, and about J mile within it is Simons- 
berg, 1,850 feet high. The following dangers lie off this coast: 

Noahs Ark is a flat-topped rock, in shape resembling a barn, 
about 100 feet long by 20 feet high, lying 600 yards offshore, and 
about a mile northward of Oatland Point; a reef extends about 50 
yards southeastward of it, beyond which the depths are from 36 to 
40 feet. 

Maidstone Bock, with 23 feet water, lies 400 yards east-south- 
eastward of Noahs Ark, its base, about 20 feet in diameter, rising to 
a sharp peak, the summit of which is so small that it is difficult to 
keep the lead on it. A patch of rocky ground, with a least depth of 
50 feet, lies about 150 yards eastward of Maidstone Rock. 

Phoenix Shoal. — The 5-fathoms contour line trends northwest- 
ward from Noahs Ark for 650 yards, and there turns more westerly 
toward the angle of the east breakwater, and within it the ground 



92 CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO CAPE AGULHAS. 

is shallow and foul, with several patches drying from 2 to 5 feet. 
Phoenix Shoal, about 650 yards northwestward of Noahs Ark, and 
lying immediately within the 5-fathonis contour line, has a depth 
of 3 feet near its outer, and patches drying 4 and 5 feet near its inner, 
part. 

Nimrod Rock, with less than 6 feet water, lies nearly midway be- 
tween Noahs Ark and Phoenix Shoal. 

Buoy. — A red buoy, with staff, and the Avord " Rock " painted on 
its flag, lies in a depth of about 50 feet 60 yards northeastward from 
the 3-feet patches of Phoenix shoal. 

Roman Bocks^ situated 25° distant 1,400 yards from Noahs 
Ark, and on the south side of a bank under 10 fathoms about J mile 
in extent, consist of a cluster occupying a space of about 150 yards; 
the rock on which the lighthouse stands, near the northwestern side 
of the cluster, is above water, but the rest are awash, and the whole 
are surrounded by foul ground. 

Light. — From a cylindrical iron tower 45 feet in height, with broad 
red and white bands, standing on the rock above water, is exhibited,, 
at an elevation of 54 fet^t above high water, a flashing white light 
visible in clear weather a distance of 12 miles. 

Signal station. — Vessels can communicate by the International 
Code, with a signal station at the lighthouse. 

Castor Bock, on the northern side of the same bank, on which 
are Roman Rocks, and about 400 yards northward of the lighthouse, 
has a depth of 16 feet: between the rock and the lighthouse there are 
patches of 18 and 22 feet. 

Buoy. — A red buoy with staff, and the word " Rock " painted on 
its flag, is moored in llj fathoms about 120 yards north-northwest- 
ward of the rock. 

Bambler Bock is a 27-foot patch of small extent, lying J mile 
southeastward of the eastern end of Roman Rocks. 

Seal Island, a low rocky islet, 400 yards long in a north and 
south direction, and 200 yards wide, lies GJ miles east-northeastward 
of Roman Rocks Lighthouse and is surrounded by sunken rocks on 
which the sea usually breaks.- It is the resort of penguins, whose 
eggs may be collected in considerable numbers at the proper season, 
but landing is difficult except in very smooth weather. 

York Shoal, the nearest part of which lies 1 mile south-south- 
eastward of Seal Island, is a rocky patch about 800 yards in length 
and 300 yards in width, with depths of from 1 fathom to 4 J fathoms; 
the sea generally breaks on its northern part, where the depth is less 
than 2 fathoms. 

East Shoal, about i mile in length in a north-northeast and 
opposite direction, and i mile in width, has depths of from 4 to 8 
fathoms, except on one small spot near the middle which nearly dries 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO CAPE AGULHAS. 93 

Ti\t low water, springs, and on which the sea always breaks; it is 
^situated about 3J miles eastward of Seal Island. 

Abreast of Gordons Bay, in the northeastern corner of False Bay, 
is another shoal patch, about 700 yards in diameter, with from 6J to 
t) fathoms, on which the sea breaks in heavy gales. The shoalest part 
lies 3J miles offshore, and 87° nearly 6 miles from East Shoal. 

Simons Bay^ about 11 miles northward of Cape Point, and near 
the northwestern corner of False Bay, is accessible all the year 
round, and affords perfect shelter, for w-ith heavy southeast gales, 
the only winds that cause inconvenience, vessels ride safely, and 
although the bay is exposed to easterly and northeasterly winds, 
these nevet blow with any strength. 

The west shore, for a distance of nearly 5 miles northward of 
Simons Bay, ranges in height from 800 to 1,200 feet, and on this 
shore are four remarkable sand patches, the first of these being on 
the northwest side of Simons Bay, the second between it and Elsey 
Peak, the third in Elsey Bay, and the fourth in Fish Hoek Bay. 

Between the West Pier, on the east, and, the west shore, the bay is 
about i mile in width, receding about 600 yards, and its southern 
shore is occupied by the dockyard, with cambers, petties, etc. 

The depths across the entrance to the bay are from 30 to 55 feet, 
shoaling gradually to the 5-fathom contour line, which is about 150 
yards from the southern part, and inside which are several detached 
dangers, some drying a few feet. 

Basin. — The basin on the east side of the bay is formed by an 
East Breakwater and a West Pier, the former extending first for 350 
yards 343*^ from Blockhouse Point, turns 288° for 170 yards, and 
then 233° for a similar distance, while the West Pier, extending for 
350 yards 232*^, turns for 140 yards 53"^ toward the other extreme, 
leaving an opening between them about 290 feet in width, the basin 
being dredged to a depth of 30 feet at low water, spring tides. 

Lights. — On the northern angle of the east breakwater is a ma- 
sonry' tower, 42 feet in height, from which is exhibited, at an eleva- 
tion of 56 feet above high water, an occulting light with white and 
red sectors^, visible in clear weather 13 miles. For bearings of sectors 
which clear Roman and Whittle Rocks, see Light List. 

A red fixed light is exhibited, at an elevation of 27 feet, from an 
iron structure 22 feet in height, situated 14 yards within the head of 
the East Breakwater, and a green fixed light, shown from a similar 
structure and at the same elevation, is in the same position within 
the west pierhead, both lights being visible in clear weather from a 
distance of 3 miles. 

On the end of the town pier, red, green, and white electric lights 
show red seaward. 



94 CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO CAPE AGULHAS. 

Fog signal. — During thick or ioggy weather a fog bell at the 
lighthouse on the north angle of the East Breakwater gives one stroke 
every 10 seconds. 

Naval establishment. — In addition to the basin, which has the 
dry dock and workshops at its inner part, the dockyard, situated on 
the southwest side of the bay, has coal stores, a camber dredged to 
4 feet, torpedo-boat slips, etc.; the admiral's house with its jetty is 
on the west side of the bav. 

Pier light. — An electric lantern light at the end of the town pier 
shows red over the bay, and green and white in some other directicms. 

Wharf Bock — Buoy. — Wharf Rock, with a depth of 9 feet over 
it, lies about 250 vards eastward of the dockvard camber, and is 
marked by a red conical buo}\ 

Port limits. — The area of the dockyard port includes, on the 
east, so much as is comprised within a line drawn 180"^ from Phoenix 
Shoal Buoy to the shore, meeting a line drawn S2S^ from the same 
buoy to the south shore of Elsey Bay, and on the northwest, west, 
and south, the line of high-water mark of spring tides, between the 
points where the above-defined lines meet the shore, with all bays, 
creeks, lakes, pools, and rivers, as far as the tide flows. 

Directions. — Vessels under steam, or sailing vessels with a fair 
wind, after clearing Anvil Eock by the directions and clearing marks 
given, should steer about 356°, midway between Whittle Rock and the 
western shore, and when Elsey Peak and Roman Rocks Lighthouse 
are in line, bearing 328^, alter course on that mark until within 1 
mile of the lighthouse, when steer to pass midway between it and 
Noahs Ark. 

The red buoy marking Phoenix Shoal can be rounded at a con- 
venient distance and the anchorage steered for, but should that buoy 
be missing, bearings of the breakwater occulting light will enable the 
shoal to be avoided. 

Sailing vessels with a foul wind and working westward of \^^little 
Rock will avoid that danger by opening the beacons marking its 
position of each other, or by keeping Chapman Peak, a dark-colored 
peak on the south side of Hout Bay, well open westward of Elsey 
Peak, bearing 315°. 

Working eastward of Whittle Rock, Chapman Peak in line with 
the western edge of the sand in Fish Hoek Bay, about 310°, leads 
1,600 yards eastward, and the whitewashed mark on the hill over 
Simons Bay well open northeastward of Whittle Rock beacon on 
Oatland Point 291° leads about the same distance northward of 
Whittle Rock. Bearings of Noahs Ark will clear Maidstone Rock. 

The ordinary channel for vessels entering Simons Bay is between 
Noahs Ark and the Roman Rocks, a width of 1,400 yards: but if the 
wind be northwest and the vessel under sail, the passage eastward and 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO CAPE AGULHAS. 95 

noi-thward of the Roman and Castor Rocks should be taken, as it 
affords better working space. 

The four sand patches on the hills northward of Simons Bay (the 
only ones except the patch within Buffals Bay on the whole western 
side of False- Bay) are usually conspicuous and serve as good land- 
marks for the bay; the western patch is a streak stretching down 
from the top of the hill. 

In thick weather, and being uncertain of the position, a vessel 
should anchor when in less than 20 fathoms. 

By night. — ^Jn rounding the Cape of Good Hope care should be 
taken to give it a berth of not less than 3 miles, and by not going 
into a less depth than 45 fathoms until the cape light bears westward 
of 350° a vessel will clear Bellows Rock. 

When eastward of Anvil Rock, with Cape Point Light bearing 
about 298°, distant 3 miles, from near which position the Roman 
Rocks Light may be seen, steer about 350° until that light bears 328° 
when alter course for it, passing between the western shore and 
Whittle Rock, a white sector of occulting light, from the East Break- 
water, leading southwestward of that danger. 

A red sector of occulting light from the East Breakwater covers 
Maidstone Rock, Phoenix Shoal, and the dangers between them, and 
when in the white sector of occulting light, between 265° and 275°, 
it may be steered for, which leads northward of Phoenix Shoal ; and 
the East Breakwater may then be rounded as convenient. 

Passing eastward of Whittle Rock, Cape Point Light should not 
bear to the southward of 220° until Roman Rocks Light bears about 
300° when the vessel can be steered to the northward into the white 
sector from the East Breakwater light, which also leads southward 
of York Shoal; a vessel working can make short tacks between the 
above bearing of Roman Rocks Light and the northern limit of the 
white sector from East Breakwater Light. 

In a southeast gale. — By day, a vessel should run between the 
Roman Rocks and Noahs Ark, shortening sail so as to have all 
furled when abreast of the latter, and then round-to under the 
spanker only, and having the sheet anchor ready. 

A sailing vessel should not run for Simons Bay by night in a 
strong southeast gale, for the gusts of wind are violent, and there is 
risk in bringing up ; it is preferable to stand off and on Cape Point 
under easy sail until daylight, and then enter. 

Leaving Simons Bay. — A sailing vessel bound eastward should 
leave Simons Bay, if possible, at the commencement of a northwest 
wind, but if bound westward during the winter season it is better to 
wait until that wind is nearly over, getting under way when it shifts 
to west; as it is probable that it will then veer from west, through 



96 CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO CAPE AGULHAS. 

south, to southeast, and the vessel would soon be in a favorable posi- 
tion for rounding Capt Point. 

Mooring^. — Eight sets of moorings are available for British 
naval vessels, all except No. 7 being in depths of over 5 fathoms 
and No. 1, in a central position, being for the flagship. There are 
also smaller moorings for gunboats, tugs, and lighters. Those for 
torpedo boats and lighters are on the west side of the bay. 

Anchorage. — ^Merchant vessels anchor only in the berths assigned 
to them by the senior naval officer, but a good berth for a large ves- 
sel is in about 10 fathoms and ^ mile offshore, with Noahs Ark 
bearing about 117° and the dockj^ard clock 226°, mooring with the 
anchors northwest and southeast, with the best bower in the former 
direction during winter from May to September, when the prevail- 
ing winds are from that quarter, blowing in strong gusts over the 
hills, and to the southeast during the opposite season, when southeast 
winds predominate. 

ExaminatioiL anchorage. — The examination anchorage com- 
mences about i mile eastward of the East Breakwater, the limits of 
the area being marked on the plan. 

For signals to be used by vessels approaching defended ports see 
Chapter I, page — . 

Semaphores. — A semaphore is situated at the admiral's house 
and another at the dockyard. 

Life-saving station. — A rocket apparatus is in charge of the 
port officer and is worked by the royal garrison artillery. 

Compass adjustment. — Vessels desirous of ascertaining the 
compass deviation will find Sharp Peak a conspicuous mountain 
northeastward of Hangklip Berg, the bearing of which is 109 "" from 
Simons Bay, useful for the purpose, and the peak being distant 
21 miles, this bearing is not materially affected by the vessel's posi- 
tion in the bay. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Simons Bay at 2 h. 
44 m. ; springs rise 5^ feet ; neaps rise 3 J feet. 

Winds. — Southeast winds, generally prevalent from October to 
April, do not, as a rule, continue longer than from five to eight days 
and are succeeded by variable winds. In Simons Bay, as also in 
False Bay, generally, these winds frequently blow very hard for a 
day and part of a night and then abate toward morning, being 
succeeded by a breeze from west-northwest. 

During the season of southeast winds they frequently blow with 
great strength from south-southeast, making landing in boats dis- 
agreeable, and sometimes impracticable. 

From April to October northwest winds prevail, with frequent 
gales from that quarter, accompanied by rain, and although ihepc 
gales occur occasionally all the year round they are rare during the 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO CAPE AGULHAS. 97 

season of southeast winds; northeast winds are uncommon, and ne^er 
have any strength. 

Southwest winds, commonly known as the kloof winds, are cold, 
and frequently rainy, and when they are blowing boat sailing in the 
bay is extremely dangerous, on account of the violent and variable 
squalls which come down from the hills. 

If the barometer, standing at 30.2 or 30.3 inches, falls rapidly to 
80 or 29.95 inches a gale from south-southeast almost certainly fol- 
lows, and should Muizenberg be capped with white cloud it is gener- 
ally the precursor of a southeast wind, which wind will probably be 
violent and of long continuance if the Hottentot Holland Range on 
the east side of False Bay, is simlarly capped ; when Simonsberg has 
a misty cloud on its summit, rain may be expected within an hour 
or two. 

It has been remarked that the Hottentot Holland Range is the 
first to cover on the approach of a southeast gale, and should Muizen- 
berg not cover it may not blow home to Simons Bay. 

Town. — Simons Town, lying at the foot of the hills, at the head 
of Simons Bay, consists of one long street, and had a population of 
9,416 in 1912. 

Communication. — A railway runs to Cape Town, a distance of 
20 miles, and mails are sent for Europe through that port ; there is 
also telegraphic communication. 

Supplies. — ^There are plentiful supplies of fresh meat, vegetables, 
and bread, and the water, from a tank in the dockyard, is good. 
Supplies of any kind not obtainable in Simons Town can be procured 
from Cape Town, and fish are abundant. 

Caution. — ^A fish about 6 inches in length, its back dark with 
deep b'ack stripes, and belly white with faint yellow patches, is 
known as the toadfish ; it swims near the surface, is easily taken with 
a hook and line, and when taken from the water puffs out consider- 
ably. Should any portion of this fish be eaten death ensues in a few 
minutes. 

Docks. — The dimensions of the dry docks will be found in Ap- 
pendix II, as also those of four patent slips. 

Repairs. — ^Moderate repairs to engines and boilers of small horse- 
power can be undertaken in the dockyard, where are two small steam 
hammers of 15 and 10 hundredweight. A 50-ton crane is situated 
on the West Pier, and a 20-ton crane on the East breakwater. 

Hospitals. — Two naval hospitals are maintained in the town. 

Time signal. — ^A mast on which is a black and white checkered 
ball, attached to a lever arm, stands close to Simons Town telegraph 
office, 63 feet above high water, and 40 feet above ground. The ball 
is hoisted at five minutes before the signal and falls by electricity 

39511—16 7 



98 CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO CAPE AGULHAS. 

from the Cape Observatory at h. m. s. South African Standard 
Time, corresponding to 10 h. 00 m. 00 s. Greenwich mean time, but 
the signal is not made on Sundays nor on holidays. When the signal 
fails in accuracy the ball is kept up about 10 minutes and then 
lowered. 

West shore. — The west shore of False Bay, from Simons Bay, 
trends northeastward for 2 J miles, to Fish Hoek Bay, Kalk Bay 
(pronounced Cork) being about ^ mile farther northeastward; both 
bays have villages, and the latter, which is a fashionable watering 
place, has several good hotels. 

About 2 miles northeastward of Kalk Bay is Muizenberg, a moun- 
tain 1,651 feet high, already referred to, and from Simons Bay the 
railway skirts the shore, passing through Fish Hoek and Kalk vil- 
lages, but turning inland to Wynberg at Muizenberg, there being 
stations at St. James, near Kalk Bay, and at Muizenberg village. 

Head of False Bay. — The head of False Bay trends eastward 
for about 17 miles, turning southeastward on the east side; it is a low 
sandy beach, with a continuous line of breakers fronting it, and 
affords no landing, so that under all circumstances it should be 
avoided. 

East shore. — Cape Hangklip, the eastern point of entrance to 
False Bay, is only about 10 feet high, but IJ miles north-northeast- 
ward of it is Hankklip Berg, 1,448 feet high, quoin-shaped, and 
sometimes known as False Cape ; from the southward it makes as an 
island, and from some directions its western face appears to over- 
hang, hence its name, while a conspicuous sandy patch extends half- 
way up its southeastern side. 

A rock, with less than 1 fathom over it, lies f mile west-northwest- 
ward of the cape and about 700 yards offshore, and as a heavy sea 
always breaks on the cape and some distance outside this rock, 
vessels should give it .a berth of at least 1 mile w hen passing. 

The land is low to the eastward of Cape Hangklip, but then rises, 
and at 3^ miles eastward is Sharp Peak, 2,780 feet high, which is the 
commencement of a chain of mountains extending eastward, and has 
been already mentioned in connection with compass adjustment. 

Fringle Bay. — ^The east shore trends slightly to the westward 
of north for 2} miles from Cape Hangklip, and then turns eastward 
for 1 mile, forming the south shore of Pringle Bay, which, although 
open to westerly winds, affords good shelter from southeast gales, in 
depths of from to 10 fathoms. 

Kogel Bay. — From Pringle Bay the coast trends northward with 
an outward curve, for 4 miles, to the south side of Kogel Bay, and 
midway is Klein Hangklip, 971 feet high, close within it. Kogel 
Bay, about 3 miles in width, and receding eastward about 1 mile, is 
open to the westward, and although affording some shelter from 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO CAPE AGULHAS. 99 

southerly and easterly winds, the bottom being in many parts rocky, 
it is not a good anchorage. 

G-ordons Bay. — The coast has a north -north west trend from 
Kogel Bay, for about 3 miles, and then turns east-northeastward for 
nearly a similar distance, forming the south shore of Gordons Bay, 
which is about 3 miles across its entrance, and recedes eastward about 
2 miles; it affords shelter from southerly and easterly winds, but, 
being fully exposed to westerly winds, vessels can only use it during 
the summer months. 

Mosterts Bay, on the north «ide of the entrance to Gordons Bay, 
is a natural boat harbor, formed by a circle of sunken rocks, extend- 
ing some distance from the shore, and having a narrow entrance, but 
affording good shelter inside; the fishing village of Strand is on the 
north shore of this harbor. 

South coast. — Point Danger is 27^ miles southeastward of Cape 
Hangklip, and between, the south coast forms Sandown and Walker 
Bays, two bights, separated by Point Mudge, lying nearly midway 
betwee» them ; from a line joining Cape Hangklip and Point Danger, 
Sandown Bay recedes 8J and Walker Bay 10 miles. Except on the 
sandy shores of both bays the coast line consists generally of rocky 
projecting points, and landing can only be effected in certain places 
shown on the chart. 

Palmiet River, 9J miles eastward of Cape Hangklip, is a rapid 
stream during winter, but its entrance is always blocked by sand ; a 
small sandy cove, about f mile eastward of the river, affords boat 
landing in fine weather and at high water. Bot Eiver, nearly 5 miles 
east-southeastward of the cove, has a similarly sand-blocked entrance 
to that of Palmiet River. 

Point Mudge, low and rocky, has several sunken rocks covered 
with masses of kelp off it, and about IJ miles east-northeastward of 
the point is Onrust Berg, a square bluff, 1,575 feet high, with a pile 
on it, and forming the termination of a range of coast hills. 

The British naval vessel Birhenheads'^ gig landed, after the 

wreck of that vessel, in a small rocky cove about 1 mile northward 
of Point Mudge, but there is better and safer landing, with easterly 
and southeasterly winds, in D'Urban Cove, immediately northward 
of Point Mudge. 

Walker Bay is remarkable for the immense tracts of sand and high 
sandhills at its head, which are visible from a long distance, and 
give a distinctive character to this part of the coast, about midway 
along the sand, and 1 mile inland is a pyramidal sandhill, 427 feet 
high. A long, heavy swell always rolls into the bay, and the water 
is deep within 1 mile of the beach. 

Klein River, in the northern bight of Walker Bay, is a stream of 
considerable size inland, but its mouth is choked with sand. 



100 OAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO CAPE AGULHAS. 

Stanford Cove, a small rocky inlet very similar to D'Urban 
Cove at Point Mudge, affords landing in easterly and south- 
easterly winds ; it lies in the rocky southern shore of Walker Bay, 5 
miles east-northeastward of Point Danger. Several rocky patches 
off it, which, with the heavy swell, render it less available than 
Hydra Bay. Some fishermen's huts are situated near the head of the 
cove, and plenty of good water may be obtained. 

Hydra Bay, lying between Stanford Cove and Point Danger, is 
easily distingjiished by a sand patch which marks the face of the 
hillock over it. Patches of 3 and 3i fathoms, which do not always 
break, lie about ^ mile offshore on the edge of the 5-fathom contour 
line, but, avoiding these, the bay affords the best anchorage, sheltered 
by Point Danger, as farther in Walker Bay the swell is heavier. 

Directions. — Approaching Hydra Bay from the southward, 
Point Danger Lighthouse should not be approached nearer than 2 
or 3 miles, and the bluff hill of Point Mudge may be steered for until 
the sand patch in Hydra Bay is well open, bearing about 85° when 
the rocky spit projecting from Point Danger will be cleared. 

From this edge in for the bay, anchoring in depths of 12 or 14 
fathoms, about 1,400 or 1,600 yards from the shore, taking care to 
keep the low extreme of Point Danger open of the intermediate 
points, bearing about 210°, to avoid the patches already mentioned. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in this neighborhood, 
at 2 h. 50 m. ; springs rise 5 feet The establishment and rise of tide 
from Simons Bay to Cape Agulhas are nearly the same. 

Current. — Occasionally a current has been experienced between 
Capes Hangklip and Agulhas, setting in an east-southeast direction 
about 1 knot an hour, but the tidal streams are inconsiderable and 
uncertain. 

Point Danger, the southwestern extreme of Walker Bay, is a 
tongue of low sand hills covered with bushes and stunted trees, pro- 
jecting about 4J miles from the base of Duin Fontein Berg, a con- 
spicuous bluff hill, 1,130 feet high, remarkable from every point of 
view at sea. This long projecting point, as already stated, affords 
shelter from the southeast gales of summer. 

The depths are irregular off Point Danger. It should not be 
approached at night to a less depth than 35 or 40 fathoms. 

Light. — On Point Danger, from an octagonal tower 60 feet in 
height, with red and white alternate sides, is exhibited, at an eleva- 
tion of 150 feet above high water, a white group flashing light. In 
clear weather it should be visible from a distance of 18 miles. 

Signal station. — Vessels can communicate by International Code 
with a signal station situated close to the lighthouse, which is con- 
nected by telephone with the stations in the union. 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO CAPE AGULHAS. 101 

Birkenhead Rock, the most dangerous of several detached 
sunken rocks met with off this part of the coast, lies about 1 mile 
from the pitch of Point Danger. It has 2 fathoms water over it 
and from 10 to 18 fathoms within a short distance all round, and 
on it the British naval vessel Birkenhead was lost with 436 lives in 
February, 1852. The sea breaks with violence on the rock, but often 
only at intervals of about a quarter of an hour. 

Dyer Island. — Sandy Point is situated about 7^ miles east-north- 
eastward of Point Danger, and from the former, shoal water, on 
which are islets and numerous rocks, sunken and awash, extends 
3i miles southwestward. Dyer Island, a low rocky islet, visible only 
at a short distance and frequented by rabbits and numerous sea 
birds, being the largest. Geyser Island, about J mile southward of 
Dyer Island, is smaller. 

These islets, together with the numerous rocks extending nearly 
1^ miles westward from them, form a natural breakwater, under 
which vessels may find shelter in southerly and southeasterly gales, 
but landing is not good and is at times impracticable, the best place 
being near a small shed on Dyer Island. 

Directions— Anchorage. — Dyer and Geyser Islets, being low 
and white, are made out with difficulty when seen against the sand 
hills on the adjacent coast, so that in approaching from the south- 
ward in order to avoid the reef extending westward from them, 
which does not always break in fine weather, keep Palmiet Valley, 
a depression in the high land about 8 miles eastward of Cape Hang- 
klip, open of Point Danger, bearing about 320°, until Geyser Island 
is in line with Gunners Quoin 101°. 

From this steer for Duin Fontein Berg, and when Gunners Quoin 
is open northward of Dyer Island about 110°, alter course for it and 
anchor in from 10 to 12 fathoms, over sand, and good holding 
ground, with the extremes of Dyer Island bearing about 128° and 
156°, distant 1 mile. The reef affords no shelter from the southwest- 
erly winds. 

A narrow channel, with a depth of 2f fathoms, lies between the 
eastern end of Dyer Island and a rock above water northeastward 
of it, which a small vessel with the knowledge of the locality might 
take under favorable circumstances, but the sea breaks across it in 
southernly winds. Foul ground, with heavy breakers, extends from 
the Sandy Point abreast to within 1 mile of Dyer Island. 

Coast. — From Point Danger to Quoin Point, the latter 19 miles 
southeastward, the coast is low near the sea, and backed by bare 
rugged hills of moderate height, one of which about halfway be- 
tween Danger and Quoin Points, and named False Quoin from its 
shape, is 888 feet high. A long, heavy swell constantly breaks on 



102 CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO CAPE AGULHAS. 

the shore, which is everywhere inaccessible except in a small cove 
2^ miles northward of Quoin Point, where landing is practicable 
in soiitheasterlv winds. 

At about 5| miles eastward of Point Danger, at the head of a bay, 
is the mouth of the Uilkraal, a small stream with a broad sand 
bar at its mouth. 

Patches. — About halfway between Dyer Island and Quoin Point, 
and 1^ miles offshore, are two rocky patches, one on which the least 
depth found was 4 fathoms ; the other patch dries, and the sea breaks 
on them with any swell. 

Quoin Point. — Gunners Quoin, or Buffel Jagt Berg, a conspicu- 
ous bluff hill, 997 feet in height, is named from its shape, although 
when viewed from the westward its resemblance to a quoin disap- 
pears. Quoin Point, a mass of square hummocky land projecting 
from the base of the Gunners Quoin, and 3 miles from it, is fronted 
by sunken rocks and heavy breakers extending upward of 1 mile 
from the shore; seen from the southward, it may be known by two 
sand hills near its extreme. 

From Quoin Point to Cape Agulhas the coast, though receding 
slightly, has a general southeast trend for 19 miles, and is low and 
sandy, except abreast of Zoet Anys Berg, a flat-topped range, of 
which the highest part is 870 feet high, where it becomes steep and 
rocky. The whole of this coast line is exposed to the full force of 
the ocean swell, and landing is impracticable. 

The depths are less along this part of the coast than off and west- 
ward of the Gunners Quoin ; and between 2 and 4 miles eastward of 
the southeastern face of Quoin Point, and If miles offshore, are sev- 
eral rocky patches, some of which are above water. 

Directions. — In standing toward any part of this coast. Cape 
Agulhas Light should not be lost sight of, and a vessel should stand 
off before the light becomes obscured when bearing 95°. From the 
westward, having passed Quoin Point at 7 or 8 miles distant, a course 
about 100° will pass Cape Agulhas at a similar distance; and for 
possible dangers in a too close approach to this shore. 

There is tolerable shelter and smooth water in strong northwesterly 
winds under the lee of the reefs 4 miles eastward of Quoin Point, and 
it is possible that a small vessel might find shelter close under the 
east extreme of Quoin Point. The whole of this coast, however, 
should be given a wide berth when possible. 

Cape Agulhas, a rocky projection forming the extreme southern 
point of Africa, is distinguished from other points in the locality by 
the features of the land about it. P^rom a distance seaward, east- 
ward, or westward, the northern and southern elevations or ridges 
resemble two oblong hummocks, while at a distance from the south- 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE TO CAPE AGULHAS. 103 

ward they appear as one ; the highest part of the cape, about 1 mile 
within it, is 455 feet above high water. 

Light. — On the first undulation within Cape Agulhas is a cylin- 
drical tower 63 feet in height, with red and white bands, which 
exhibits at an elevation of 126 feet above high water a white flashing 
light visible in clear weather from a distance of 18 miles. For arc 
of visibility, see Light List. 

Lloyd's signal station. — A Lloyd's signal station near the light- 
house, with which vessels can communicate by International Code, is 
connected with the telegraph system of the Union of South Africa. 



CHAPTER HI. 



CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 

Agxdhas Bank. — The limits of this extensive bank, southward 
of Cape Agulhas, are fairly defined. The 100-fathom contour line, 
about 5 miles from the Cape of Good Hope, trends south-southeast- 
ward, passing about 30 miles from Point Danger and 40 miles from 
Cape Agulhas, and arriving at a position nearly 120 miles south- 
southeastward of the latter cape, turns west-northwestward, and 
passes t)0 miles from Cape St. Blaize, 25 miles from Cape St. Francis, 
and 20 miles from Cape Recife, after which it continues gradually 
to close the shdre. 

Nowhere does the edge of the bank appear to be very steep; tne 
general depths on it are from 45 to 80 fathoms, increasing to 100 
fathoms and upward at its southern extreme. 

Eastward of Cape Agulhas the bottom is generally either rocky or 
of Coarse sand, shells, and small stones, and westward of that cape 
mud or green sand will be found southward of latitude 35° 15' south, 
but in less than 50 fathoms the bottom is rock, sand, or stones, and 
beyond a depth of 90 fathoms it is generally sandy, with black specks. 
The quality of the bottom is not, however, sufficiently defined or 
ascertained to determine a ship's position by it. 

One remarkable fact as to the Agulhas Bank is seen in its quieting 
effect on the heavy seas which roll up to it. A vessel may be labor- 
ing heavily in a turbulent and irregular sea while in deep water 
outside the bank, but directly soundings of from 60 to 70 fathoms 
are obtained the sea becomes comparatively tranquil. 

Coast. — Immediately to the eastward of Cape Agulhas are two 
small indentations, the first of which is St. Mungo Bay, and the 
whole coast line about Cape Agulhas and from then to Northumber- 
land Point 3J miles eastward of the lighthouse, consists of rugged 
sandstone and quartz rocks, or rocky reef, extending 600 or 800 
yards offshore, and at all times unapproachable by boats. 

Exposed, to the uninterrupted swell of the Southern Ocean, the 
sea breaks heavily all along this iron-bound coast, especially during 

105 



106 CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 

southerly winds, and a vessel, taking the ground on it, has not the 
slightest chance of escaping destruction. 

Reported dangers. — S. S. Mexican reported, 1894, that the vessel 
struck some obstruction off Cape Agulhas about 207°, distant about 
l\ miles from the lighthouse; the depth given on the chart in this 
position is 6 or 7 fathoms, and the distance outside the coastal line 
of breakers scarcely i mile. 

The lighthouse keepers at Agulhas having never seen breakers, it 
appears much more probable that the obstruction is a wreck. On 
certain charts, however, "rock hereabouts" is inserted at the spot 
where the Mexican reported having touched. 

S. S. Alcestis also struck an obstruction off this cape in 1892, the 
assumed position being 249°, distant 2 J miles from Cape Agulhas. 

Caution. — It may be well here to repeat the caution already given 
in Chapter I, that off Cape Agulhas and all other parts of the south 
coast of Africa, but especially off salient points, sunken wrecks or 
uncharted dangers may exist near the shore; and that it is not 
advisable to approach this surf-beaten shore, even in full-power 
steam vessels, within 2 or 3 miles. 

When a strong adverse current prevails the temptation is great, 
but westward of Algoa Bay there is nothing to be gained by so doing, 
and, in case of a breakdown in the machinery or from any temporary 
error in the course, a risk is run of total wreck before anything can 
be done to avoid such a catastrophe. Sailing vessels should keep 7 or 
8 miles offshore. 

On this coast, with a heavy swell on, the sea breaks in 10 fathoms, 
and therefore a reck near enough the surface to be dangerous to a 
vessel would, unless a mere pinnacle, undouTbtedly break long before 
the whole area became a mass of breakers, which occurs in bad 
weather. 

Northumberland Point, 3J miles eastward of Cape Agulhas 
Lighthouse, is low and sandy, but a dangerous ledge of rocks sur- 
rounds it, and shallow water extends in an easterly direction about 
1 mile from the point. A detached rock, which sometimes breaks, 
lies rather more than 1 mile eastward of the point, and southwestward 
of the point the reef stretches off about 700 yards, the sea breaking 
heavilv near it with southeasterlv winds. 

A bank about 1 mile in extent, with from 7 to 9 fathoms water, 
lies between 8 and 4 miles southeastward of Northumberland Point, 
with its northern edge on the parallel and 5J miles eastward of Cape 
Agulhas Lighthouse; the sea breaks heavily on it in bad weather. 

Struys Bay, between Northumberland and Struys Points, the 
latter, 11 miles northeastward, affords shelter with winds between 
west and northwest, but is wholly unsafe with onshore winds, and 
should not be approached in any wind from west-southwest, round 



CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 107 

by south, to east ; with such winds the sea breaks in 7 or 8 fathoms, 
and the bay has been the scene of many wrecks. 

From abreast of the houses in the western part of the bay the 
beach is clean sand to within 2 miles of Struys Point, where flat 
jagged rocks commence. ..Behind this sandy beach is a line of sand- 
hills about 100 feet in height, some of which are partly covered with 
scrub; behind these again is a green covered ridge attaining a height 
of 200 feet. 

Directions — ^Anchorage. — ^^Vessels from the westward should 
round Northumberland Point in depths of from 9 to 10 fathoms, 
at a distance of about 2 miles, to avoid the dangers off it, and when 
the stone house in the bay, near which is a flagstaff, bears 265° steer 
northwestward and anchor in 5 fathoms, over sand, with the house * 
bearing 138°, and the extreme of Northumberland Point about 200°. 
Here the bottom is clean, while closer in it is foul. Large vessels 
should anchor farther out in about 7 fathoms. 

Vessels from the eastward will clear the dangers off Struys Point 
by keeping Cape Agulhas Light bearing well northward of 243°. 

As a general rule, sailing vessels seeking temporary shelter in this 
bay in a northwesterly gale should put to sea immediately it subsides, 
for, from blowing hard at northwest, the wind frequently changes in 
a few hours to southwest or south, and it is then very difficult to 
work out, in consequence of the heavy sea which very quickly rises. 

Landing. — The landing place, a small cove on the northwestern 
side of Northumberland Point, is sheltered by a shelf of shingle pro- 
jecting from each extreme of the cove, but nearly filled up with sand, 
as is the extreme of a wooden jetty. 

Water. — ^There are several wells, but the little water to be obtained 
by digging in the sand a short distance from and above high-water 
mark is brackish. 

Village. — The village of Bredasdorp, where supplies can be ob- 
tained, and where there is posted communication with Cape Town, is 
7 or 8 miles inland and 10 miles or three hours' journey from the 
landing place in Struys Bay. 

Honing Nest River, discharging into Struys Bay near the center, 
between bare sand hills, is the outlet of several streams, of which 
the principal are the Kars^ Poorts, and Nieuw-jaar, flowing for 
many miles from the hills northward and westward of the bay. 
Their waters cause lagoons in phices in the flat land lying within 
this coast. The Honing Nest is unimportant and usually fordable 
^ mile from the mouth, and often at the mouth, but the latter is 
dangerous. 

Tides.-^It is high water, full and change, in Struys Bay, at 2h. 
oO m. ; springs rise 5 feet. 



108 CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE BECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 

Current. — Xo current was observed in the bay at the time of its 
examination, and it is possible that any current experienced off the 
coast will be the effects of more or less distant winds; sets to the 
westward and northwestward have been reported, the latter reach- 
ing a velocity of IJ knots, and an east-going current of 1 knot has 
also been experienced. 

Accounts concur in stating that eastward of Cape Agulhas there 
is often an indraft, which seems to be strongest between January 
and April, both months inclusive, and a large proportion of the 
wrecks which have occurred "between Capes Agulhas and Infanta 
have been attributed to it. 

Struys Poinris a mass of bare sand hills, 190 feet high, sloping 
southward for nearly 1 mile to low-water mark, where it is rocky. 

Beacon. — A stone pyramidal beacon, 34 feet high, red to seaward, 
and red and white bands on its eastern and western sides, is sur- 
mounted by a ball 4 feet in diameter, and stands on Struys Point 
at about 2 feet above high water, springs. 

Danglers. — From Struys Point a chain of detached patches of 
rock extends in a southeast direction. Outer Blinder, the outer rock, 
has a depth of 3 fathoms at low water, with from; 4 to 6 fathoms 
close-to, ajid from 7 to 9 fathoms at a distance of 800 yards. 

Bulldog or Saxon Reef, about 600 yards northwestward of Outer 
Blinder, has 2 fathoms over it, 8 fathoms close-to, and about 4 
fathoms between it and Outer Blinder. Between the reefs lying 
between the Bulldog' Reef and Struys Point are boat passages avail- 
able in fine weather. 

In standing toward these dangers. Cape Agulhas Light becomes 
obscured about 600 yards southward of Outer Blinder Rock. 

Marcus Bay. — From Struys Point the coast bends round north- 
eastward for about 5 miles to Hoop Point, forming Marcus Bay, and 
for 2 miles northeastward of Struys Point the shore is a sandy beach 
with a fringe of low flat jagged rocks, rendering it unapproachable. 
It is backed by rocky hills, about 150 feet high, and covered with 
sand ; behind these hills is a range of green-covered hills which drop 
lo the plain behind at from 2 to 3 miles inland. 

Marcus Bay has rocky patches in it, but in westerly and north- 
westerly winds it affords shelter equal to that of Struys Bay. Fisher- 
men live near Marcus Bay, and, in ordinary weather, beach their 
boats on one of the sandy beaches. 

Coast. — Inland of Hoop Point is a triple, isolated peak, which, 
when seen from the southeastward, resembeles a cove. 

Martha Point, about 5 miles northeastward of Hoop Point, is 
named from a vessel wrecked there ; it is the scene of more wrecks 
than any other part of the south coast of Africa. The coast between 
Struys and Martha Points is fringed with reefs, with from 4 to (> 
f atheoms, on which the sea breaks in heavy weather. 



CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 109 

Atlas Beefy eastward of Hoop Point, has 3 fathoms least water, 
and lies 1^ miles from the shore. 

Miles Marton Reef, with 4 fathoms, lies 600 yards from Atlas Reef 
in the direction of Struys Point; a 5-fathom patch lies 800 yards 
seaward of the Miles Barton Reef ; and two similar patches lie 1 mile 
and 2 miles, respectively, eastward of the Atlas Reef. 

Directions. — Care is necessary in approaching Struys Bay, espe- 
cially in hazy or foggy weather ; for the high laLnd of Cape Agulhas 
may be invisible, while the sand hills of Struys Bay and the breakers 
oflf Northumberland Point are distinctly seen, and at such times it 
may be somewhat difficult to determine whether the vessel is east- 
ward or westward of Struys Point, because the shore features of 
Struys Bay are very similar to those of Marcus Bay, but the former 
may be identified by the house and flagstaff near Northumberland 
Point ; and Struys Point will be known by its beacon. 

When eastward of Cape Agulhas, a sailing vessel should not 
approach the shore nearer than 7 or 8 miles, passing the cape at that 
distance, for, in the event of it falling calm, the heavy swell which 
constantly rolls in toward the shore will carry the vessel with it, and 
anchoring would, probably, be of no avail, owing to the swell and the 
rocky nature of the bottom. 

Vessels, rather than attempt to beat round Cape Agulhas in strong 
northwesterly winds, will find it safe and profitable to anchor in St. 
Sebastian, Struys, or Marcus Bays, but should be prepared to weigh 
at short notice on a shift of wind. 

By nighty vessels from the westward, after passing Cape Agulhas 
in accordance with directions already given, should keep the light 
in sight; it is advisable not to bring it southward of 254°, on which 
bearing a vessel will pass 3 miles outside the dangers extending from 
Struys Point. 

From the eastward, a bearing of Cape Agulhas Light must not be 
depended on for passing Struys Point, as in hazy weather, or from 
other circumstances, combined with the distance from Struys Point, 
14 miles, the light may be faint or entirely obscured, and the vessel 
may get within the line jof danger. Under such circumstances the 
point should not be approached to a less depth than 30 fathoms. 

Caution. — ^In rounding or passing Cape Agulhas either way, care 
is necessary not to. mistake the lights of camp fires for Cape Agulhas 
Light. 

Coast. — From Martha Point the coast forms a long bight 23J 
miles in width to a double rocky point close to Cape Infanta, the 
bight receding 4| miles northward from a line connecting the two 
points. At 3 miles beyond Martha Point is a large mass of bare sand 
hills, a broader sand beach, and less of the flat jagged rocks fringing 
it; this continues for about 7 miles; then the coast again becomes 



110 CAPE ACtULHAS to CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 

rocky, the bare sand hills disappear, and the Driefontein Range in- 
clines toward the coast. 

At 13 or 14 miles from Martha Point the Driefontein Range forms 
the coast line, and is intersected by deep watercourses, eastward of 
w^hich the Potteberg Range, attaining a maximum height of 1,979 
feet about OJ miles inland, slopes gradually down some 16 miles to 
Cape Infanta. 

At li miles from the beach and 4J miles eastward of Martha Point 
is the southern end of De Hoop Lake, 4 miles in length, into which 
the Zout River discharges; the lake is shallow throughout, with 
brackish water, has no apparent outlet, and varies in depth accord- 
ing to season. A farm is situated on the eastern bank of Zout River. 

St. Sebastian Bay. — Cape Infanta, the western extreme of St. 
Sebastian Bay, is a bold, cliffy, rocky point about 24 miles east-north- 
eastward of Martha Point and about 1 mile eastward of the double 
point previously mentioned, which latter has some remarkable masses 
of rock about it. 

Biock. — A sunken rock, known as the Blinder, the position of 
which is doubtful, is supposed to lies about 1 mile southward of Cape 
Infanta ; it only breaks during heavy gales. 

Landing. — From Cape Infanta the coast turns abruptly to the 
northward, and at about 1 mile within the cape is the mouth of a 
deep ravine known as Still Bay, with a beach of large rounded 
etones; here fishermen can usually launch and beach their boats. 
This is the^only landing place for many miles along the coast, and it 
can often be used w^hen it is unsafe to cross the bar of Breede River. 

St. Sebastian Bluff, 2 miles northward of Cape Infanta, ^is a 
bold perpendicular headland, 220 feet in height ; a ledge extends 200 
yards from the bluff, with a depth of 5 fathoms for 200 yards beyond 
it. Northward of the bluff the cliffs cease and the land aroimd the 
mouth of Breede River becomes lower, but is deeply intersected, for 
3 mile from St. Sebastian Bluff. 

Anchorage. — There is a good anchorage in St. Sebastian Bay, and 
the western part affords shelter from all w inds except those between 
east and south. The best berth is in 8 fathoms, over sand, with St. 
Sebastian Bluff bearing from 176° to 165°, and the high flagstaff on 
the south bank of the Breede River about 305°. 

Breede River falls into the sea in St. Sebastian Bay, through a 
mouth narrowed bv sand banks to 160 yards at low water, while 
sand banks extend from its northern point about ^ mile offshore. 

Within the mouth, for 3 or 4 miles, its navigable channel is intri- 
cate and varying; above that it contracts and flows evenly between 
steep banks. For 48 miles from the mouth the general direction of 
Breede River is northwesterly, but tortuous: at that distance Buffel- 
jagts River, a stream from the mountains 9 or 10 miles distant, flows 



CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. Ill 

into it ; beyond this confluence the Breede River flows from the west, 
passing close to the town of Swellendam. 

Depths. — ^The bar has 12 feet over it at high water^ and it is the 
most important navigable river in this colony ; a steam vessel, 11 feet, 
can cross the bar and lie alongside a jetty, while one drawing 8 feet 
can ascend to Malagas, 20 miles from its mouth. 

Supplies are readily obtained, except water, which has usually to 
be brought down the river in boats from a distance of 20 miles or 
less according to the season, though sometimes it is fresh at Port 
Beaufort. 

Directions. — The river should be entered at the last quarter of 
the flood, and a pilot is always ready and may be taken on board 
in St. Sebastian Bay. The following directions apply to the year 
1865, the date of the survey : Having brought two flagstaffs on the 
sand hills on the southern bank of the river in line, bearing about 
280°, steer for them, which will lead over the bar in about 12 feet 
at high water springs; after deepening the water, open the inner flag- 
staflF a little to the northward of the outer one, passing close to the 
rocks on the southern shore, until abreast of the flagstaffs, plose to 
which and on the beach will be seen a house. 

Still keeping on the same shore, a little farther in, the narrowest 
part of the channel will be reached abreast of the spit end, when it 
turns suddenly to the northward; the breadth is here IGO yards at 
low water, and a vessel may anchor in safety. From this anchorage 
to Port Beaufort Jetty the depth varies, and no reliable directions 
can be given. 

Tides. — It is high w^ater, full^and change, at Port Beaufort, at 
3 h. 8 m. ; springs rise 6 feet. 

Cominunication. — Port Beaufort, a small trading settlement on 
the left bank of Breede River, about 2 miles by the channel from 
the outer part of the bar, has postal communication with Cape Town. 

The railway from Worcester to Mossel Bay connects Swellendam 
with the general railway system of the Cai:>e Colony, and at a place 
61 miles by the river from its mouth the main postal road crosses the 
river, which, 8 miles farther on, is joined by the River Zondereinde. 

Coast. — From Breede River tlie coast trends eastward for 22 miles 
to Cape Barracouta and consists of cliff-faced hills ranging from 
60 to 200 feet high; about 7^ miles eastward of Breede River is 
Duivenhoks River, small and marked by a conspicuous sand patch on 
the western side of its entrance. Four miles inland is Wolfskloof 
Hill, 744 feet high. 

About 2 and 5 miles northwestward of Cape Barracouta there are 
conspicuous sand patches, and Tromps Kop Hill, 959 feet high, lies 
6 miles northward of the cape. From the cape east-northeastward to 
Kaffir Kuyl Bay the coast is irregular, with several projecting points. 



112 CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 

Kaffir Euyl Bay, about 6 miles east-northeastward of Cape Bar- 
racouta, with Leven Point midway between, is open to winds from 
east-southeast to south by west and is therefore unsafe during the 
season of southeasterly winds; but in winter, when westerly winds 
prevail, cargoes may be safely landed or shipped. 

The anchorage, sheltered from the southwesterly swell by a reef 
which projects about i mile southward from Morris Point, appears 
to be clear, with regularly decreasing depths of from 10 to 4 fathoms, 
over sand and broken shells. The best anchorage is in 6^ fathoms 
about 700 yards offshore, with Morris Point bearing about 205**. 

Kaffir Kuyl River is insignificant and its bar nearly dry at low 
water. There is a good landing place in fine weather in the rocky 
cove on the southern side of the river entrance. 

Coast. — The coast eastward of Kaffir Kuyl River is a sandy beach 
for about 2 miles, from whence it rises and trends in an east-south- 
easterly direction for 12 miles to Izervark Point; it is fringed with 
reefs, on which the sea breaks. Izervark Point is bold and rocky, 
with Buffels Kop Hill, 732 feet high, about 1 mile northward of it. 
Aasvogel Berg, a long mountain range, 1,618 feet high at its highest 
point near the center, lies 11 miles northward from the point, and 
may serve to identify it. 

Between Izervark Point and Cape Vacca, 10 miles east-northeast- 
ward, the coast consists of jagged rocks, on which a heavy sea is con- 
stantly beating, and immediately inland the land rises to a height of 
from 500 to 700 feet and is covered with vegetation. Bull Point, 
about 3 miles eastward of Izervark Point, is not easily distinguished, 
being only a slight projection, but ^t i mile westward of it is a sand 
patch of a reddish color, and southward from the patch and 600 
yards offshore are patches of detached reef which uncover at low 
water and break. 

Gouritz River, entering the sea about 5J miles eastward of Bull 
Point, has a sandy beach on the western side of entrance, but the 
breakers are generally too high to make it available as a landing 
place. The sea breaks across the mouth of the river, which at the 
outer part is 1,000 yards wide, but i mile within it is only from 10 to 
15 yards wide. 

Cape Vacca, about IJ miles eastward of Gouritz River, is the 
extreme of a low flat of rock and shingle jutting out from a round 
hill which rises over the eastern side of entrance to the river. In 
rough weather the sea breaks at about i mile off the cape, where 
the depth is about 9 fathoms, and from the discoloration of the 
water and the uneasy ground swell in the vicinity it is more than 
probable that other foul ground exists there. 

Care must be taken in rounding this low cape at night, as it is only 
just within the range of Cape St. Blaize Light, which is not visible 



CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 113 

when bearing eastward of 54° or about i mile outside Cape Vacca. 
If the light is not seen, the lead is an excellent guide under all 
circumstances. 

Flesh Bay^ between Cape Vacca and Flesh Point, 2§ miles apart, 
has a sandy shore, except at the extremes, which are rocky, and about 
the middle is a bare sand hill, 271 feet high. The bay affords tem- 
porary shelter during northwesterly gales, but it can only be used as 
a landing place in tolerably fine weather. Flesh point, which may be 
known by a flesh-colored patch of sand, is bold-to on the eastern side. 

Fish Bay is the bight between Flesh and Pinnacle Points, a dis- 
tance of 9 miles; -the land at 1 mile inland, rising from 400 to 500 
feet in height, is covered with vegetation, and the whole of the shore 
of the bay is sandy, with occasional patches of rock showing near 
low water and through the breakers, which are generally high. 
Pinnacle Point is a well-defined commencement of the rocky cliffs, 
about 250 feet high, extending 4 miles westward from Cape St. 
Blaize. 

Fish Bay may be used by vessels seeking shelter from northwest- 
erly gales, the best anchorage being in the western corner, in depths 
of 7 or 8 fathoms, with Flesh Point bearing about 157°, distant 
1^ miles, and the same distance offshore. It is advisable for vessels 
to put to sea as soon as the gale subsides, for then a heavy southwest 
swell sets in and causes a dangerous breaking sea. 

The best landing is near Flesh Point, in a sandy cove between 
rocks ; in fine weather boats may land in the bight under a farmhouse. 

Cape St. Blaize is a bluff about 250 feet high, 4 miles eastward 
of Pinnacle Point. The extreme point is a tongue of low land, 
fronted by a reef extending about 300 yards, and just below the 
bluff of the cape is the Logan Stone, a remarkable whitewashed rock. 

Light. — Near the extreme of Cape St. Blaize is a square white 
tower, 46 feet in height, which exhibits, at an elevation of 240 feet 
above high water, a white group flashing light; it should be visible 
in clear weather from a distance of 22 miles. For limit of visibility, 
see Light List. 

Fog signal. — During thick or foggy weather an explosive fog 
signal gives one report every 10 minutes from the top of the light- 
tower. 

Signal station. — Vessels can communicate by International Code 
by day, or by Morse, by night, with a signal station close to the 
lighthouse. The lighthouse is also in telephonic communication with 
the port office at Aliwal, Mossel Bay. 

Life-saving station. — A rocket apparatus is maintained at Cape 
St. Blaise. 

89511—16 8 



114 CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE KECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 

Blinder BrOck, with 1^ fathoms, and from 5 to 7 fathoms around, 
lies 450 yards off the cape ; the sea breaks on it at low water and in 
rough weather. 

Vessels proceeding westward from Cape St. Blaize should be care- 
ful not to shut in the light, nor should they stand into a less depth 
than 25 fathoms. 

Mossel Bay, between Cape St. Blaize and Little Brak River, is 
5^ miles wide, the whole of the western shore being a sandy beach 
through which runs the Hartenbosch River, and between it and 
liittle Brak River are conspicuous sand hills, which are useful in 
identifying the bay when coming from the eastward; the mouth 
of the Little Brak River is a dangerous quicksand. At 600 yards 
from the head of the bay is Seal Island, about 15 feet high, with 
from 3 to 5 fathoms between it and the shore. 

Depths. — The depths across th^ middle of the entrance to the 
bay are from 11 to 15 fathoms, the 10-f athom contour line being about 
IJ miles from the southwest and f mile from the northwest shore of 
the bay. 

Mossel Bay Harbor. — The southern shore of the bay for 3 miles 
northwestward of Cape St. Blaize, is rocky, with the exception of 
three sandy coves, of which the two outer are named Vaarkens Cove 
and Munroe Bay, and from the south shore of Vaarkens Cove a 
reinforced concrete jetty extends 334° for a distance of 500 feet, the 
railway station being conveniently situated at the root of the jetty. 
This jetty has all appliances for dealing with cargo and pas- 
sengers. 

On the east side, where land has been reclaimed, is a substantial 
stone wharf, from the extremity of which extends a breakwater 
320 feet in length, which it is intended to lengthen for a farther dis- 
tance of 680 feet, and on the east side of the wharf is a jetty ; rails 
from the warehouses connected with the main railway run on the 
wharf, and there are cranes, the largest lifting 10 tons. 

A sea wall, curving round the south side of this space, has a jetty 
extending about 16® for nearly 400 feet from it. 

Light. — From a small wooden house on the new jetty head a flash- 
ing light every 5 seconds, with red and green sectors, is exhibited, 
and should be visible from a distance of 8 miles in clear weather; 
it shows red to the eastward and green to the westward. For bear- 
ings of sectors see Light List. 

Beacons. — A beacon, surmounted by a diamond, formed of alter- 
nate black and white battens, stands on a hill to the southward of 
the town, and another beacon, with a black diamond as a topmark, 
is about 50 yards to the northward of the preceding. These beacons 
in line and in one with the port office flagstaff, bearing about 174**, 
indicate the best line for anchoring. 



CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 115 

Tugs. — Three steam tugs are available. 

Directions. — Approaching Mossel Bay from the westward, the 
lighthouse bluff of Cape St. Blaize is conspicuous, the land at the 
back being quoin shaped. In rounding the cape keep Pinnacle 
Point open southward of the rock under the cliffs just westward of 
the lighthouse bluff, bearing 255°, until the large sand patch near 
Hartenbosch River bears 339°, when the anchorage may be steered 
for, allowing sufficient room for rounding-to, if necessary. 

Coming from the eastward Cape St. Blaize may be identified by 
the lighthouse, which, being white, shows conspicuously against the 
dark background ; also by the remarkable sand patch at the mouth 
of the Hartenbosch River. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage for steamers in Mossel Bay is 
abreast of the town of Aliwal, in from 6 to 8 fathoms, according to 
draft of water and state of the sea, with the beacons in line bearing 
174°, these depths being found at from 1,200 yards to 1 mile from the 
jetty at low water. 

By night, anchor after the pierhead light changes from red to 
gi'een, which it does when bearing 176°. Sailing vessels should 
anchor on the same bearings, but father out, in from 6 to 8 fathoms. 
All vessels arriving at the port between sunrise and sunset are met 
by the harbor master, and by him taken to a safe anchorage. 

Vessels seeking shelter only should not go within a depth of 8 
fathoms at any season. 

A vessel parting cables, with no hope of getting to sea, should run 
for the bight southward of Seal Island. 

Port regulations. — A copy of the port regulations will be sup- 
plied to every vessel on arrival, and it is obligatory on the master 
to observe these. 

Signals. — Vessels can communicate with the port office by Inter- 
national Code, and the following general signals may be made from 
the port office when bad weather is expected, and should be obeyed 
without delav : 

11. Union Jack over S : Prepare for bad weather. 

12. Union Jack over J : Veer cable. 

13. Union Jack over black ball with J below : Veer to whole cable. 

14. Union Jack over H: Down top-gallant masts, point yards to 
wind, see all clear for working ship. 

15. Union Jack over M : Strike lower yards and topmasts. 

16. Union Jack over B : Hoist a light during the night. 

17. Union Jack over R : Heave in cable to same scope as when first 
moored. 

18. Union Jack over black ball : Clear hawse. 



116 CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE. ALGOA BAY. 

These signals may also be made from the port office at night by 
showing the numbers prefixed to them in transparent figures. The 
answer is a light at the peak. 

The following signals may be made to a stranded vessel from the 
most convenient point (by day, by means of white figures on a black 
board ; by night, by means of transparent figures) : 

1. You are earnestly requested to remain on board. There is no 
danger to life. 

2. Send a line on shore by any means at hand. 

3. Haul off the whip, make the tail of the block fast to the lower 
mast or other best place, cast off the line, see that the rope in the 
block runs free, then wave a flag by day or a light at night. 

4. Haul off or look out for the hawser, make it fast about 18 inches 
above the tail block, see all clear, and signal as before. 

Note. — A steady light will mean "Avast," a waving light " Go on." 
Similarly, the shore signal will be made by a red flag by day and by 
a red light at night. 

Life-saving station. — A rocket apparatus is maintained. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at 3 h. 30 m. ; the rise 
from 6i feet. There is no regular stream of tide in Mossel Bay. 

Winds. — Mossel Bay affords excellent shelter to vessels during 
the winter months, April to September, when heavy northwesterly 
gales are of frequent occurrence, and it is better to take shelter here 
than to struggle against the heavy seas near Cape Agulhas, as during 
the strength of these gales the water in the bay is smooth, and vessels 
ride easily, but it sometimes happens that a heavy southwesterly 
swell sets into the bay if the wind veers to west and west-southwest, 
rendering the anchorage unsafe and landing difficult, and at times 
almost impracticable, and under such conditions a vessel should 
not anchor in less than 8 fathoms. 

In winter, southeast winds are infrequent, moderate, and of short 
duration. The heaviest gales during the year are from west-north- 
west, those during winter commencing from north-northwest, with 
heavy gusts, unsteady both in direction and force, and then veering 
to west-northwest or west. They blow very hard in continuous gales, 
with the barometer standing at about 29.G, the wind finally shifting 
rather suddenlv to southwest when they subside with steadv breezes 
and occasional showers. 

During the summer season, September to April, moderate south- 
west winds are very common, but it is the season when southeast 
gales may be expected, and when they cccur the bay is exposed to the 
full effect of the open sea ; these gales, however, commence gradually, 
seldom last longer than 36 hours, and do not blow home. 

A heavy breaking sea rolls in, and vessels usually ride safely with 
a long scope of cable, with a coir or hempen spring to east the strain, 



CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 117 

which is also lessened by a strong easterly current or undertow ; the 
holding ground is good. Should a sailing vessel not wish to risk 
riding out a southeast gale, it would be advisable to put to sea as soon 
as possible, and clear Cape St. Blaize by first making a long board 
to the eastward, assisted by the undertow. 

Barometer. — It has been found that a low barometer fortells a 
westerly wind which commences soon after the first rise; a high 
barometer, on the other hand, foretells an easterly wind, which begins 
with the first fall. This law applies even in the finest weather, the 
strength and severity of the gale which may ensue being in accord- 
ance with the extent of rise or fall, and the oscillations of the 
barometer. 

Town. — The town of Aliwal, commonly known as Mossel Bay, is 
situated on rising ground on the southern side of Vaarkens Cove, and 
consists of numerous well-built houses, an Anglican Church, and a 
Dutch Church ; from its position it is the natural port for the central 
divisions of the colony, and in 1912 the population was 11,682. 

The civil establishment consists of a resident magistrate, a collector 
of customs, a district surgeon, and a harbor master. 

Communication. — Mail steamers of the Union Castle Line, be- 
tween Port Natal and England, call weekly, and the intermediate 
steamers, outward bound, call fortnightly. 

It is connected with the western system of railways, via Riversdale, 
Swellendam, and Worcester, from which latter it is distant 209 miles; 
also with the midland system, via Georgetown, Oudtshoorn, and 
Klipplaat Junction ; it has telegraphic communication. 

A road to the interior passes through Robinson Pass and Meirings 
Poort. 

Coal and supplies. — About 300 tons of Natal coal are kept in 
stock and about 15,500 imported annually; coaling is carried on by 
bags, and about 400 tons can be put aboard in 24 hours, but southeast 
and northwest gales may interfere with coaling. There are 14 
lighters holding from 40 to 150 tons, and a coal wharf, 120 feet in 
length, has a depth of 6 feet alongside. 

Fresh meat, vegetables, and bread may be obtained, and the 
water, from the municipal waterworks, is pumped on board vessels 
from lighters or from a pipe at the jetty head. 

Tug. — A tug, belonging to the port, is furnished with a 6-inch 
salvage pump and fire appliances. 

Trade. — The principal exports of wool, skins, aloes, ostrich 
feathers, tobacco, cereals, and brandy were valued at about $2,921,430 
in 1912, and the imports of general merchandise at about $6,112,000; 
in the same year the port was visited by 252 steam vessels, of an 
aggregate tonnage of 1,393,859 tons. Aliwal is a whaling station 
and the center of a large fishing industry. 



118 CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 

Coast. — Great Brak River, in the northeastern part of Mossel Bay, 
about 8i miles from Cape St. Blaize, enters the sea between sandy 
hillocks from 80 to 150 feet high, which are mostly covered with 
scant bush; the beach is sandy and fringed with low water rocks. 

About 3 miles farther eastward the sandy hillocks disappear, and 
the coast becomes shelving and cliffy to the mouth of Mai Gat River, 
a stream the entrance to which is between high cliffs, its mouth being 
frequently closed with sand ; the water in the river is good, but of a 
dark red color. A little westward of the mouth and 1 mile from 
the shore there is a 10-f athom patch, with deep water around. 

Brak Fontein, 714 feet high and about 2 miles eastward of Mai Gat 
River, slopes gradually to the rocky unapproachable shore, and IJ 
miles eastward of the river mouth is a conspicuous cluster of rocks, 
all within 300 yards of the shore. Dutton Cove, a slight indentation 
in which lies a rocky islet, is situated about 4 miles eastward of Mai 
Gat River ; it is used for shipping local produce. 

Gayang River, close eastward of Dutton Cove, is often closed at its 
mouth; the water in it is good, but of the same dark color as that 
of Mai Gat. Great Brak, Mai Gat, and Gayang Rivers take their rise 
in the Outeniqua range of mountains, which are from 4,000 to 5,000 
feet high and situated upward of 10 miles from the coast; these 
rivers have formed deep channels for themselves across the high 
plateau extending to the sea coast. 

From Gayang River the rocky and unapproachable coast has a 
general easterly trend for about 7^ miles to Cayman River, and 
between are Schaapkop and Mill Rivers, the latter flowing between 
steep and wooded hills into Christina Bay, which has a beach covered 
with large smooth stones, and does not afford landing. 

Victoria Bay, i mile northeastward of Christina Bay, is shallow, 
but broader than it; it has a sandy beach, where landing may at 
times be effected, but no craft should attempt to enter the bay. 
Georgetown, standing on a plain behind the coast hills, is about 5 
miles from Victoria Bay. 

Cayman River, entering the sea about 1 mile northeastward of 
Victoria Bay, is, like the others, of no navigable importance; where 
the Zwart Riv^r join it, within 1 mile from its mouth, the river is 
fordable. The Touw River, a small stream rising in the Outeniqua 
Mountains, discharges a little more than 1 mile eastward of Cayman 
River, its mouth being often closed by sand. 

From the mouth of Touw River the coast trends eastward for 
about 21 miles to Walker Point, and for nearly 2 miles eastward from 
Touw River the beach is sandy, with scattered flat rocks appearing at 
low water, backed by a ridge of irregular sand hills, nearly 250 feet 
high. From thence the hillocks are stony, but the sandy beach con- 
tinues with fewer rocks above low water for 4^ miles, when it becomes 



CAPE AGTJLHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 119 

» 

permanently rocky and the hills increase in height to 300 feet. From 
thence to Gericke Point, about 2 miles farther, are cliffs of a reddish 
color, averaging 500 feet in height ; the coast here is not wooded. 

Gericke Point, about 10 miles southeastward of Touw River, 
shelters a small bay with an apparently foul bottom; a rocky islet 
lies off Gericke Point, and rocks extend outside the islet, but all that 
uncover are within i mile of it. 

The rocky coast continues beyond Gericke Point for f mile, when 
the sandy beach again appears for a short space, across or through 
which the so-called Zwart River drains into the sea at certain sea- 
sons, but its mouth is said to be always closed by sand. 

Lakes. — Behind the coast, from the mouth of Touw River to that 
of the Zwart River, a distance of 11 miles, and at distances varying 
from 500 yards to 3 miles, are Lang Vlei, Rond Vlei, Zwart Vlei, 
and Groen Vlei, four lakes, on all of which wild fowl abound. 

The land at the back of the lakes rises to heights of 700 and 800 
feet, and is fertile ; although not wooded, there are many conspicuous 
small clumps scattered about, and it is deeply intersected by streams, 
rendering the roads steep and bad. 

Coast. — From the barred mouth of the Zwart River, conspicuous 
bare white sand extends east-southeastward for 1 mile, afid the beach 
then becomes rocky, interspersed with patches of sand, and con- 
tinues so for 5 miles; this beach is backed by irregular hillocks from 
200 to 300 feet high. 

The land behind Groen Vlei rises somewhat abruptly, and at 3 
miles from the sea is 1,110 feet high, presenting a smooth green ap- 
pearance, with scattered clumps of trees, the valleys being partially 
cultivated. 

In bad weather this coast is fronted for 1 mile or more by heavy 
detached breakers. 

Goukamma River, entering the sea nearly 10 miles east-south- 
eastward of Gericke Point, at the eastern extreme of a sandy beach 
2 miles in extent, is remarkable for the suddenness with which it 
rises after rains, and the depth of water it then attains. At 4 miles, 
by its course from the sea, it is crossed, on the high road between 
Georgetown and the Knysna River, by a causeway sometimes dry, 
and at others covered to a depth of from 12 to 20 feet with a rushing 
torrent. The river has an average width of 100 yards for these 4 
miles of its course, and its mouth is completely closed by sand for 
long intervals during the dry season. 

Walker Point, 2^ miles southeastward of Goukamma River, is 
the eastern of two dangerous roclrjr points, including between them 
a small rocky and sandy bay 1 mile wide; off the western point, at 
i and | mile offshore, are rocky patches on which the sea constantly 
breaks, and the whole neighborhood is foul. 



120 CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 

The land adjacent consists of sparsely covered hillocks backed by 
undulating ridges, but at 2 miles inland treeless, green-colored land 
is reached, rising to upward of 900 feet in height. 

Walker Point, which forms the western horn of Buffalo Bay, has 
a chain of rocks extending about 700 yards, outside which and lying 
nearly i mile from the point is a sunken rock; but the sea breaks 
some distance farther out. 

Obstruction reported. — The steamer Clara reports having ob- 
served broken water about 7.5 miles westward of Walker Point in 
(approximately) latitude 34° 06' south, longitude 22*^ 50' east. The 
Norwegian bark Seier struck a submerged obstruction in this vicinity. 

Buffalo Bay, which has not been examined, is included between 
Walker Point and the rocky cliffs westward of the head at the en- 
trance to the Knysna River, the distance across being about 3 miles. 
Coasters find sheltered anchorage during northwest winds about 
J mile within Walker Point in the northwest bight of the bay and 
about the same distance offshore in depths of from 5 to 8 fathoms 
over blue clay; nearer the point the ground is rocky. With the 
wind anything to the southward of west, a vessel should put to 
sea inmiediat^ly, as a breaking sea then sets in. 

Enysna Harbor is immediately eastward of Buffalo Bay and 
within the entrance to Knysna River, which is formed by two steep 
and rocky headlands, the eastern having a flagstaff and the pilot 
rocket stations on it and the western headland rising to 692 feet in 
West Head Station; the entrance is about 250 yards wide between 
Needles Point on the west and the dangers off the east side of the 
entrance. 

About 10 miles to the northward of the entrance is Spitzkop 
Mountain, 3,048 feet high, eastward of which are five paps, and at 
9 miles eastward of the entrance and near the coast is Krantz Hoek, 
914 feet high, fronted by a bluff 554 feet high, from which the coast 
slopes away to Cape Seal, the western point of Plettenberg Bay, these 
all forming good landmarks by which to identify the locality. 

On the western side the river for a distance of about 2 miles is 
formed by a high peninsula about 1 mile in width, and stretching 
southeastward but within this are mud flats covered in places with 
grass and weeds and having channels through them, while within 
the high entrance on the eastern side are Steinbok and Paarden 
Islands, low, covered with bush and grass, and having channels be- 
tween them, the town of Knysna being immediately within Paarden 
Island. Ship Head is about 200 yards within Needles Point on the 
west, and Outer and Inner Obelisk Points, about 400 yards apart, 
are on the east side within the entrance. 

Dangers. — Black rocks, on which the sea always breaks, form a 
cluster extending about 200 yards from the western point of entrance, 



CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 121 

and 800 yards eastward of them is the Mewstone, about 150 yards 
off the eastern point. Southeast Eocks form a cluster about 800 
yards southeastward of the Mewstone. 

Emu Kock, with a depth of 4 feet, and on which th£ sea does not 
always break, lies on the inner bar about 200 yards southwestward 
of Inner Obelisk Point. 

Bar — Depths. — The 3-fathom contour line crosses the entrance 
from Needles Point to the Mewstone, and within this contour is the 
bar, about J mile in width with a depth of 18 feet on its outer and 
13 feet on its inner part, which latter lies between Ship Head and 
Emu Rock ; the bottom is sand and mud, but it is probable that this 
only overlies rock, and the sea breaks on it in bad weather, also with 
the outgoing stream and a southerly wind, even approaching a calm. 

Within the bar the river deepens to 51 feet, the general depths 
being from 15 to 30 feet abreast of Steinbok Island, but the width 
of the anchoring space is only about 450 yards, being reduced by a 
sand bank off the west side of that island ; off Knysna, about 3 miles 
within the bar, the depths are from 10 to 26 feet, and vessels that can 
cross the bar can proceed to this anchorage, while boats can ascend 
the river to Westerford farm, a distance of 9 miles. 

Beacons. — Two leading beacons are for use in crossing the bar ; 
the front beacon, situated on Fountain Point, about 300 yards north- 
northeastward of Inner Obelisk Point, is a white stone beacon, on a 
large rock, and 30 feet above high-water mark. 

The inner beacon, on Steinbok Island, is a wooden spar with two 
red triangles on it, and the beacons are 758 yards apart, and in line 
bearing 5°. 

A gray stone beacon is situated in Best Cove, on the west side of 
the anchorage abreast of Steinbok Island. 

Pilot station. — ^A white pilot house, which can be seen from a 
considerable distance seaward, and forms a good landmark, is sit- 
uated on the summit of Outer Obelisk Point, and from it signals re- 
garding the pilot and the state of the bar will be made to vessels, but 
although the weather and the bar may both be favorable for vessels 
to enter or leave the port, it frequently happens that it may not be 
safe for the pilot boat to go out. 

Pilot signals. — The pilot signals used are as follows : 

1. White and blue diagonal flag : Pilot boat is coming out. 

2. Yellow flag: Pilot boat can not go out, but is ready to receive 
the vessel within the bar. 

3. Black ball at the gaff : Bar is passable ; vessels can enter. 

4. Black ball halfway up : Caution is necessary. 

5. Blue pendant with white center at the masthead: Bar is im- 
passable. 



122 CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 

6. A white square flag, hoisted near the signal station : No fishing 
nor pleasure boats are allowed to cross the bar. 

Life-saving station. — At the pilot signal station is a rocket 
apparatus, which is in charge of the port officer. 

Directions. — The harbor is by no means easy of access, even to 
small steam vessels, owing to the heavy surf across the entrance, and 
for sailing vessels it is practicable only with a fair wind. The 
services of a pilot, although desirable for a stranger, are not abso- 
lutely necessary except for a vessel proceeding above Best Cove, as 
that part of the channel is subject to change. 

The best time to enter is a little before high water, and it is not 
advisable either to enter or leave during the strength of the out- 
going stream at spring tides, especially should there be any break 
on the bar. The entrance should be approached with the beacons in 
line, bearing 5°, steering on this line until nearly abreast of Inner 
Obelisk Point, when steer to pass about 50 yards off Fountain Point, 
from which cross the river to Green Point, passing close to it to avoid 
a sandy tongue extending southward from Steinbok Island, the 
extreme of which, with a depth of 11 feet, is only about 100 yards 
from Green Point. 

A sailing vessel entering should have the wind at least two points 
to the southward of west and not eastward of southeast, and a boat 
should be in readiness with a kedge and hawser, as the wind some- 
times dies away between the heads. 

A vessel proceeding above Best Cove should be in charge of a pilot; 
the deep water between Best Cove and Knysna is first on the western 
and then on the eastern shore. 

Leaving the harbor in a sailing vessel, the wind should not be 
westward of north, nor eastward of east-northeast, the best time 
for leaving being near high water, although with a commanding 
breeze, a vessel might go out just before low water, but care is neces- 
sary not to close the eastern shore, as the outgoing stream sets 
toward the rocks between Fountain and Inner Obelisk Points. Fre- 
quently there is no wind in Best Cove, although a fine breeze is 
blowing out through the entrance, and during the summer montlis, 
when southeast winds prevail, the early morning is almost the only 
time for a sailing vessel to leave, as there is then generally a land 
wind, which dies away about 9 or 10 a. m., and is succeeded by a 
sea breeze. 

Anchorages. — Although in moderate weather a sailing vessel, 
waiting for wind or tide to enter the river, may anchor off the 
entrance in from 12 to 15 fathoms water, over blue clay, it is 
recommended rather to stand off and on until the bar is passable, and 
if possible a pilot obtained, especially as in unsettled weather the 



CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 123 

sea frequently sets in heavily from southwest, with little or no wind 
' or warning. 

The anchorage in Best Cove is in a depth of 24 feet; the depth 
close to the shore there is 14 feet. There is no danger in grounding 
in any part of the river, as the bottom is soft. 

Jetties. — Two jetties extend in a direction about 270° at the 
anchorage near Knysna; the southern, or new jetty, from the west 
side of Paarden Island, is the continuation of a causeway which con- 
nects that island with the shore northward of it; a railway running 
from the pier and on this causeway, for a distance of 19 miles to the 
northward into the forest, is used for the transport of timber. This 
jetty has depths of from 19 to 20 feet alongside, but has been re- 
ported to be in a weak condition, although this would scarcely appear 
to be the case, as a number of steam vessels lie alongside it in safety. 

The town jetty, nearly 400 yards northward of the new jetty, 
extends in a similar direction from the southwest side of the town, 
and has depths of from 12 to 13 feet at its extremity, but it is 
not used. 

Tides. — ^It is high water, full and change, in Knysna Harbor at 
3h. 30m. ; springs rise CJ feet. 

Tidal streams. — ^The ingoing stream, setting strongly from the 
southeastward toward Needles Point, thence runs directly through 
the narrows, but the outgoing stream, from abreast Green Point, sets 
directly toward Fountain Point, and the rocks between that point 
and Inner Obelisk Point, and then follows the channel, but bearing 
to the eastward unless there is a strong west-going current outside, 
in which case it sets directly seaward. 

With a heavy sea on the bar, near high and low water, the force of 
the break drives large quantities of water toward Emu Rock, this 
setting strongly out again close to the western shore, outside the inner 
bar. It is therefore advisable, before taking the bar with a breaking 
sea, that the ingoing stream should have made at least two hours, 
at which time the stream and the break act together, and the draw- 
back is not felt. 

Town. — The town of Knysna, about 3 miles from the entrance, is 
divided into Newhaven on the eastern and Belvidere on the western 
side of the river ; it is built on the slope of a hill, and on its outskirts 
are several villa residences. 

Communication. — ^A weekly service of steam vessels runs from 
Knysna to Cape Town and to Port Elizabeth. 

Avontuur, the terminus of a branch railway from Port Elizabeth, 
is the nearest railway station, about 30 miles by road, and George- 
town, about 50 miles to the westward by road, is a station on the line 
to Mossel Bay and Cape Town. 



124 GAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 

Coal and supplies. — Large deposits of lignite have been dis- 
covered in the forest, but no coal is obtainable. 

Beef is scarce, but mutton and oysters are plentiful; and the 
country around abounds in game, while the river produces quantities 
of fish. Water can only be produced in small quantity. 

Good timber is plentiful, and several firms of engineers and car- 
penters could undertake repairs to small wooden vessels which can 
be hove down. 

Trade. — In 1912 the exports were valued at $24,440 and the im- 
ports at about $130,325. 

Climate. — The climate, which is extremely healthy, is especially 
adapted to Europeans. 

Coast. — From the entrance to the Knysna Eiver the coast trends 
eastward for 3 miles to the Nutze River, small, unimportant, and 
known 3 miles inland as Witte Els. It flows into the sea across a 
small patch of sandy beach from between high, w^ooded hills, its 
mouth often entirely closed. 

The coast consists of irregular red cliffs, from 200 to 300 feet high, 
with patches of shingle beach and points fringed with off-lying 
rocks to a distance of ^ mile in places. The land behind rises steeply 
to a height of over 700 feet, and toward the Nutze Eiver clusters of 
trees become more frequent and larger. 

Between Nutze River and Cape Seal, a distance of 14^ miles, are 
many peaked masses of rock, some bare, others clothed with vegeta- 
tion, occasionally rising as high as the cliffs and giving a character- 
istic appearance to this part of the coast, which maintains its precipi- 
tous cliffy character for 3 miles eastward of Nutze River, rising 
steeply behind to a height of 900 feet. This portion and for 3 miles 
inland is inaccessible, being completely covered to the cliff heads 
with dense forest, and there is apparently no landing. 

At 4 miles eastward of Nutze River a deep gorge is reached, beyond 
which the country facing the sea assumes the usual smooth, green 
appearance, with scattered clusters of trees. 

Cape Seal, the easternmost point of a tongue of land 2 miles in 
length, with rugged sides and overhanging cliffs, is clothed with 
scrubby bush. It rises about its center to a height of 485 feet and 
is joined to the mainland by a narrow neck. Its peculiar formation 
gives it from many points of view the appearance of an island. Off 
its southern side is a rocky mass about J mile in length, 123 feet 
in height, and joined to it by a narrow sandy isthmus. 

Whale Rock, with 4 feet water over it, and on which the sea does 
not always break, lies about 750 yards southeastward from low-water 
mark of the cape. A patch of 3| fathoms lies nearly 200 yards 
northwestward of the rock, but on the seaward side it is steep-to. 



CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 125 

Plettenberg Bay, between Cape Seal and Komkromma Point, 
the latter about 9 miles northeastward, recedes from that line about 
3f miles to the northwestward, and from its suitable depth at a 
short distance from the shore, its good holding ground, and the 
shelter afforded constitutes about as good an anchorage as any other 
bay on the south coast. 

Vessels may obtain shelter here when the sea is too high for either 
Knysna River or Mossel Bay, but, like other bays on this coast, it is 
exposed to the full force of southeast gales, which blow violently and 
frequently from September to March ; a vessel should always be pre- 
pared to quit this anchorage on any indication of one of these gales. 

Directions. — There are no dangers in entering or leaving the bay 
except Whale Eock, which should be given a berth of about 1 
mile, as there would be considerable risk in attempting the channel 
between it and Cape Seal. The southern end of the long sandy beach 
southward of Pisang River open northeastward of the peninsula, 
bearing about 280°, leads northward of the rock. 

Anchorage. — The usual anchorage for vessels loading timber is 
about i mile southeastward of the ledge of rocks off Pisang River, 
but vessels seeking shelter from westerly gales should anchor more to 
the southward in a depth of about 8 fathoms, over sand, with the gap 
in the peninsula bearing 198°, and the extreme of Cape Seal 134°. 
There is generally too much surf on the beach for landing. 

Tides. — ^It is high water, full and change, at Plettenberg Bay at 
3 h. 10 m. ; spring rise about 6 feet. There is no regular tidal stream 
in the bay. 

Pisang Biver, the entrance to which lies 3J miles north-north- 
westward of Cape Seal, is small, and frequently has its mouth closed ; 
at its entrance is a rocky islet, 40 feet high, sparsely covered with 
bush. Remains of buildings once the property of the East India Co. 
are still standing, but any trade has been transferred to Knysna, 
and the bay is seldom visited. 

Landing. — A rocky led^e, covered at high water, springs, lying 
about i mile eastward of the 40-feet inlet, affords some shelter to 
the beach close northward of it, forming the only landing place, 
although it is not always practicable. 

Communication. — There is telegraphic communication with Cape 
Town, and a mail cart goes to Knysna twice a week. 

Supplies, etc. — Numerous farms are scattered over the country 
and in the valley of Pisang River, and from them suj)plies of meat 
and vegetables can be obtained. The river affords a supply of fresh 
water, but it generally has to be rafted through the surf in casks. 

Coast — Rivers. — Keiirbooms River, the most considerable on this 
part of the coast, rises in the Lange Kloof Range, which attains a 
height of 5,294 feet, and then runs between high land until within 



126 CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE BECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 

3J miles to its mouth, when it flows across a plain in a varying chan- 
nel, obstructed by sand banks and in many places fordable at low 
water. 

For the last 2 miles its course is parallel with the coast, separated 
from the sea by a narrow sandstrip, and such an area covers and 
uncovers with the tide, that at high water it appears to be a large 
river. It is navigable for boats for about 8 miles, but the bar is only 
passable under favorable circumstances. 

Bitau River, a small stream moving sluggishly and winding along 
a broad plain from the northwestward, joins the Keurbooms Eiver 
about 2 miles from the mouth of the latter, and is fordable just above 
the junction. 

From the Keurbooms Eiver, the coast for 5 miles is a sandy beach 
backed by sand hills more or less covered with scant bush, and along 
this beach no landing should be attempted, as the sea always breaks 
heavily. At its eastern end is the Drooge River, mostly dry, as its 
name implies, from whence the coast becomes rocky with intermediate 
sandy beaches, the whole being fronted by outlying rocks. 

Matjies River, 1 mile eastward of Drooge River, and frequently 
closed at its mouth, enters the sea from between high hills, and is 
bounded between high precipitous and wooded hills for some dis- 
tance from its entrance. 

From Matjies River, the coast, trending in an east-southeast direc- 
tion for 3 miles to Komkromma Point, consists of a rocky shore with 
occsional sandy beaches, and close eastward of Matjies River are two 
rocks, 50 feet high, while IJ miles eastward of the same river is the 
farthest out detached cluster of rocks, lying J mile offshore ; it should 
not be approached within a distance of 2 miles. 

Eomkromina or Salt Biver. — From Komkromma Point the 
coast turns to the northward for about ^ mile to the entrance to 
Komkromma River, off which the sea frequently breaks heavily ; the 
river expands to a small lake directly within its entrance, and is 
said to be navigable by boats for 1 mile above its mouth. 

Coast. — Groot River is about 2 miles eastward of Komkromma 
River, and within the eastern point of the former is a double peak ; 
from Groot River to Aasvogel Point, a distance of 37 miles east- 
southeastward, the coast consists of perpendicular cliffs and rocky 
hills, from 300 to 600 feet high, and is intersected by streams and 
gorges, as presently described, with several dangers at a short dis- 
tance offshore; it should not be approached within a distance of 2 
miles. 

In this extent of coast, the numerous streams which empty them- 
selves into the sea take their rise in the Outeniqua Mountains, but 
none of them are navigable for vessels. 



CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 127 

Between Plettenberg and Cape St. Francis, the dangerous coast has 
been the scene of several wrecks, as the proximity of the mountain 
chain to the coast, and the prevailing winds, occasionally cause dense 
fogs, and there is supposed to be an indraft current. 

Mountains. — The Outeniqua Mountains, backing the coast at dis- 
tances of from 4 to 8 miles inland in this locality, continue east- 
ward to about 7 miles northeastward of Zitzikamma Point, and have 
several well-defined peaks, which from their appearance are very con- 
spicuous and useful landmarks to seaman. Thumb Peak and For- 
mosa Peak, the former so called from its appearance, 5,498 and 5,500 
feet in height, respectively, are the highest and most remarkable; 
they are situated about 10 and 12 miles northeastward and east- 
northeastward, respectively, from Komkromma Point. 

Between Formosa Peak and the coast, and 4 miles from the latter, 
is the Grenadier's Cap, 3,224 feet in height, conspicuous, and so 
named from its shape. Witte Els Berg, 20 miles east-southeastward 
on the same range, is a pyramidal peak, 4,098 feet in height, which, 
seen from eastward or westward, shows a flat top. 

Karedouw Peak, 3,009 feet in height, shows as a saddle-shaped 
hill when nearly abreast it, but on other bearings has a flat top. 
The end of the Outeniqua Range, northeastward of Zitzikamma 
Point, is very conspicuous, terminating in a sharp conical hill, 1,634 
feet in height, which drops suddenly to the plain extending to the 
shores of St. Francis Bay. 

Elands River and Van Staden Ranges, northeastward of Cape St. 
Francis, are also conspicuous, the former having three peaks, the 
northwestemmost rising to 3,520 feet, and Eland and Sphinx Peaks, 
southeastward of it, to 3,240 and 2,660 feet, respq^ively. In clear 
weather, Mount Cockscomb, 37 miles northward of Cape Francis, and 
27 miles inland from the head of the bay, is a conspicuous object, 
5,750 feet high. The Van Staden Range terminates suddenly at its 
southeastern extreme in Brak River Hill, a remarkable jagged peak, 
1,989 feet in height, and 5 J miles inland. 

Coast. — From Groot River the coast for 2 miles eastward is backed 
by high wooded cliffs as far as Blue Rock River, which river may be 
known by the cliffs on its eastern side being bare, perpendicular, 
and fringed with white rocks. Between Blue Rock River and Storm 
Point, a distance of 15 miles, are deep ravines, and several streams 
run through the wooded coast. Wall Point, a conspicuous white 
point, 11 miles eastward of Blue Rock River, is so named from its 
perpendicular appearance. 

Storm River, 4 miles eastward of Wall Point, is about 50 yards 
wide and flows through a gap between cliffs about 600 feet in height. 
Low shelving rocks on the western side partly shelter the entrance, 
and, under favorable circumstances, landing may be effected in boats 



128 CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE BECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 

a little inside the eastern entrance point, which point is skirted by 
rocks awash close to the shore. 

Eastward of Storm Eiver the forest is not so dense, and 5 miles 
southeastward is Faure River, a small stream. A sunken rock lies 
about i mile offshore at 3 miles eastward of Storm River, and a 
long patch of sunken rocks, on which the sea breaks in bad weather, 
lies 1 mile off the entrance to Faure River. 

Elands River, about 9 miles eastward of Storm River, may be 
known by some white rocks a little inside a point on its eastern side of 
entrance; it has several branches, and its banks a little inland are 
covered with dense bush. Eastward of Elands River the cliffs are 
not so thickly wooded. 

Bobhoek (Seal Corner Point) is about 2^ miles eastward of 
Elands River, and about 1 mile eastward of the point the cliffs are 
nearly perpendicular, with rocks awash extending 200 yards from 
their foot. 

At 2| miles farther eastward is the mouth of Witte Els, a small 
river from which sand, skirted by rocks, extends alongshore for 1^ 
miles to a high rock, with a ledge which covers at half tide extend- 
ing nearly 1 mile in a northwesterly direction from it; thence east- 
ward to Aasvogel Point, a distance of about 5 miles, there are several 
dangers awash at from 400 to 600 yards offshore. A number of farm- 
houses are situated along this coast about 1 mile inland. 

Aasvogel (Vulture) Point may be known by the cliffs forming 
a hill 660 feet high, with a strip of sand i mile wide at the back of it ; 
a rock awash lies 200 yards from the point. 

Coast. — At 2^ miles westward of Karedouw Peak is a road 
through the mountain range, and at the same distance southeastward 
of the peak is (?farkson village, with a population of from 300 to 
500 and a Moravian mission station. 

From Aasvogel Point for 4 miles eastward the coast is of cliffs and 
appears free from outlying dangers, and at this distance, near a small 
stream, the land becomes higher, and rocks extend ^ mile from the 
shore; the coast then bends southeastward, with sandy beaches as 
far as the mouth of the Zitzikamma River. This shore should not 
be approached within a distance of 2 miles. 

Zitzikamma Point and River. — Zitzikamma Point is 5^ miles 
southeastward of the small stream above mentioned, and at 3 miles 
is the river of the same name, its entrance being closed, but its 
position may be identified by some sand cliffs nearly 1 mile in extent 
on its western side, behind which the land attains a height of 729 
feet; the land on the eastern side of the river is considerablv lower. 
From the river to Zitzikamma Point, about 2 miles, the coast consists 
of several grassy ridges fringed with rocks, and several fresh-water 
streams run into the sea. 



CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE BECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 129 

Zitzikamma Point is low and shelving, with rocks and breakers 
extending about f mile offshore, and from it the coast, turning east- 
southeastward, is a succession of bushy hillocks from 50 to 120 feet 
high, with shelving rocks and breakers extending about ^ mile off 
them. The highest hill in the vicinity of the point is 596 feet. 

Dangers. — An obstruction, on which a vessel drawing 21 feet 
water struck in 1910, is reported to be situated 188°, distant 3 miles, 
from Zitzikamma Point, but this position is approximate, and 
neither kelp, discolored water, nor breakers marked the locality. 

Two rocks awash lie close off Wreck Point, about 5 miles east- 
southeastward of Zitzikamma Point. 

Landing. — On the ridire, 1 mile within Wreck Point, is a con- 
spicuous peak, 560 feet high, and about i mile east-southeastward of 
Wreck Point is a ledge of rocks, the eastern part, awash at low water, 
forming a cove where landing can sometimes be effected. Within 
the cove long shelving rocks and big bowlders uncover at low water, 
and on the western part there is a little sandy beach. 

Beef (Klippen) Point, nearly 2 miles east-southeastward of 
Wreck Point, is a rocky point 30 feet high, with a cluster of rocks 
extending about 1,300 yards south-southeastward of it. The outer 
rock is nearly awash at low water and the inner one is 13 feet high. 

Slang (Snake) Bay, immediately eastward of Keef Point, has 
on its western side low sandy cliffs, from 30 to 50 feet high^ with 
- patches of bush. Bare sand hills, from 200 to 300 feet high, fringe 
the bay for 3 miles. The shore is foul for i mile northeastward of 
Reef Point, but in other parts the bay appears free from rocks. A 
heavy surf rolls in. 

Slang River, at the head of the bay, has its mouth closed, and 
another small stream discharges f mile southeastward of Slang River ; 
at the back of this the land gradually rises to a grassy ridge 596 
feet high, while at 3 miles inland some white farmhouses are con- 
spicuous from the westward. 

Southeastward of the second river the coast consists of wooded 
hills from 200 to 250 feet high, fronted by low rocky cliffs from 10 
to 20 feet high, and 2 miles from Slang* River is White Point, with, 
at f mile eastward of that point, a cove formed by a rocky ledge 
lying parallel with the shore; the cove is encumbered by bowlders 
which cover at high water, when, under favorable circumstances, it 
is stated that a boat may land. 

Thys Point, 2 miles southeastward of White Point, forms the 
western point of Thys Bay, and is 50 feet high, with shelving and 
sunken rocks extending 700 yards from the shore. Thys Bay, a 
sandy bight about 1 mile in breadth, is apparently free from rocks, 
and has low sandy hillocks fringing it ; at the eastern end is a sand 
hill 366 feet high, partially topped with bush, .and here the sand is 
89511—16 ^9 



130 CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE BECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 

blown inland to a distance of 2 miles, forming a conspicuous stripe 
when seen from seaward. 

From Thys Bay the coast line continues in an east-southeasterly 
direction, and is rocky and rugged, with grassy cliffs from 50 to 110 
feet high. 

Scholtz Kraal, a cliffy indentation, 2 miles eastward of Thys Bay, 
has in it several rocks, and at the head a small waterfall; in its 
Wcinity rocks awash extend 600 yards offshore. Near the summit 
of a ridge, about i mile from the coast, is a farmhouse. In a rocky 
bight IJ miles southeastward of Scholtz Kraal the grassy cliffs and 
hills decrease in height, and the straight shore is fronted by rugged 
rocks from 10 to 30 feet high. 

Seal Point, 3i miles east-southeastward of Scholtz Kraal, is a 
rocky projection off the extreme of which are three rocks nearly 
awash, and at i mile southeastward of it is a reef ^ mile in extent, 
on which the sea breaks heavilv in bad weather. Between Seal Point 
and Cape St. Francis is a bay receding about i mile northwestward, 
its shores being rocky, with large bowlders, but at its head is a low 
sandy beach, fronting a ridge of bush}' sandy hillocks varying from 
30 to 70 feet in height. 

Light. — About 250 yards within the extreme of Seal Point is a 
white cylindrical tower, 91 feet in height, which exhibits, at an ele- 
vation of 118 feet above high water, a white flashing light with a 
red sector; in clear weather it should be visible from a distance of 
16 miles. This is known as Cape St. Francis Light, and for the 
bearings of the red sector see Light List. 

Caution. — In consequence of the want of sharpness in the change 
from red to white, the light may show red near the bearing of 242^, 
but the red light can not be seen at all from a vessel passing a safe 
distance along the coast, and therefore if seen it warns the mariner 
of his dangerous approach to the shore. 

Lloyd's signal station. — A Lloyd's signal station is situated on 
Seal Point near the lighthouse; it is in telegraphic communication 
with the ports of the colony, and vessels can communicate with it by 
the International Code. 

Cape St. Francis, a very prominent point projecting southeast- 
ward, appears both from eastward and westward as two bushy hum- 
mocks with a bare sand ridge between; the northern hummock is 
140 feet and the southern 110 feet high. Its position may also be 
known in clear weather by the bearing of Mount Cockscomb, 37 miles 
north-northeastward, and also by an extensive plain inland. 

Humansdorp village, nearly 11 miles northward of Cape St. 
Francis, is conspicuous from seaward, and behind it are two re- 
markable mountains. Kruisfontein's Berg, 2,574 feet high, the nearer 
of the two, and 7 miles northwestward of the village, has a double 



CAPE AGULHA8 TO OAPE EEOIPB, ALGOA BAY. 131 

peak ; the other, about 11 jniles northward, is Rondebosh Berg, a 
sharp peak, 2,92-1: feet high. 

Immediately off the cape are two rocks, 11 feet and 9 feet high, 
with low-water rocks between, terminating in a reef extending about 
1,200 yards southeastward of the cape. 

Vessels from the westward rounding Cape St. Francis should give 
Seal Point a berth of 2 miles, and not bring it southward of 264° 
until either the high sand hill in Krom Bay or the western end of 
the beach is open eastward of Cape St. Francis, bearing about 290®. 

Erom Bay, formed between Cape St. Francis and Zeekoe Point, 
7 miles northeastward, has a rocky irregular shore, backed by grassy 
hills, for 1^ miles northward of the cape, with two rocks, 4 feet above 
water, about 200 yards offshore, from this sand hills 200 feet in height 
commence, their bases fringed with rocks and bowlders for about J 
mile to the beginning of the sandy beach, at which point a long ledge 
of bowlders uncovers at low water. 

Between the commencement of the sandy beach and Zeekoe Point 
is a succession of bushy sand hillocks fronted by a sandy beach, 
which, southwestward of Krom River, is flat and free from rocks. 
The highest hillock between Krom River and Zeekoe Point is 67 feet, 
and just behind it is a spring of fresh water. 

Anchorage. — The bay affords good anchorage in depths of 9 or 
10 fathoms, over sandy bottom, with Cape St. Francis bearing 202°, 
distant about 2 miles, and about the same distance off the mouth of 
the Krom River. The shelter is good in westerly gales, but the bay 
is not safe with easterly winds, though probably no worse than Algoa 
Bay; southwesterly winds are the worst for swell. Several farm- 
houses are situated in the neighborhood of the bay. 

Landing. — There is generally a heavy surf on the shore, but with 
westerly winds landing may be effected at the commencement of the 
sandy beach, where the ledge of bowlders uncovers at low water, at 
which time and place the best landing will be found on a sandy beach 
between**two ledges of rock. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Krom Bay at 3 h. 
34 m. ; springs rise about 5 feet. Southeasterly winds reduce the 
rise and northwesterly winds increase it. 

Krom River, off which shoal water extends somewhat farther 
than elsewhere in the bay, is not navigable and the bar is impassable 
for boats. At low water there is about 1 foot on it, and the mouth 
is contracted to a width of about 33 yards, but at high water, the 
sand being very flat, the entrance is about 400 yards wide; within 
the entrance the water is deeper. There is a ford about 2 miles .above 
the mouth, and near it are several farmhouses. 

Htunansdorp, 7^ miles in a direct line from the mouth of Krom 
River, on the main road between Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, 



132 CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 

contains a population approaching 2,000, and gives its name to the 
district; it has postal and telegraphic communication with all parts 
of the colony, and is 56 miles from Port Elizabeth. Ostrich farming 
is carried on with marked success in this locality. 

Zeekoe (Sea Cow) Biver, 4^ miles eastward of Krom River, is 
broad but generally closed by sand; at J mile from its mouth the 
river bifurcates, the western branch taking its rise near Humansdorp. 
The hillocks fringing the intervening coast are about 100 feet high, 
and there are rocky ledges projecting from the sandy beach, all of 
which nearly cover at high water. The water is fresh at 2 miles 
from the sea. 

St. Francis Bay is the long bight of the coast between Zeekoe 
and Glassen Points, the latter 25 miles eastward, the bay receding 
about 6 miles from that line ; it is free from off-lying dangers. 

Coast. — Zeekoe Point, 102 feet in height, is i mile eastward of 
the Zeekoe River and IJ miles northward of the point, in a sandy 
bight between two ledges, is Jeffrys Bight, where there is a fishing 
establishment, a two-storied building, and some cottages. Noors 
Kloof Point, li miles northeastward of Jeffrys Bight, is a wooded 
hillock near the termination of a back ridge of hills. The beach 
northward of it is comparatively free from rocks. 

Landing. — Jeffrys Bight is considered to be one of the best land- 
ing places in the locality in fine weather. 

Kabeljou Biver, dosed at its mouth, is about 2 miles northward 
of Noors Kloof Point, the land in the rear for 3 miles to the eastward 
being an elevated plain, and nearly midway between the Kabeljou 
and Gamtoos Rivers are some conspicuous farm buildings about 1 
mile from the beach. The frontier road crosses Kabeljou River about 
1 mile from its mouth, and at this place fresh water may be obtained. 

Gamtoos Biver, at the head of St. Francis Bav, has a bar nearlv 
dry at low water, springs, but there is deep water inside, and the tidal 
influence is felt for about 8 miles up. A ferry crosses to the main 
road at 3 miles within the entrance. The eastern point of the 
river consists of low sand hills, but on the opposite side the hills form 
bluffs, which are conspicuous from seaward. 

Coast. — Eastward of the Gamtoos River, the bare sand hills in- 
crease considerably in height, forming ridges perpendicular to the 
coast. 

Van Staden Biver, also closed at its mouth, is 9 miles eastward 
of the Gamtoos River and may be known by the high sand hills 
which form a saddle sand peak on its western side. The abrupt ter- 
mination of the Van Staden Hills, and the double peak of Brak 
River Hill, 1,989 feet high and 5 miles inland, are good marks for 
identifying this locality. 



CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 133 

Maitland Eiver, 3^ miles east-southeastward of Van Staden River, 
may be identified by the sand extending some distance inland at its 
western side, forming a conspicuous round hill, and by another high 
sand patch about 1^ miles eastward of it. Like all the other rivers, 
it is dry at its mouth. There are several farms along the banks, 
and lead has been found in a mine about 2 miles from its mouth. 

Glassen Point, 7 miles southeastward of Maitland River, the 
coast between being foul in places for about J mile, is fronted for a 
width of i mile by a rocky ledge on which the sea breaks with vio- 
lence during heavy gales; the cliffs near the point are the sudden 
termination of bushy hills about 150 feet in height. At 1^ miles 
inland are two hills; the western hill is wooded, but the top of 
Lovemore Hill, the eastern one, 690 feet above the sea, is bare, with 
a conspicuous clump of trees near its western slope. 

Coast. — At 4 miles eastward of Lovemore Hill, near the eastern 
extreme of a wooded ridge, is Buffels Fontein or Botha Kop, 915 feet 
high, with a bluff termination ; near it are several buildings. 

Chelsea Point is about 10 miles eastward of Glassen Point, the 
coast consisting of cliffy points with sand beaches between, and 
sunken ledges extending in places about i mile offshore. Chelsea 
Point is shelving, with several conspicuous grassy hillocks, the high- 
est being 103 feet high, and at the back are some high sand hills. Off 
the point are two rocks above high water, and sunken dangers extend 
about f mile offshore. 

Foul ground has been reported to exist about 1 mile from the 
shore westward of Chelsea Point for a distance of about 5 miles, and 
it is also not improbable that the unsounded area fronting the coast 
between Chelsea and Glassen Points may contain many hidden, and 
as yet unknown, dangers. 

The bay between Chelsea Point and Cape Recife is fringed with 
sunken ledges. 

General directions. — From Cape Seal to Zitzikamma Point the 
shore should not be approached by steam vessels within 2 or 3 miles, 
and by night or in thick weather, a vessel should not stand into less 
than 45 fathoms. Between Zitzikamma Point and Cape St. Fran- 
cis, the same distance should be preserved by day; but by night or 
in thick weather, owing to the irregularity of the soundings and to 
the probability of the current setting directly toward the shore, the 
coast should not be approached to less than a depth of 70 fathoms. 

Between Capes St. Francis and Recife, the same distance must be 
observed by day; and by night, until the vicinity of (Hassen Point is 
approached, the vessel may go into 45 fathoms, but in thick weather 
and by night, no nearer to Cape Recife than a depth of 00 fathoms. 

Sailing vessels, as before stated, should preserve an offing of at 
least 8 miles. 



134 CAPE AOULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE, ALGOA BAY. 

Current — Caution. — On this part of the coast a current some- 
times sets directly toward the shore, or in a northeasterly direction, 
and a vessel bound eastward or westward should therefore avoid 
hugging the land by night or in bad weather, especially as dense 
fogs are not uncommon. From Cape Agulhas eastward to Buffalo 
River, the current has been known not only to set westward along, 
but toward the coast, especially opposite bays. 

A weak east-going current runs near the shore all along the coast 
between Capes Seal and Recife, but in the offing, as a rule, the 
Agulhas Current sets westward at rates of from 1 knot to 2 knots an 
hour, and off the edge of the bank of soundings as much as 3J or 
4 knots. 

Cape Recife is low, but the hillock of Recife, northwestward of it, 
being higher, is often seen some time before the lighthouse is made 
out. Approaching the land from the southward during daylight, 
Cape St. Francis has been mistaken for Cape Recife, but they may 
be distinguished by Recife Hillock appearing at a distance as the 
termination of the coastline, and by a remarkable strip of bare white 
sand immediately westward of the hillock, appearing like a beach, 
also by the differently colored lighthouses. 

Light. — Near the extreme of Cape Recife is a stone tower 80 feet 
in height, with four alternate red and white bands, which exhibits, 
at an elevation of 93 feet above high water, a fixed white and flash- 
ing light, with a red sector; the fixed light should be visible in clear 
weather from a distance of 15 miles, and the flashing light from 6 
miles, but the power of the red light is considerably less than that 
of the white light, and, under certain atmospheric conditions the 
fixed light may become invisible, the flash only appearing. For 
bearings of red sector, which covers Dispatch Rock, see Light List. 

Lloyd's signal station.— A Lloyd's signal station at Cape Recife 
is connected with the telegraphic system of the colony, and vessels 
can communicate by means of the International Code. Telegraphic 
communication exists between Cape Recife, Cape St. Francis, and 
Port Elizabeth. 

Dangers. — Thunderbolt Beef, about 700 yards in extent, lies 
with its center about 1,800 yards, 199°, from Cape Recife Lighthouse; 
the sea generally breaks heavily on it, but not always at high water 
and in fine weather. The 5-fathom contour line, surrounding the 
reef, passes about ^ mile from Cape Recife, and from the coast 
northward of the cape. 

Caution. — There is an indraft toward this reef and the cape, 
and no sailing vessel should attempt to approach either within a 
distance of 2 miles, unless with a commanding breeze. 

As the depths about the cape and reef decrease suddenly from 
10 fathoms, vessels should not go into less than 12 fathoms. 



CHAPTER IV. 



CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 

Algoa Bay^ contained between Cape Kecife on the west and 
Woody Cape on the east, which two points are 33 miles apart in an 
east and west direction, is subject to the full force of the southeasterly 
gales, which blow so violently at times between October and April, 
but in the southwestern corner of the bay is Port Elizabeth, off which 
there is usually safe and convenient anchorage at all times of the 
year. 

Dispatch or Boman Bock^ with a least depth of 1^ fathoms and 
steep-to on its eastern side, lies nearly 1 mile offshore, and 3 miles, 
353°, from Cape Recife Lighthouse. 

Beacons. — About 500 yards northward of Cape Recife Lighthouse 
stands a red stone beacon, 25 feet high, and about 2^ miles north- 
westward of Cape Recife, near Beacon Point, are two stone beacons, 
1,200 yards, 56° and 236°, from each other; each beacon is 25 feet 
high, surmounted by a ball, and has alternate red and white bands. 

Riy Bank, about 1 mile in extent and composed of uneven rocky 
ground, with depths of from 6 to 14 fathoms, breaks heavily during 
and after bad weather ; the shallowest spot, 6 fathoms, lies 8^ miles, 
74°, from Cape Recife Lighthouse. 

Port Elizabeth consists of the open roadstead, fronting the town, 
and three iron jetties extending from the latter. 

Jetties. — Dom Pedro Jetty, the southernmost of these, extends 
for 1,462 feet in a direction 50° from the shore, and about 400 yards 
northwestward of it is the South Jetty, which has a total length of 
about 1,180 feet in a 68° direction, including its approach. 

The North Jetty, nearly 800 yards farther northwestward, extends 
about 68° for a similar distance to the South Jetty, the spaces 
between them being nearly filled with shore bank, under 3 fathoms. 
The jetties are equipped with hydraulic cranes of the latest descrip- 
tion, capable of dealing with 7,000 tons of cargo daily ; there are also 
hydraulic capstans and screw moorings, with arrangements for 
watering and ballasting alongside, and the railway runs on all the 
jetties. 

An isolated landing stage for dynamite or other explosives is 
situated to the northward of the port. 

I8r» 



136 CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 

Dom Pedro Jetty will accommodate vessels drawing 20 feet at it, 
while the South Jetty has from 14 to 21 feet alongside; the North 
Jetty has from 12 to 22 feet, and vessels drawing not more than 20 
feet are allowed alongside, on due notice being given to the harbor 
master. 

Lights. — On a hill at the back of the town, near Lady Donkin's 
Monument, is a white octagonal tower, 56 feet in height to the top 
of the dome, which exhibits, at an elevation of 225 feet above high 
water, a white occulting light with two red sectors ; in clear weather 
it should be visible from a distance of 21 miles. On account of the 
greater height and brilliancy of this light, it is usually seen by vessels 
coming from the eastward before Cape Eecife Light. 

Near the extreme of Dom Pedro Jetty a white occulting light is 
exhibited at an elevation of 32 feet above high water, and should be 
visible in clear weather from a distance of 6 miles. 

A fixed red light is shown from the South Jetty, and a fixed light, 
with white and green sectors, from the North Jetty. For bearings 
through which these lights are visible, see Light List. 

During onshore gales a fixed white light is shown at the gas works 
to the northward of the town. 

Depths. — The 5-fathoms contour line is about J mile outside the 
jetty heads, and between that and the 10-fathoms contour is a dis- 
tance of about 1 J miles, in which area is the anchorage. 

Strutts Reef, alwut 50 yards in extent and having 2^ fathoms 
water over it, lies about 200 yards north-northwestward of the head 
of Dom Pedro Jetty, the light from which is visible over it, but the 
reef is covered by the red sector of the town light. 

Buoy. — A green buoy is moored on the northeast side of Strutts 
Eeef. 

Mooring buoys are placed near Dom Pedro Jetty to assist vessels 
berthing there. 

Pilots. — Licensed pilots may be obtained, but pilotage is not com- 
pulsory. ^ 

Tugs. — Four tugs, three being fitted with salvage appliances, are 
available. 

Directions. — Coming from the westward, and having rounded 
Cape Recife at a distance of about 2 miles, steer about 340"^, keeping 
the lighthouse open eastward of the red beacon northward of it, 
bearing about 190° until northward of the line of the two beacons 
marking Dispatch Rock, which are in one bearing 236"^, and the 
vessel then being northward of Dispatch Rock may be steered toward 
the anchorage or jetties. 

A strong indraft is often experienced after passing Thunderbolt 
Reef and Cape Recife, and allowance should be made for it in pass- 



CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 137 

ing Dispatch Rock, as it is not prudent for vessels, especially those 
of deep draft, to attempt to pass between that rock and the mainland. 

By night. — Cape Recife may be rounded at distances of from 2 to 
3 miles, or in not less than 20 fathoms, allowing for a probable in- 
draft toward Thunderbolt Reef and the cape, and if the cape is 
roimded at the latter distance a vessel would enter the red sector 
from Port Elizabeth Light when Cape Recife Light bears about 
295°. 

When Cape Recife Light bears 290° a course 346° inay be steered, 
keeping in the white sector of light from Cape Recife and not 
entering its red sector until Port Elizabeth Light changes from red 
to white, when the vessel, being northward of Dispatch Rock, may be 
edged gradually in for the anchorage or for the jetties, being guided 
by Port Elizabeth and the jetty lights. 

Coming from the eastward or working, a vessel should be kept in 
the white sector of Port Elizabeth Light, care being taken not to 
cross its southern limit into the red sector, which covers Riy Bank 
as well as Dispatch Rock. 

Vessels leaving Port Elizabeth and proceeding eastward are recom- 
mended to take the passage northward of Bird Island in fine weather. 

Anchorage. — The anchorage for vessels of war and mail steamers 
is in a space between two lines formed by two white marks on the 
sea wall which, in line with Port Elizabeth Lighthouse bearing 
235° and 246°, marks its south and north limits, respectively. Cargo 
steamers anchor to the southward of this space, and sailing vessels 
to the northward of it. 

When southerly or southeasterly winds are expected, it is advisable 
to anchor with the starboard anchor, as, on account of the undertow, 
the cable would otherwise be frequently across the stem, and when 
mooring the starboard anchor should be the southern, for the same 
reason. 

Puring summer, when east or southeast gales may be expected, 
vessels of war should anchor with plenty of room to veer ; the hold- 
ing ground is good, and there should not be much risk in riding out 
these gales, but vessels should always be prepared to leave the anchor- 
age if necessary, as in gales of unusual severity numbers of vessels 
have been driven onshore, although these were principally sailing 
vessels. 

Life-saving apparatus. — Two lifeboats and one complete set of 
rocket apparatus are maintained at Port Elizabeth. 

Signals. — The signal station is on the hill near Lady Donkin's 
Monument and the- lighthouse, and vessels can make their wishes 
known to their agents in bad weather by International Code. Ves- 



138 CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 

sels not having the code can make the following signals with their 
ensigns: 

1. Ensign in the fore-topmast rigging : Am in want of a cable. 

2. Ensign in the main-topmast rigging : Am in want of an anchor. 

3. Ensign in the fore rigging : Have parted a bower cable. 

4. Ensign in the main rigging : Am in want of an anchor and cable. 

5. Wheft where best seen : Send a boat. 

The following are also signals which may be made by the Inter- 
national Code from the port of&ce, through the above signal station : 

O. P. L.= Clear hawse. 

F. P. = Prepare for bad weather. 

K. U.=Veer cable. 

K. C.= Hoist a light during the night. 

H.R. P. = Shorten in cable to the same scope as when first moored. 

Caution. — When the signal to prepare for bad weather is made 
from the signal station, sailing vessels, doubtful of being able to 
ride out a gale at anchor, should get under way and proceed to sea 
with as little delay as possible, making the first board on the star- 
board tack. 

Port regulations. — 1, Vessels about to discharge or receive cargo 
are berthed by the harbor master as close to the North Jetty as safety 
or convenience permits. If anchored off, sailing vessels must be 
moored with two bower anchors, open hawse to the southeast, and 
special care taken not to give other vessels a foul berth. All vessels 
not provided with ground tackle according to Lloyd's scale will be 
anchored northward of vessels properly provided. 

2 Vessels touching for supplies may ride at single anchor, but 
well to the northward, to prevent danger to vessels moored in case 
of drifting; when riding at single anchor vessels should veer to 70 or 
80 fathoms, other bower cables should be ranged and the anchors 
clear. 

3. The hawse must always be kept clear when moored, and, whether 
at single anchor or moored, the sheet anchor should be ready. The 
vessel's position should be fixed by landmarks, and should she drift or 
lose her anchors the harbor master must at once be notified in writing. 

4. Sailing vessels should be kept as snug as possible aloft, espe- 
cially such as remain for some time. Top-gallant masts and yards 
should be sent on deck, but topsails, courses, etc., should be kept bent 
and reefed, whilst discharging cargo, until the vessel is too light to 
work out to sea in case of parting, when they may be unbent and 
repaired if necessary and bent again directly sufficient cargo has been 
shipped to render the vessel manageable under sail. 

Masters of vessels are warned against housing top-gallant masts, 
instead, of sending them on deck, a practice which has caused several 



CAPE BECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 139 

wrecks, and always endangers vessels by preventing the topsails 
being hoisted when required to enable them to beat out to sea. 

5. To prevent injury to the jetties by drifting vessels, no sailing 
vessel is permitted to lie southward of a line drawn from Port Eliza- 
beth Lighthouse through the northern white mark on the sea wall. 
Steam vessels with cargo anchor southward of a line from Port 
Elizabeth Lighthouse through the southern white mark. 

6. Vessels, having veered cable in a strong breeze, must always 
shorten in again to the original scope, on the return of moderate 
weather. 

7. All signals, made from the Hill signal station, must be answered 
from the shipping Vnd strictly obeyed ; any vessels disregarding 
them will be reported to Lloyd's, as also to the owners. 

8. A vessel, parting cable and unable to work out, should run for 
the sandy beach to the northward of the town, directly in front of 
the gas house, at the northern end of the sea wall ; by night, the spot 
is indicated by the white gas house light. Vessels should keep their 
headsails set even after striking, to assist in grounding the vessel 
firmly. No person should attempt to quit a vessel until the life- 
boat arrives alongside, or communication is estalilished with the 
shore by means of the life-saving apparatus or otherwise. 

9. When unsafe to work cargo, a blue flag is hoisted on the flag- 
staff on the North Jetty, and no cargo boat or other craft is allowed 
alongside either of the jetties whilst that flag is flying. 

10. When the red ball, or danger signal, is hoisted at the same flag- 
staff, any persons attempting to land at the jetties are liable to a fine 
of £20 (about $100) or, in default, to imprisonment; and no boats are 
allowed to leave the jetties except in cases of emergency, and then 
only by special permission of the harbor master or his deputy. 

Landing can be effected except in very heavy weather, and pas- 
sengers are landed by privately owned tugs. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Port Elizabeth, at 
8 h. 20 m. ; springs rise 5f feet ; neaps rise 4 feet ; neaps range 2 J feet. 
The tides, often irregular, are influenced by the wind, and the sur- 
face stream, which is very weak, is uncertain in its direction. 

Signals to stranded vessels. — The following signals may be 
made to stranded vessels from the most conveinient point on the 
Lhore. At night: By means of transparent figures. By day: By 
means of white figures on a black board. 

No. 1. You are earnestly requested to remain on board until assist- 
ance is sent; there is no danger to life. 

No. 2. Send a line on shore, by cask, and look out for a line by 
rocket or mortar. 

No. 3. Secure the line, bend a warp or hawser to it, for us to haul 
on shore, taking care to secure the warp well on board. 



140 CAPE KECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 

No. 4. Prepare to haul on board the end of the warp, which we 
will send you by means of the line, and secure it well. 

No. 5. Lifeboat will communicate at low water, or as soon as 
practicable ; have good long lines ready for her, and prepare to leave 
the vessel ; no baggage will be allowed in the lifeboat. 

No. 6. Secure the warp to the lower masthead, bowsprit end, or 
some other convenient place, and send a hauling line to us, that we 
may get you on shore by means of a traveler. 

Answers froin stranded vessels. — By day: A man will stand 
on the most conspicuous part of the vessel and wave his hat three 
times over his head. By night: A light will be shown over the side 
of the vessel where best seen. 

Winds. — Easterly and southeasterly gales, the only dangerous 
winds in Algoa Bay, occur in the summer months from October to 
April, the worst weather usually happening at the commencement 
and close of the season. In the winter months the wind seldom blows 
from these quarters, except in the rare case when what is known as a 
black southeaster comes on, with rain and thick weather, of which 
the appearance of the sky and sea gives sufficient warning. Black 
southeasters are tnost frequent in October and November; they do 
not last long, but sometimes are violent. 

The approach of §ummer gales is to a certain extent foretold by the 
irregular oscillations of the barometer, which, although constantly 
high compared with what it would be under similar circumstances 
in westerly winds, falls before the wind increases. A damp, cold air 
prevails, and there is a constant hazy appearance about the horizon, 
the upper parts of the sky remaining clear. Should the barometer 
be at 30.5 inches, and cirrus clouds appear, a southeast gale will set 
in before 24 hours have elapsed; or if the hills to the northward of 
Port Elizabeth be obscured by haze a gale from the same quarter 
may be expected; gales from this quarter rarely occur during the 
month of April. 

With the gale at its height a heavy and dangerous breaking sea 
rolls in, but vessels with plenty of cable generally ride easily; and, 
from the strong easterly set which prevails near the shore during 
these gales, it is probable that a powerful undertow assists to relieve 
the strain. 

Town. — The town of Poi-t Elizabeth, named after Lady Elizebeth 
Donkin, who visited the place in 1820, for the purpose of locating 
British settlers, is the principal seaport of the eastern part of the 
colony : its geographical position, with reference to the other colonies, 
and as a port of call or refuge for vessels from the eastward, giving 
it considerable importance. 

The principal buildings, some handsome structures, are the town 
hall, the library, the provincial hospital, with Grey Institute, London 



CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 141 

and South African and Standard banks, halls belonging to various 
societies, the Masonic temple, the customhouse, numerous churches, 
markets, etc. The St. George and Prince Alfred are two public 
parks, and the 'Baakens Eiver, entering the sea after passing through 
the town, is spanned by several bridges. In 1912 the population was 
44,081. 

Communication. — ^The port has frequent communication by sea 
by the principal lines of steam vessels. 

Port Elizabeth is the coastal terminus of the Midland railway 
system, which joints the Western system at De Aar Junction, a dis- 
tance of 339 miles, with branches at Zwartkop, 7 miles from Port 
Elizabeth, forming a loop-line 276 miles in length, which joins the 
line again at Eosmead from Port Elizabeth, while branches skirt the 
coast of Francis Bay on the west and Algoa Bay on the east. 

At Alicedale, 72 miles, in a branch to Port Alfred; at Klipplaat, 
123 miles, to Mossel Bay, via Oudtshoorn ; at Cookhouse, 127 miles, 
a short branch to Somerset East and a line to East London ; and at 
Naauwpoort, 270 miles, is the trunk line to the Orange Eiver Colony, 
the Eosmead-Stormberg Line, forming another connection between 
the Midland and Eastern systems. There are also several smaller 
branches. 

There is telegraphic communication with all parts. 

Coal and supplies. — About 400 tons of Natal coal are kept in 
stock, the supply being brought by rail from the mines; coaling is 
carried on by bags, and about 500 tons could be put on board in 24 
hours, but southeast winds might interfere with coaling. About 40 
lighters, each holding an average of 85 tons, are available, and the 
jetties have been already mentioned. 

Fresh meat, vegetables, and bread are plentiful, and the water, 
which is good, is supplied on application to the harbor master to 
vessels in the roadstead by means of two tank vessels, one of which ia 
fitted with steam pumps. 

Patent slip. — A patent slip is situated about 1 mile southward of 
Dom Pedro Jetty. 

Repairs. — Large repairs to machinery can be undertaken by an 
engineering firm, and a crane will lift 20 tons. There are two small 
steam hammers. 

Trade. — The principal exports of wool, hides, ivory, ostrich 
feathers, tallow, and angora hair, etc., were valued at about $19,- 
380,000 in 1912 and the imports, consisting of general merchandise, 
at about $45,423,175. 

Time signal. — At Port Elizabeth Lighthouse, at an elevation of 
220 feet above high water, a black ball is dropped by electricity 
from the Cape Observatory at h. m. s. South Africa standard 
time, corresponding to 22 h. m. s. Greenwich mean time ; but the 



142 CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 

signal is not made on Sundays or public holidays. Should the signal 
be inaccurate, a checkered red and blue flag will be hoisted at the 
lighthouse and the ball dropped 5 minutes later, or at h. 5 m. s. 
South Africa standard time. 

Zwartkop River, about 5 J miles northward of Port Elizabeth, 
has a few feet on the bar at low^water, but the surf is frequently 
heavy. The river is navigable for small vessels for 8 or 9 miles from 
its mouth. 

Communication. — At Zwartkop Junction is a branch known as 
the Uitenhage-Graaff Reinet loop line, which joins the line again 
at Kosmead, a distance of 276 miles. 

Coast. — The coast from the entrance to Zwartkop River curves 
round to the eastward, and at about 5 miles is the Coega River, 
barred at its mouth ; the water, which is salt, discharges into a lake, 
the outlet of which is also barred. 

Jahleel Island, 300 yards long and 47 feet high, lies about 1,000 
yards off the Coega River, with a channel between having a depth 
of 6 fathoms, the deepest water being about one-third of the distance 
from the island. 

St. Croix Island, 3 miles eastward of Jahleel Ishxnd and 2 miles 
offshore, was so named by Bartholomew Diaz, the first European 
who landed there. It is about 800 yards long by 400 yards wide, 
with a surface of nearly bare rock, its western peak being 195 feet 
high. It is the resort of penguins and gulls, and wais formerly 
used as a temporary stopping place by sealers. 

There is fair anchorage about 600 yards northwestward of St. 
Croix Island, in a depth of 10 fathoms, over sand, with its western 
peak bearing 140°. In this position the heavy sea caused by east 
and southeast gales is considerably broken, but the extent of sheltered 
anchorage is confined to a very small space by the shape of the island. 

Brenton Rock, 1^^ miles southward of St. Croix, is 50 feet high, 
about 200 yards long, and fairly steep-to. 

Sunday River, about 9 J miles east-northeastward of Coega River, 
enters the sea close to a remarkable rock named Read's Monument, 
after a midshipman who was drowned when surveying this coast; 
the surf breaks violently on the bar of the river, over which boats 
can rarely pass. 

Coast. — From Sunday River eastward to Cape Padrone, the coast 
consists of a monotonous chain of sand hills, extending inland from 
1 to li miles, several of them rising to heights of from 350 to 450 
feet, being bare ; at the back of these sand hills the country attains 
a height of 1,200 feet, and is covered with grass and forest. From 
Sunday River the coast curves gradually round to the east-southeast- 
ward for 21 miles to Woody Cape, which has a cliff 173 feet high. 



CAPE EECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 143 

Bird Islands, a cluster of low, rocky islets lying about 30 miles 
east-northeastward of Cape Recife, and nearly 5 miles southward 
of Woody Cape, consists of Bird, Seal, and Stag Islands, with 
several rocks and shoals surrounding them. Bird Island, the largest, 
on which stands the lighthouse, is 33 feet high, about 800 yards long, 
and 630 yards wide. Sea-fowl eggs are abundant in November and 
December, and a palatable vegetable, not unlike spinach to the taste, 
grows on the island, but the only water likely to be found might be 
a small quantity left in hollows of rocks after rain. 

Light. — The lighthouse, a square stone tower 85 feet in height, 
stands near the southern end of the island, and from it is exhibited, 
at an elevation of 100 feet above high water, a white group-flashing 
light; in clear weather it should be visible from a distance of 16 
miles. 

Seal and Stag Islets^ from 400 to 600 yards north-northwestward 
of Bird Island, are connected at low water, and northeastward of 
them are rocky patches extending westward and eastward over a 
space 1,600 yards in extent, and having from 2 to 3 fathoms water ; 
the central rocks, named North Patch, about 1 mile northward of 
the lighthouse, are above water. 

Black Rocks, about 1,400 yards westward of Stal Islet, are five 
black rocky islets, with a narrow 2J-fathom passage between, but 
it is only during very fine weather that these islets are not surrounded 
with heavv breakers. 

Bocks. — Southwest ward and southward of Bird Island ai*e West 
Eock, Doddington Rock, and East Reef, the two former being awash, 
and the later with 23-fathoms water, but the sea is seldom so smooth 
as not to break on it. 

Between and around these rocks and islands the depths are irreg- 
ular, and during bad weather a heavy sea rolls over the whole of this 
space, breaking in from 8 to 10 fathoms to seaward of the group. In 
thick weather a vessel should not approach them into less than 
60 fathoms. 

The steamer Ohell is reported to have struck an obstruction 4 
miles 133° from Bird Island Lighthouse. Approximate position: 
latitude. 33° 53' 15" south, longitude 26° 21' east. 

Anchorage. — ^The Bird Island group affords indifferent anchor- 
age on the northern side, but the holding ground is not good, and 
the bottom uneven. With southeasterly winds the lighthouse seen 
between Stag and Seal Islets, bearing 146°, in depths of 10 or 11 
fathoms, is a good spot for shelter, but should the wind shift and 
become strong from the westward, anchor more to the eastward, with 
the Black Rocks in line with Stag Islet, about 254°, or a little open 
on either side of it, in from 8 to 10 fathoms, but the holding ground 



144 CAPE BECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 

is bad, as from this latter position, with 75 fathoms of cable out, 
the British naval vessel Geyser drove to sea in a heavy west-south- 
west gale. 

Landing. — It frequently happens that there is no possibility of 
landing, rollers setting in during calm weather as well as in a gale. 
After these have subsided, care is necessary in landing, as the sea 
sometimes breaks heavily and unexpectedly right across the entrance 
to the space between the islands. The lighthouse in line with the 
first or western rock that shows on the white patch at the eastern end 
of Bird Island, bearing about 236°, is the best direction to pull in 
upon, as it leads between the breakers on the spit and those off t)ie 
end of Bird Island. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at the Bird Islands at 
4 h. m. ; springs rise from 4^ feet. 

Current. — No regular tidal stream exists in the vicinity, but at 
the northern anchorage the current generally sets eastward. On 
one occasion, during a strong westerly gale, its rate was observed 
to be li knots, but on two other occasions during westerly gales, it 
set to the westward. 

Bird Island Passage — Directions. — ^If bound eastward from 
Algoa Bay in favorable weather. Bird Island Passage is recom- 
mended, as it avoids the strong southwest-going current always run- 
ning outside. The channel is 3 miles wide and clear of danger, the 
depths being from 8 to 17 fathoms, and a vessel may run along the 
land at a distance of from 2 to 3 miles the whole way to Buffalo 
River. 

Vessels passing inside the islands during the night, and particu- 
larly steam vessels, are recommended to keep nearer the mainland 
than to the group, as the land is higher and more readily discerned 
and the constant roar of the surf more distinctly heard than the 
breakers on the rocky reefs of the group. With care, the lead will 
indicate a too near approach to the main shore, and from 12 to 15 
fathoms is a safe depth in passing. A wide berth should be given to 
Cape Padrone, off which foul ground extends about 1,000 yards. 

A vessel, passing outside the group, should not approach within 
3 miles of the lighthouse, as no advantage is gained by it, and the 
current, though not generally strong, is uncertain and irregular both 
in strength and direction in the vicinity of the group. Steam ves- 
sels from Algoa Bay to Port Natal generally skirt the coast, but 
sailing vessels should keep about 100 miles from land in order to 
avoid the strength of the Agulhas current. 

Coast. — The first break in the sandy feature of the coast occurs 
jit Woody Cap#, where the sand hills are covered with dark bushes. 
They present to seaward a series of sandstone cliffs fronted by a 



CAPE BECIFE TO CAPE MOBGAN. 145 

rocky beach which extends 2 miles alongshore, when sand hills are 
again met with and continue as far as Cape Padrone. 

Water. — Fresh water is found welling out from the base of the 
sand hills at Woody Cape, and about Cape Padrone, and by digging 
into the sand, above high-water mark, fresh water may be found 
almost everywhere along this coast. 

Coast. — From Cape Padrone to Keiskamma Point, a distance of 
nearly 60 miles, the coast is mostly backed by hills, faced with sand 
to heights of from 100 to 260 feet, with the exception of the first 20 
miles, where the sand is much lower. This coast is intersected by 
streams, and the land near the shore presents a fine tract of pasture 
country, with large patches under cultivation. 

From the offing, in the vicinity of Cape Padrone, the most remark- 
able features are Nanquas Peak, about 3J miles northeastward of the 
Cape, which is 985 feet in height, and the high sand hills to the west- 
ward toward Woody Cape. Nanquas Peak, when seen from the 
southward, appears flat-topped, but proceeding eastward, it assumes 
a conical form, and is the most conspicuous object on this part of 
the coast. 

Bokness Hill, 660 feet high, and about 3^ miles northeastward of 
Nanquas Peak, is a flat-topped, bushy hill ; from thence to Glendower 
Peak, 622 feet high, and surmounted by a stone beacon, about 14 
miles beyond, the land is lower, uneven, and intersected by many 
ravines. 

When near the shore. False Islet, or Kwaai Hoek, and the east 
head of Bushmen River, become conspicuous ; the former, as its name 
implies, resembling an islet. Karega and Kasuga Rivers, 1^ and 
4rJ miles, respectively, east-northeastward of Bushmen River, are 
noticeable, and from off the latter several houses may be seen near its 
mouth. 

The Kowie River, with the house resembling a castle on its western 
and the village on the cultivated slope on the eastern bank, also the 
high head over Riet (Reed) Point, serve to identify this part of the 
coast. The hills at Bathurst, 7 miles northward of Kowie River 
entrance, and the range of mountains in the vicinity of Grahamstown, 
are also conspicuous. 

From Riet Point to Kleinemond River, 2^ miles farther, the hills 
again become low, as also the land behind, and about midway are the 
Black Rocks or Three Sisters; 3^ miles east-northeastward to Great 
Fish Point sand-faced hills become high, and when within about 
li miles of the point there is a bare-topped sand hill which may be 
recognized from distances of 10 or 12 miles offshore. 

The coast, turning northeastward for 2 miles to Great Fish River, 
is comparatively low, as well as is the land behind, which is a grassy 
39511—16 ^10 



146 CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 

plain intersected with ravines, while curving eastward to Stalwart 
Point the sand-faced hills are tolerably high, and about midway, 2 
or 3 miles inland, are two peaked grassy hills, near Maitland village, 
visible from all directions; these, with a dark head over Stalwart 
Point, and the points previously mentioned, all form good marks in 
this neighborhood. 

Farther east-northeastward are the Umtata River sand hills, the 
Bequa River, with the high bare-topped sand hill westward of it, 
together with Schietkop, a round-topped grassy hill 327 feet high, 
northwestward of Bequa River; Patos Kop, a square, flat-topped 
grassy hill 900 feet in height, lies about 9 miles northwestward from 
Keiskamma Point, which l&tter has a hill close over it with a house 
on its summit. 

General directions. — From Cape Padrone to Bokness River and 
thence to Keiskamma Point the shore should not be approached 
within a distance of 2 miles, and by night or in thick weather, not in 
a less depth than 40 fathoms. The offshore depths within the 100- 
fathoms contour line are tolerably regular, the bottom being sand 
and shells, though to the westward these are frequently intermingled 
with black specks. The edge of the bank is steep, dropping from 100 
to 200 and 300 fathoms in less than 1 mile. 

During westerly gales the sea is much smoother on than off the 
bank, the edge of which is thus generally well defined. 

Currents. — The Agulhas Current off this part of the coast, from 
the Bashee River westward, generally sets west-southwestward, vary- 
ing in strength from 1 knot near the shore to 3^ or 4 knots near the 
edge of the bank. A weak current sets eastward near the coast at 
uncertain times, and close to the shore an eddy often sets eastward, 
but its rate seldom exceeds ^ knot. In calm weather, and in places 
off the edge of the bank southward and eastward of Cape Padrone, 
the current has been observed running like a race or overfall. 

Cape Padrone, 8 miles eastward of Woody Cape, consists of sand 
cliffs exceeding 100 feet in height, with sand hills extending nearly 1 
mile within it, and rising to a ridge of bushy hills 340 feet in height, 
behind which may be seen a few houses. Several outlying rocks, 
some of which show at low water, extend 800 yards off the coast im- 
mediately eastward of the cape, the sea sometimes breaking heavily 
on them. 

Patches of foul ground, on which the sea breaks in heavy weather, 
extend about 1 mile off two rocky projections at 3 and 6 miles, respec- 
tively, east -northeastward of Cape Padrone, and to less distances 
on either side of them and farther eastward the coast continues to be 
fringed with rocks. 

At Bokness River, the mouth of which is closed, the coast ridge is 
about 100 feet high, covered with bush, and sand extends some dis- 



CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 147 

tance up its sea face ; for 2 miles farther eastward to False Islet the 
shore is sandy. 

False Islet, or Kwaai Hoek, a dark-looking headland, 85 feet 
high, extending J mile in an east and west direction, is nearly per- 
pendicular on its sea face, and is connected with the mainland by 
sandy hillocks; from seaward the head shows out against the white 
sand and resembles an islet. 

Several rocks, showing at low water, extend 600 yards from the 
southwestern part of the islet, and the point next eastward is foul 
to a distance of about 800 yards, with rocks awash at low water. 

Bock. — ^A rock, on which the sea breaks heavily, formerly re- 
ported by coasters and seen by British naval vessel Flirt in 1886, 
lies about 2 miles, 135®, from False Islet, 

Bushmen River, 2f miles northeastward of False Islet, is choked 
at its mouih by sand and rocks, but at high tide the water runs in. 
Its southern point is a high cliff with three lumps on it, connected 
with the main beach ridge by a neck of sand, against the background 
of which the dark rock shows out conspicuously. 

Karega River. — ^Between Bushmen and Karega Rivers the beach 
ridge is about 180 feet in height, covered with bush and partially 
faced with sand ; the entrance to Karega River is generally open at 
high water. Patches of rocks, some awash at low water, extend from 
Bushmen River to beyond the mouth of Karega River, the outer one 
lying 1,600 yards, 123°, from the river mouth; the sea breaks for a 
considerable distance outside these patches. 

Kasuga River. — For 2 miles northeastward of Karega River the 
shore is fringed with rocks, some sunken, extending 400 yards; the 
coast ridge rises to a height of 225 feet, and at 3 miles from Karega 
River is Kasuga River. 

Ship Rock, a black rock 50 feet high, lies close inshore about 3 
miles east-northeastward of Kasuga River; the coast ridge is about 
400 feet high, and sand extends up the face of the hills, against 
which Ship Rock shows conspicuously. From Ship Rock to Kowie 
Point, a low projection, the beach is fringed with rocks; at 1,400 
or 1,600 yards westward of Kowie Point and a short distance from 
the coast are two sunken rocks. 

Glendower Peak. — At the back of the beach ridge, nearly 2 miles 
northeastward of Ship Rock, is Glendower Peak, a high grassy head, 
622 feet above the sea. It is tolerably steep on both sides, its west- 
em side dropping to a small stream, which, having no outlet, soaks 
through the beach ridge. 

Beacon. — A pyramidal stone beacon, 50 feet high, the upper part 
black, lower part white, stands on Glendower Peak, in order to 
afford a distinguishing mark on this monotonous coast. 



148 CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 

Salt Vlei Bay. — From Kowie Point, the shore trends northeast- 
ward about li miles to Salt Vlei Point, westward of which is Salt 
Vlei Bay, having a sandy beach fringed with rocks on both sides of 
it. On the western side of the bay are Peak and Black Rocks, 2 and 
8 feet high, respectively, and nearly 200 yards offshore. 

The land is low and grassy in the bay and J mile inland is a farm- 
house, and on a small hill to seaward of the house is a flagstaff. 
Salt Vlei Point, on the northeast side of the bay, is low and rocky, 
with shore bank, under 3 fathoms, extending about half a mile east- 
ward of it. Within the beach a ridge of hills, extending to Kowie 
River, vary from 60 to 140 feet in height and are covered with bush. 
The highest part is near the river, to which it drops abruptly. 

Kowie River, rising near Grahamstown, 40 miles from its mouth, 
is navigable by small vessels for about 5 miles and by. boats for 
upwards of 16 miles. The scenery is exceedingly beautiful and 
picturesque, the banks being wooded to the water's edge and varied, 
in the upper reaches above Mansfield, by grassy slopes and high 
steep cliffs. Game is abundant and fish may be caught in the river 
and near the Fountain Rocks off the entrance. 

The river runs close between two stone embankments, terminating 
in piers constructed of concrete blocks and forming the entrance to 
Port Alfred. 

Port Alfred is formed by the outlet of the Kowie River, and on 
each side of the entrance is a pier, the western, extending from the 
western point of entrance to the river in a direction 118° for a dis- 
*^ance of about 1,050 feet, while the eastern, from the opposite point 
of entrance, projects about 124° for 600 feet, leaving an entrance 
between them nearly 200 feet in width. Within, for a distance of 
about 1^ miles, the river has embankments on either side, that on 
the eastern being 7 feet above high water. 

Port Alfred has ceased to be a port so far as shipping is concerned, 
and all facilities have been removed. 

Signal staff. — Immediately within the root of the western pier 
is the port office signal staff. 

Beacons. — Two beacons, for use in crossing the bar, are situated 
on the western side of the river, about i mile within the entrance; 
the outer is red and formed of two poles with crossbars, surmounted 
by a pole and ball. 

The inner beacon, near Mount Cocks House, is a white flagstaff, 
standing 298°, distant 176 yards, from the outer beacon. 

Bar. — The bar, formed by shore bank under 3 fathoms, consisting 
of a deposit of sand on rock, has its outer edge about 200 yards south- 
eastward of the west pierhead; the deposit of sand is increased by 
the heavy swell sent in by westerly and southwesterly winds, this 
often rendering? the bar impassable for tv\^o or three days, but the 



CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 149 

scour of the ensuing spring tides clears the channel, although this 
latter is subject to considerable alteration both in direction and 
depth. 

Depths. — ^The 5-fathoms contour line is about 600 yards outside 
that of 3 fathoms, but a short distance within the former and imme- 
diately southwestward of the leading marks, is a shoal of 3J fathoms, 
which sometimes breaks ; on each side of the entrance the 5-fathoms 
contour is nearly 1,600 yards from the shore, with no shoals outside 
it, except Jansens Rock, on the east side. 

The least depth on the line of the leading marks, outside the piers, 
is If fathoms, decreasing to 1 fathom about 200 yards within the 
entrance points to the river. 

Dangers. — Fountain Bocks, on the east side of the approach 
to the river, cover a space about 800 yards square, with patches of 
3 fathoms about 200 yards eastward and westward of this; some of 
the rocks are awash at high water, while others uncover at half tide, 
the sea always breaking on the outer patches, and these have depths 
of from 5^ to 8 fathoms close-to. The southwesternmost patch, 
always breaking, lies 93°, distant nearly 1 mile from the west pier- 
head. 

The quarries, on the east bank of the river, at about 1 mile within 
the entrance, open westward of old Customhouse Point, bearing 303°, 
leads southwestward of Fountain Rocks. 

Jansens Bock^ awash at low water, lies 700 yards eastward of the 
eastern dry rock of Fountain Rocks; there are depths of from 4 to 
5 fathoms close northward and eastward, and 9 fathoms seaward, of 
the rock. 

A gap in the cliflFs near the outlet of the Rufane River, bearing 
358*^, leads eastward of both Fountain and Jansens Rocks. 

Directions. — From the westward the position of Kowie River 
may be known by Glendower Peak and beacon, the adjacent country 
consisting of smooth grassy slopes dotted with bush and fronted by 
a line of sandy hillocks ; from the eastward, the Black Rocks or Three 
Sisters, 7 miles eastward of the river, will be a guide, and the houses 
and flagstaffs will point out the position of the entrance. 

When about 2 miles from the bar Mount Cocks flagstaff should be 
brought in line with the red beacon, bearing 298°, which will lead to 
the anchorage. 

In case of putting to sea it should be remembered that at from 5 
to 25 miles offshore the Agulhas Current sets westward frequently 
at the rate of 80 or 90 miles a day, and that moderate shelter may 
be found under the Bird Islands in Algoa Bay. Also that by keep- 
ing within about 12 miles of the shore the very heavy sea caused 
by that current at a greater distance offshore will be avoided. 



150 CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 

Anchorages. — The outer anchorage, in depths of from 15 to 17 
fathoms, over sand and good holding ground, is with the river en- 
trance open, and the port office signal staff, bearing 305° ; elsewhere 
the holding ground is indifferent. 

The inner anchorage, in a depth of 8 fathoms, i mile closer in, is 
not so good as the sea breaks at it in bad weather, and at either 
anchorage a vessel should have a strong coir spring to ride by, and 
having veered to 70 or 80 fathoms, be prepared to leave immediately 
signals are made from the port office regarding the approach of bad 
weather. 

Signals. — The following local signals are made for the guidance 
of fishermen: 

1. Red flag in center of East Yardarm: Fishing boats can leave, 
but not enter the river. 

2. Red flag dipped: No fishing boats may go out; those outside 
must return at once. 

3. Blue flag over red, dipped: Do not attempt to enter, wait for 
turn of tide. 

4. Blue flag below red, dipped : Enter, but exercise great caution. 
Life-saving station. — A rocket apparatus is maintained at Port 

Alfred. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Kowie River, at 
3 h. 50 m. ; springs rise 4^ feet, neaps rise 3 feet. The tides are 
influenced by the winds, varying from 6 inches to 1 foot, and being 
lower with easterly, and higher with westerly winds. 

No tidal stream is appreciable at the roadstead, but it is felt about 
12 miles up the river. 

Wind and weather. — The prevailing winds in summer, in the 
immediate neighborhood of the port, are easterly and southeasterly 
during the day, calms and light airs off the land by night, but 
occasionally a strong southeaster blows continuously for two or three 
days and nights. 

During the winter westerly winds with bad weather occur at times, 
but a gale may be blowing in the offing when it is fine near the coast. 

Town. — Port Alfred, a small seaport town, and one of the favor- 
ite watering places of the colony, is built on both sides of the Kowie 
River; it is a great holiday resort, and has a population of about 
12,000. 

Communication. — There is railway communication with Port 
Elizabeth, via Grahamstown, the line joining the Midland system at 
Alicedale Junction, and a connection with the coast line from Port 
Elizabeth is projected, making a shorter route to that place; tele- 
graphic communication with all parts. 



CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 151 

Supplies of fresh provisions may be obtained, but water is scarce 
and indifferent'in quality. Fish may be caught in the river and near 
the Fountain Hocks. 

Climate. — ^The warm Agulhas Current, running down the coast 
from the southern tropic, moderates the winter cold, and frost is 
almost unknown ; it is thus rendered a genial resort for invalids. 

Coast. — From Kowie River the sandy beach, trending east-north- 
eastward for 6 miles to Riet Point, is low, sandy, and in places 
fringed with rocks; the hills, at i mile inland, range from 230 to 350 
feet in height, and are backed by hills about 350 feet high, faced with 
sand in places. At 1 mile westward of Riet Point, behind the coast 
ridge, is a hill 486 feet high, which, seen from either eastward or 
westward, is conspicuous. 

Rufane River, 2 miles eastward of Kowie River, has its mouth 
closed. 

Riet (Reed) Point, low and sandy, has sunken rocks extending 
at least 800 yards off it, and 400 yards off the coast at J mile west- 
ward of it; the sea breaks for a considerable distance off the point. 
Riet River discharges into the bight eastward of the point. 

Dangers have been reported to extend about 3J miles off Riet 
Point, and, in 1907, a vessel, striking an obstruction, foundered at 
2^ miles off it, therefore it would be advisable to give it a berth of 
about 4 miles; Glendower Peak Beacon bearing 259°, leads nearly 
1 mile seaward of the charted reef, and the same beacon about 277° 
should lead 4 miles off. 

Black Rocks or Three Sisters, connected with the shore by a 
narrow neck of land, show conspicuously like an island against the 
white sand behind; the central rock is 50 feet high, and on their 
sea side they are nearly perpendicular. Sunken Rocks extend from 
600 to 800 yards off Black Rocks, and off the point eastward of them, 
beyond which the sea breaks for some distance. 

Kleinemoud Rivers, situated about 1 mile eastward of the 
Black Rocks, have sandy mouths, generally closed, and are separated 
from each other by a narrow strip of land; they traverse a low 
country, covered with grass and patches of bush. 

Coast. — From Kleinemond Rivers the coast trends 3^ miles east- 
northeastward to Great Fish Point, with bushy hills near the sea, 
faced with sand nearly to their summits, and, at 2J miles from 
Kleinemond Rivers, these attain their greatest height of 307 feet in 
Palmiet Hill. 

Ghreat Fish Point is low, sandy, fringed with rocks, and a short 
distance within it the coast hills rise to a height of 260 feet ; a rock 
showing at low water, with 12 fathoms at 600 yards outside it, lies 
aearly 1,000 yards off the point. About 1,600 yards northeastward, 
and 500 yards offshore, is a half-tide rock on which the sea breaks. 



152 CAPE KECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 

Light. — On a prominent hill i mile northward of the point is an 
octagonal tower, 30 feet in height, with black and white bands, 
which exhibits, at an elevation of 278 feet above high water, a white 
flashing light ; it should be visible in clear weather from a distance 
of 23 miles. 

Coast. — ^Little Fish Point, about 1^ miles northeastward of Great 
Fish Point, is rocky and shelving, the hill over it being 140 feet 
high, covered with bush, and partially faced with sand. 

Great Fish River, 2J miles northeastward of Great Fish Point, 
is always open at its mouth, but the sea generally breaks across the 
entrance, the depth in which is not known and probably is not per- 
manent. Entering it at any time must be attended with considerable 
danger. 

From seaward the course of the river shows as a perceptible gap in 
the coastline, its pcsition being also known, in clear weather, by 
distant hills of an undulating form, which bear about 310° when in 
line with the ravine through which the river flows. 

At Rocky Head, the eastern point of entrance, are three dark 
rocks 25 feet high, outside and around which are several other rocks 
showing at low water and extending 300 yards in places. The sea 
breaks for some distance outside these rocks. 

At 600 yards within Rocky Head is a bushy peak 102 feet 
high, and near its base is the narrowest part of the channel, which, 
about 20 yards wide, appears deep for a width of about 10 yards. 
The sea does not break continuously, there being at times an inter- 
val of about 6 minutes when a boat might effect a landing, but when 
a break occurs it does so with much greater violence than that of the 
constant rolling surf along the sand fronting the river's mouth. 

At certain seasons the river rises considerably, when the stream 
becomes too strong for small craft to enter, but at other times it is a 
mere brook, and the stream is then inconsiderable. 

Current. — The water of the Great Fish River is of a red color 
and may be traced after rain for some miles westward of Kowie 
Point but is seldom seen eastward of the river. From this fact it 
is evident that an east-going current near this part of the coast, 
though occasionally experienced, is not of frequent occurrence. 

Waterloo Bay, included between Great Fish River and Stalwart 
Point, about 4 miles northeastward, has hills rising steeply from 
the beach to from 180 to 250 feet and faced with sand nearly to 
their summits, which are covered with dark bush. Two streams run 
into the bay, but both their mouths are closed with sand. 

In the center of the shore of the bay, about 2 miles northeastward 
of the Great Fish River, a ledge of rocks projects about 400 yards 
from the beach, with, at 200 yards off its eastern extreme, a sunken 
rock. 



CAPE BEOIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 153 

Temporary anchorage. — ^The anchorage in the bay, which can 
only be considered as temporary, is very much exposed with south- 
east winds, and vessels should always be prepared to leave it. Ves- 
sels should not anchor in a less depth than 9 fathoms, with Great 
Fish Point bearing 234° and the southwestern end of the rocks, about 
i mile northeastward of Great Fish River, 340° ; rollers occasionally 
set in even during calm weather, rendering it very unsafe. There 
is better anchorage in a depth of 14 fathoms, with good holding 
ground, over coarse sand, but this is at too inconvenient a distance 
for landing. 

Landing was formerly effected by means of surfboats in the bay 
between the rocks off the eastern point of Great Fish River and those 
to the northeastward of them, but even then it was diflScult, con- 
siderable strain being brought on the surf lines by the west-going 
current. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Waterloo Bay at 
4 h. m. ; springs rise about 6 feet. 

Stalwart Point. — The hills within Stalwart Point are 377 feet 
high, and some farmhouses are visible from seaward ; a shoal which 
stretched about 1,600 yards southeastward of the point is apparently 
extending seaward, and in 1908 a vessel struck an obstruction 2 miles 
distant from the point, which latter should be given a wide berth by 
passing vessels. 

The shore northeastward of the point is fringed with a series of 
ledges extending 400 to 600 yards from the beach, with sunken rocks 
a short distance off. 

Coast. — From Stalwart Point the coast, trending northeastward 
is almost a straight line, for a distance of 43 miles to the entrance 
of the Buffalo River, has few irregularities, no anchorages affording 
any shelter, and no off-lying dangers; several streams, but none of 
any importance, run into the sea on this stretch of coast. 

The Impekquina River, about 2 miles north, northeastward of Stal- 
wart Point, is generally closed at its mouth, and a little westward of 
it is a dark bushy head 144 feet high and partially faced with sand, 
behind which, i mile inland, a house is visible from seaward. The 
Umtata River, a little farther northeastward, has an entrance gen- 
erally open, and the coast between is fringed with ledges extending 
some distance from the beach, the sea breaking a long distance out- 
side them. 

A hill on the western side of Umtata River is 260 feet, and one on 
the eastern side 149 feet high, the latter covered with dark bush and 
faced with sand a short distance up; a sunken ledge extends 500 
yards from the latter hill. Golana River, 1 mile farther northeast- 
ward, is closed at its mouth ; the beach for about halfway is fringed 



154 CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 

with rocks, with a detached rock lying 400 yards off its eastern 
point. 

Bequa Biver, S miles northeastward of Golana Biver, is generally 
closed at its mouth, and the beach between is fringed with ledges, 
extending nearly 400 yards from the shore, with sunken rocks beyond. 
The coast ridge rises steeply from the beach, and gradually increases 
in height as Bequa Biver is approached. 

Madagascar Beef, about 1,400 yards in length, dry at low water, 
and with 12 fathoms at 400 yards outside it, lies i mile offshore, and 
the same distance northeastward of Bequa Biver; the sea always 
breaks over the reef. 

Coast. — Gosha Biver, another inconsiderable stream, apparently 
closed at its mouth, is about 2 miles northeastward of Bequa Biver, 
the shore between being a sandy beach, and, midway, fringed with 
rocks. From thence northeastward to Keiskamma Point the beach is 
sandy, fringed with rocks, and broken by two or three small rivulets. 
The coast ridge is partially faced with stand, varying in height from 
40 to 70 feet, the land immediately behind rising to a height of 300 
feet, and about J mile westward of the point forming a head, on the 
summit of which a house is visible to seaward. 

Keiskamma Point, low, sandy, and fringed with rocks, has a 
bushy-topped sand hill, 110 feet high, near its extreme, which, when 
seen from the westward, near the coast, appears like an islet. 

Bock. — At 1 mile southwestward from Keiskamma Point, and 
600 yards from the shore, is a rock which shows at low water, springs; 
the sea breaks heavily here in bad weather. 

Keiskamma Biver, about 1 mile northward of Keiskamma 
Point, is about 100 yards wide at its mouth, at low water, and 
within the river opens into a basin about 1 mile in extent, partially 
dry at low water; the main stream trends northwestward from the 
basin, and has its source many miles in the interior, draining a large 
tract of country. 

In fine weather boats sometimes enter and leave the river in safety, 
but such an occurrence is infrequent, and it is always attended with 
danger, as no dependence can be placed on the bar, the depths on 
which are constantly altering: in bad weather the surf extends a 
long i mile from the shore. On the western bank of the river are 
Hamburg and Bodiam, two German villages, the former about 1 
mile, and the latter 5 miles, from the entrance. 

About J mile northeastward of the entrance, and about 200 yards 
offshore, some rocks show at low water, and IJ miles south-south- 
eastward is a 10-fathom patch. 

Coast. — Between Keiskamma Point and Buffalo Biver the coast 
is covered with grass and bush in patches, and intersected by streams 
and deep ravines; it is backed by an irregular ridge of coast hills. 



CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MOEGAN. 155 

covered with dark bush, and faced at intervals with sand. About 
6 miles inland the hills rise to heights of from 600 to 700 feet, and 
when well off the coast a range of mountains from 2,000 to 3,000 feet 
in height, in the vicinity of King Williamstown, may be seen. The 
range in the vicinity of Grahamstown is also visible. 

Near Keiskamma Kiver, the coast is about 600 feet in height, with 
patches of sand 80 or 100 feet high, showing against the dark land, 
and its position may at once be known should a beacon, some 12 miles 
farther northeastward, be seen ; it may also possibly be identified by 
a mountain of conical shape, flattened at the top, standing by itself, 
with another high mountain a short distance to the eastward, which 
has three slight elevations. When these moimtains bear about 310*^, 
they are in line with the entrance of Keiskamma Eiver. 

Caution. — For the whole distance between Keiskamma and 
Bashee Points, a distance of about 95 miles, vessels should not 
approach the shore within a distance of 2 miles, nor at night nor in 
thick weather into a less depth than 40 fathoms. 

Coast. — From Keiskamma Eiver the coast trends northeastward 
about 6 miles to Chalumna River, with several streams between, two 
of which, like most of the small streams on this coast, are choked with 
sand ; Guanie, the eastern stream, is open at high water. 

Chalumna Eiver has a bank, dry at low water, extending across its 
mouth, and, from 1,000 to 2,000 yards northeastward of it, rocks 
extend- about 250 yards offshore; farther northeastward, the coast is 
sandy but fringed with rocks as far as the Nieca (Gneka) River, and 
about 1 mile southwestward of that river, and 700 yards offshore, is 
a rock which breaks. 

The Nieca (Gneka) River is open at high water, but a sand spit 
extends nearly across from the western point at low water ; the east- 
ern point, rising to about 150 feet, is covered with bush. Another 
stream empties itself northeastward of a low point 2^ miles north- 
eastward of Nieca (Gneka), River; at the northeastern point of its 
entrance is a bushy peak, 185 feet high. 

Beacon. — A black wooden pyramidal beacon, 51 feet in height, 
standing on an equilateral base and terminating in a sharp point, 
stands at an elevation of 381 feet on the hill, 1^ miles northward of 
the mouth of Nieca (Gneka) River; it should be visible in clear 
weather from a distance of about 23 miles, and serves as a landmark 
for identifying the coast. 

Nkutu (Iqutu) River, 5 miles northeastward of Nieca (Gneka) 
River, is generally open at high water, and at 1 mile inland is a 
bushy hill, 414 feet high, with a house visible from seaward near its 
eastern part halfway down its face; a sunken rock lies 700 yards 
southeastward of the river entrance. 



156 CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 

Gola River, 2^ miles northeastward of Nkutu (Iqutu) River, is 
also open at high water ; the shore between is fringed with rocks, and 
the coast hills covered with bush faced with sand. The hill at the 
western point of Gola (Igoda) River is about 120 feet high and 
covered with bush, the sand extending some distance up its face. 

Gola (Igoda) Point, on the eastern side of the river, projects some- 
what and rises precipitously to a rounded grassy summit, 336 feet 
high ; I mile inland is a remarkable peak, 443 feet high, conspicuous 
from all directions. At IJ miles northeastward of Gola (Igoda) 
Point is a stream, 700 vards off which is a sunken rock. 

Cove Bock, 2 J miles northeastward of Gola (Igoda) Point, is 
quoin-shaped, 86 feet high, and has a deep notch in the middle; it 
resembles an island, being only, connected with the shore, from which 
it is about 600 yards distant, by a neck of sand, and forms a good 
mark when coasting. Off it, and westward of it, at 400 to 600 yards 
offshore, are some outlying rocks which generally break. 

Landing. — Northward of Cove Rock boats may land on a small 
sandy beach even during southeasterly winds. 

Coast. — From Cove Rock, northeastward, the coast assumes a 
more pleasant aspect ; bare sand hills are now only occasionally met 
with, and they always have such remarkable forms as to be fair 
landmarks. 

From Cove Rock the coast trends northeastward to Hood Point, 
with several small streams entering between, and is fringed with 
rocks, but has no offlying dangers. 

Hood Point, nearly 5 miles northeastward of Cove Rock, is low 
and rocky, but rises steeply from the beach to a ridge 107 feet high, 
covered with grass and bush. 

Light. — On the northeastern end of the ridge of Hood Point 
stands a cylindrical red and white checkered tower 62 feet in height, 
from which is exhibited, at an elevation of 180 feet above high water, 
a white group flashing light; in clear weather it should be visible 
from a distance of 20 miles. 

Signal station. — Near the lighthouse is a signal station with 
which vessels can communicate by the International Code, but only 
during the hours of daylight. 

Buffalo River. — From Hood Point the coast bends round north- 
eastward for IJ mile? to the entrance to Buffalo River, the 5-faMiom 
contour line extending about ^ mile from it and breaking near its 
edge in bad weather. Buffalo River, rising in the Amatolas, forms the 
port of East London at its mouth, above which it is navigable for 
small steamers for a distance of 4 miles, the banks being steep and 
in places attaining a height of 200 feet. 

Castle Point, the south point of ^entrance to the river, is low and 
rocky, with rocks extending nearly 400 yards from it and tending to 



CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 157 

break the force of the sea against the breakwater, while on the north 
side of the entrance for about 1 mile the coast is fringed by a ledge 
of rocks, with detached low-water rocks extending off 200 yards in 
places. 

East London Harbor is formed on the south side of its entrance 
by a breakwater extending for a distance of 2,100 feet in a direction 
76**, which is in course of extension for a farther distance of 500 feet 
in the same direction. Within the breakwater a pier, about 450 feet 
in length, projects about 102° from the same point of the river. 

On the north side a pier extends for about 1,000 feet 103° from 
the northern point of entrance. 

Lights. — On the end of the north pier a fixed green electric light 
is exhibited at an elevation X)f 41 feet above high water from an 
iron framework 30 feet in height and should be visible in clear 
weather from a distance of 2 miles. 

About 1,400 yards northward of the preceding a fixed red electric 
light is shown from a white iron column 37 feet in height at an ele- 
vation of 64 feet above high water and should be visible from a 
distance of 4 miles. 

Leading lights. — Two fixed red leading lights, for use in enter- 
ing the harbor, are situated on the south side of the entrance and 
are nearly 300 yards apart and in line 258°. 

The front light is shown at an elevation of 45 feet above high water 
from a pyramidal tower 37 feet in height, with red and white bands, 
situated on Castle Point, within the root of the south breakwater, 
and should be visible in clear weather from a distance of 8 miles. 
For bearings of obscured arc, see Light List. 

The rear light is shown from a flagstaff with an inverted triangle 
as a topmark. 

Eogsignal. — During thick or foggy weather fog rockets are fired 
at intervals of not less than 10 minutes, in answer to signals from 
a vessel. 

Bar.— Like most South African rivers a sand bank fronts it, 
forming a bar, which to the 5-fathom contour line extends about 400 
yards from the present breakwater end ; the surf on it is often dan- 
gerous and after continued southwest or southerly winds and heavy 
seas, the bar has a tendency to shoal, becoming dangerous and some- 
times impassable. 

Depths. — ^The depths on the bar vary constantly, but dredgers 
are continually at work and there is an average depth of from 24 to 
25 feet, with less water between the breakwater and the North Pier. 
A vessel of 24^ feet draft has crossed the bar, also one of 490 feet 
in length, drawing 22^^ feet, and vessels drawing 18 or 19 feet can 
enter or leave at all states of the tide. 



158 CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 

Harbor. — There are wharves along both sides of the river, ex- 
tending to about i mile from the entrance, which is about 100 yards 
in width ; these wharves have a total length of about 6,000 feet, one 
of 1,500 feet, on the southwest side, having a depth of 28 feet along- 
side at low water, and vessels drawing 24 feet can lie alongside others. 

Extensive railway sidings serve the wharves on both sides of the 
river, and connect with the main line of railways. Steam and travel- 
ing cranes are capable of lifting up 50 tons, and on the new wharf 
on the southern side of the river are 13 electric cranes, lifting from 3 
to 20 tons. 

Proposed harbor works. — The following harbor works are pro- 
posed : The extension of the South breakwater for a further distance 
of 500 feet, and the removal of the pier on the north side, to allow 
the mouth of the river to be widened to 500 feet. From a position 
about 800 yards northeastward of the river mouth, a new pier to 
extend for a distance of 2,200 feet in a direction 167°, thus leaving 
an entrance between it and the extension of the South Breakwater 
with a breadth of 700 feet. 

Pilots. — Government pilots may be obtained, and pilotage is 
compulsory for merchant vessels; no stranger should attempt to cross 
the bar without one. 

Directions. — Coming from the westward the beacon, mentioned 
on page 140, is a good guide to identify the coast, and from the east- 
ward another beacon, about 15 miles to the northeastward, is equally 
useful in that direction. From the westward vessels should not 
approach the coast within a distance of 2 miles until nearing the port, 
when Hood Point Lighthouse, the buildings, flagstaffs, and a bluff 
150 feet high on the north bank are all landmarks. 

Coming from the eastward, the northeast comer of the barracks 
open to the low point of east head of the river, bearing 245° leads 
about i mile southward of Nahoon Point and the dangers offshore 
between it and Inkyanza River. 

From the latest information received, the marks for leading over 
the bar are a flagstaff surmounted by an inverted triangle in line with 
Castle Point Light Tower (pyramidal, red and white bands), bearing 
258°, or, when the deeper water is on the southwest side of the bar 
two posts surmounted by white disks and situated seaward of the 
port office are used. 

Anchorage. — Good anchorage, with westerly winds, may be ob- 
tained in a depth of 12 fathoms, with two flagstaffs, having black 
and white mastheads and standing near the inner end of the break- 
water, in line bearing 253°, Nahoon Point 30° and the breakwater 
end 248°, or from 400 to 600 vards farther westward, in 10 or 8 
fathoms, and the bottom of stiff mud underlying sand, being free 



CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 159 

from rocks, affords good holding ground, so that in cases where ves- 
sels have drifted from the anchorage it has been the result of the 
cables parting and not from dragging. Vessels should not anchor to 
the southwestward of the river. 

The anchorage is considerably exposed, and vessels generally lie 
broadside on to the sea, and so roll and strain to a great extent; steam 
vessels making a short stay may anchor at the inner berth above 
mentioned, but any vessel running the risk of lying at the anchorage 
in bad weather should on no account be in less depths than 12 or 
14 fathoms. Owing to the shifting nature of the bottom during gales 
anchors that have been lost are rarely recovered. 

Lighters go out to vessels in the roadstead in almost any weather, 
but vessels whose draft admit are taken into the harbor as soon as 
possible after arrival at the roadstead, and a copy of the port regula- 
tions should always be obtained by them. Sailing vessels anchored 
in the roadstead and unable to enter the harbor from any cause should 
put to sea on the approach of a gale, standing to the eastward, if 
possible, and then heaving-to. 

Life-saving station. — Two lifeboats and three sets of rocket 
apparatus are maintained. The signal J. C. T. by day or two white 
lights placed horizontally, by night, hoisted at the port office, and 
repeated at Signal Hill Station, denote that a lifeboat is under way. 
Signals to a stranded vessel are the same as those at Port Elizabeth. 

Signals. — Vessels can communicate with the signal station situ- 
ated on Signal Hill to the eastward of the entrance, by the Inter- 
national Code, and by semaphore in the daytime or by Morse Code at 
night. Vessels can also communicate, by the International Code, with 
the port office, when the signals from the signal station are not dis- 
cernible. 

All port signals must be answered by vessels, and strictly obeyed, 
and any vessel disregarding them will be reported at Lloyd's, and 
also to their owners. 

General port office signals. — 

1. Union jack over S. (white pierced blue) : Prepare for bad 
weather. 

2. Union Jack over J. (blue, white, blue, horizontal) : Veer cable 
and put spring on. 

3. Union Jack over black ball, J underneath : Veer to whole cable 
and put spring on. 

4. Union Jack over H. (white and red vertical) : Heave in cable 
to same scope as when first anchored. 

5. Ensign over black ball: Slip, and put to sea, lee vessels first, 
to avoid collision, but those that can get away clear do so at once. 



160 CAPE BEGIFE TO CAPE MOBQAN. 

6. Black ball at yardarm : Impossible to cross the bar. 

(No boat should attempt to cross the bar while this signal is up.) 

7. Black ball at yardarm and working flag at half mast : Bar tem- 
porarily impassable, waiting improvement 

8. Black ball three parts of the way up : Bar dangerous. 

CAUTION TO BOATS WORKING. 

When lighters are working, a red flag with a white center, known 
as the working flag, is hoisted at the port office flagstaff, but is hauled 
down when the bar is impassable. 

By nighty when boats are working, the following lights will be 
exhibited seaward from the port office: 

A white light: Bar passable. 

A green light : Recall for lighters, bar uncertain. 

A red light: Bar impassable, stop outside. 

Landing. — Steam launches and tugs are always available for 
landing and embarking passengers. Ships' boats should on no ac- 
count attempt to cross the bar, even in the finest weather. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Buffalo River at 3 h. 
47 m. ; springs rise 5^ feet, neaps rise SJ feet. For the information 
of the pilots the rise of tide is shown by signal from the port office. 

Tidal streams. — ^The in-going tidal stream sets across the bar 
and into the river at a rate of 3 knot; the outgoing stream has a 
velocity of about 1^ knots. 

Current. — At the anchorage off East London the current gen- 
erally runs southwestward at from 1 to 2^ knots, but in calm weather 
or during strong southwesterly winds the surface water is retarded 
and occasionally runs eastward about i knot or even more. 

Inshore, near the edge of the breakers, an eddy current frequently 
runs eastward ; this current varies in strength, but seldom attains a 
rate of i knot. In the offing, at about 15 miles from the coast, the 
regular Agulhas current runs steadily southwestward at rates of 
from 2 to 4 knots. 

Wind and weather. — Observations show that of the winds blow- 
ing along the land, northeast and southwest winds are fairly equal 
during the winter months; but from August to March southwest 
winds exceed northeast winds in the proportion of about 3 to 2. Of 
those that blow directly landward comparatively few are recorded, 
whilst those from off the land, between north and west-northwest, 
greatly preponderate during the winter months. The well-known 
black southeaster is the most dangerous wind at East London. 

Gales. — The weather near East London presents a marked differ- 
ence to that on ony cither part of the coast. When the mercury com- 



GAPE HEOIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 161 

mences to rise on the wind shifting to the westward the crisis is 
accompanied by lightning, thunder, and heavy rain. If the wind 
shifts suddenly southwestward in a squaU, with a rapidly increasing 
barometric pressure, a fresh gale may be expected, with fine weather, 
which will continue until the mercury rises to about 80.4 inches. 

If the barometer remains low and steady a strong gale from west- 
northwest may be expected, probably lasting several days ; but if the 
wind shifts slowly to southwest, the barometer rising slowly with 
drizzling rain, a strong gale and high sea may be looked for. 

In such a case the wind begins to blow hard from about west, and 
veers slowly southwestward until the mercury stands at about 30, the 
sky becomes leaden, thick, drizzling rain sets in, and the mercury 
oscillates between 30 and 30.10, the temperature being considerably 
below the average. 

In June, July, and August these much-dreaded southwesters often 
follow imsettled weather, preceded by moderate to fresh easterly 
breezes and a falling barometer. They blow with considerable vio- 
lence and have caused many disasters to shipping in East London 
Eoads. 

From October to April easterly winds are the most prevalent, and 
southeast gales may be expected. 

Boilers, seldom setting in during the summer months, are fre- 
qitent during the winter, and generally break in about 3 fathoms, in 
£rf^rmy weather in 5 fathoms, and sometimes even in 7 or 8 fathoms. 

Town. — ^The town of East London, standing on a wide plateau, 
on both sides of the river, at an elevation of about 200 feet, has its 
two portions, known as East London east and west, connected by a 
bridge. In 1913 the population was 23,500. 

Communication. — ^There are regular services of mail and inter- 
mediate steamers of the Union Castle Line, while other British, and 
occasional foreign, steamers run between East London and Europe, 
America, and India. 

East London is the coastal terminus of the eastern division of rail- 
ways, the main line being 286 miles in length to Bethulie bridge, with 
branches to Cookhouse via Blaney, to Idutywa via Amabele, to 
Tarkastad via Bowkers Park, to Maclear via Sterkstroom, to Aliwal 
North via Albert Junction, and a branch from Aliwas to Lady Grey 
and Motkop. A number of extensions are authorized. 

There is telegraph communication with all parts. 

Coal and supplies. — ^About 4,000 tons of coal are kept in stock, 
and a large quantity could be obtained from the pits in 48 hours. 
Besides this supply, about 37,000 tons are imported annually. Coal- 
ing is carried on by bags and baskets, and 2,000 tons could be put 
39511—16 ^11 



162 CAPE EECIFE TO CAPE MOBGAN. 

on board in 24 hours, or in a case of emergency 3,000 tons. There 
are 18 lighters, each holding 125 tons; also coal wharves 200 and 75 
feet in length, with a depth of 18 feet alongside. Southeast and 
southwest gales would interfere with coaling at the roadstead. 

Fresh meat, vegetables, and bread are good and plentiful, and 
good water can be obtained from the municipal reservoir, supplied 
by the harbor board. It is laid on to the wharves, and a tank boat 
supplies vessels in the roadstead. 

Patent slip. — ^A patent slip is situated on the southwest side of 
the river. 

Repairs. — ^Large repairs to machinery can be effected by the har- 
bor authorities, and any kind of repairs can be made to the hull of a 
vessel of 1,000 tons; steam and electric cranes lift up to 50 and 20 
tons, respectively, and there are small steam hammers. 

Hospital — Sailors' home. — A hospital and a sailors' home are 
maintained. 

Time signal. — ^A time ball, situated on a 149- foot hill about 200 
yards southward of Signal Hill, is dropped by electricity from the 
cape observatory at h. m. s., standard time of the Union, cor- 
responding to 10 h. m. s. Greenwich mean time; should the signal 
fail in accuracy a yellow flag is hoisted for a short time after the 
ball has dropped. The signal, which is not made on Sundays or 
public holidays, is visible to vessels alongside the wharves. 

Life-saving stations. — ^There are two life-saving stations, one 
600 yards eastward of the river mouth and the other at the port office. 

Trade.— In 1912 the exports were valued at $9,771,617 and the 
imports at $21,654,000. 

Coast. — ^Nahoon Point is about 2^ miles northeastward of Buffalo 
River, and midway is Inkyanza River, where there is a sandy beach, 
the remainder of this stretch being rugged cliffs, from 20 to 50 feet 
high ; no simken dangers exist beyond a distance of 400 yards, but the 
sea breaks at 600 yards from this coast, which should be given a 
wide berth. 

Landing. — Between East London and Bashee River the coast is 
everywhere fringed with rocks and by a continuous heavy surf, so 
that very few places offer any chance of successful landing even in the 
most favorable weather. Of such exceptional places the following 
two may be mentioned : 

About i mile northward of Nahoon Point is a small sandy bight, 
where it is said landing might be effected in westerly gales in case 
of emergency, and at Gonubie Point, on the southwestern side of the 
bight, landing might at times possibly be practicable. 

Nahoon (Eahoon) River, about f mile northward of Nahoon 
Point, is generally open at high water, and the tide is appreciable 



CAFE BECIFE TO CAPE MOEGAN. 163 

for about 3 miles up. The western point of the river is a bushy peak, 
80 feet high, and partially faced with sand. 

Life-saving station. — ^A complete set of life-saving apparatus 
is kept at Nahoon Point. 

Danger Point, 2 miles northeastward of Nahoon Kiver, is low, 
sandy, and fringed with rocks, and midway between these is Gonega 
(Quenera) Hiver, a small stream; the highest part of the coast hills, 
210 feet above the sea, is behind Danger Point, the sand extending up 
to the summit. Between Danger Point and Gonubie Point, 3 miles 
northeastward, are the Klakla and the Ganindugs streams. 

Reef. — ^A reef which dries 1 foot, with 11 fathoms 400 yards out- 
side it, lies 800 yards southward of Danger Point. 

Gonubie Point and Biver. — From Gonubie Point, a ledge of 
rocks extends westward i mile, and about 400 yards offshore ; in bad 
weather, the breakers extend 600 yards off, with uneven bottom be- 
yond. Gonubie River, i mile northward of the point, is open at high 
water, the tide running up about 3 miles. 

Coast. — ^At 2 miles northeastward of Gonubie Eiver is a bushy 
peak 242 feet high, inclining to the eastward, which, from its peculiar 
shape, is one of the conspicuous objects in the neighborhood ; a dome- 
shaped peak is situated about 3 miles farther northeastward. 

Kwelegha Point is low and rocky, and i mile northward of it is 
the Kwelegha River, the mouth of which is open occasionally; at 
1 mile northeastward is Bolegha (Buligha) River, also open at times. 
On the western bank of Bolegha River is a bushy hill, 237 feet high, 
faced with sand a short way up. 

Beef Point, 4 miles northeastward of Kwelegha Point, has two 
rocky horns, at the back of which is a sandy beach, with hills rising 
to a height of 313 feet. At 500 yards off the point is a ledge of rocks 
showing at low water ; the sea breaks fully i mile off the point. 

Beacon. — ^To distinguish the monotonous coast when approaching 
East London from the eastward, a black wooden pyramidal beacon, 
52 feet in height, surmoimted by a ball, stands on a hill 1 mile inland 
and 368 feet above the sea, between Reef Point and Kintza River, 
15 miles northeastward of East London ; it should be visible in clear 
weather from a distance of 21 miles. 

Coast. — Cape Morgan, 30 miles eastward of Buffalo River, may 
possibly be identified from the southwest and west by the high per- 
pendicular cliffs showing between Ikuko and Sklagha Rivers, and 
from the eastward by Kei Kop Hill and Snag Rocks ; Mazeppa Bay, 
by a somewhat conspicuous sand hill, and the coast southward of 
Bashee River by the Udwessa Cliffs. 

Between Reef Point and Cape Henderson, ftj miles farther north- 
eastward, the coast hills are high and faced with sand some distance 



164 CAPE BECIFE TO CAPE MOBGAN. 

up ; immediately behind, the land rising to from 360 to 400 feet, is 
covered with bush. 

Kintza (Incinsa) and Kief ani Rivers, north-northeastward of Beef 

Point, are closed, and from the latter river the coast turns north- 
eastward to Cape Henderson, with Kwenugha (Kwengura) and 
Naagh Rivers between ; the western point of the latter is a bare sand 
hill, 130 feet high, and conspicuous from being the last sand hill of 
note in this direction for nearly 25 miles. 

Cape Henderson^ rising directly from a rocky beach to a height 
of 485 feet, is covered with grass, but does not project to any extent 
beyond the coastline; it presents a dark bluff appearance from sea- 
ward, and on that account was probably described as a cape. At 
1^ miles east-northeastward of it is a stream, of which the western 
entrance point is a head 410 feet high, and off a point just eastward 
is a sunken rock on which the sea breaks in bad weather, lying about 
600 yards offshore and 850 yards eastward of Cape Henderson. 

Flat Point and the land northeastward for nearly 1 mile is not 
more than 25 feet above the sea, and grassy, but about ^ mile inland 
a grassy ridge rises to a height of 356 feet. At 1^ miles northeast- 
ward of Flat Point are the Umtwendwe and Nukwana, two small 
streams, and farther on the coast becomes much higher and trends 
gradually northeastward to Ikuko River. 

Ikuko or Double-mouth River is generally open, and the tidal 
stream runs up it about 1^ miles at high water; at 1,200 yards 
northeastward of Ikuko River and 200 yards offshore are some rocks. 

Between Ikuko River and Sklagha River, 2 miles farther north- 
eastward, the coast is irregular and consists of perpendicular cliffs 
varying from 140 to 220 feet in height; from thence a sandy beach, 
backed by steep coast hills covered with bush, extends nearly to Cape 
Morgan, with rocks in places at from 600 to 800 yards offshore. 

Diseolored water, about i mile in extent, and reported to exist 
about 8 miles south-southeastward of Flat point, may indicate the 
position of a shoal. 

Bock. — ^A rock, the position of which is doubtful, was reported 
in 1906 to lie rather more than 2 miles southeastward of the en- 
trance to Ikuko River. 

Cape Morgan, a broad, low rocky point, rising abruptly a short 
distance inland to a height of 275 feet, and at i mile to 395 feet, 
shows from seaward as a flat-topped hill covered with bush, and at 
I mile northward of it is Ikwili River, of no importance and with 
its mouth closed. Northeastward as far as the Kei River the beach 
is fringed with ledges extending 200 yards off. 

Dangers. — ^A rock with less than 1 fathom over it, on which 
a vessel was wrecked in 1910, is situated 1.7 miles southward of 



CAPE BECIFE TO CAPE MORGAN. 165 

the summit of Cape Morgan, and several dangers are reported to 
exist in this locality, while rocks, some above water, extend 700 
yards westward of the same cape. 

Seaward of these latter rocks are two shoal spots, 400 yards apart, 
the breakers on the western spot being 1,300 yards west-southwest- 
ward of the cape, but the eastern spot seldom breaks. 

Anchorage. — Shelter from northwesterly and westerly winds 
may be obtained at from 1,000 to 1,600 yards northeastward of Cape 
Morgan and the same distance offshore, and under favorable cir- 
cumstances landing might be effected. 



CHAPTEE V. 



KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 

Eei Biiver, a dangerous and rapid stream rising in the Storm 
Bergen Moimtains and entered If miles northeastward of Cape 
Morgan, has a bar on which the probable depths are f r6m 6 to 7 feet 
at low water, but it is scarcely ever passable, as breakers extend about 
1 mile eastward of the entrance, inside of which it is only 25 yards 
wide at low water; it then opens to a width of 700 yards, but about 
6 miles up it narrows to about 250 yards and its course becomes very 
sinuous, the land on either side being 500 feet high in places. 

On the southern side of the river and 4| miles inland is Kei Kop, 
a round-topped hill 865 feet in height, which may be seen from most 
directions, being the highest hill in the neighborhood. The tidal in- 
fluence extends about 2 miles above this hill, and here the river is 
sometimes suflSciently shallow to ford, but the wagon drift is about 
20 miles farther up the river. 

Snag rocks, one of them 10 feet high, lie from 1,000 to 1,600 
yards off the mouth of the Kei Biver, and sunken rocks, most of 
which are visible at low water, springs, extend nearly i mile north- 
eastward from the snag rocks. The sea breaks heavily all round these 
rocks, and in bad weather the breakers extend from 400 to 600 yards 
outside them. 

Bar — Dearth. — In consequence of the shifting nature of the 
channel and of the depth varying after gales or floods, stranger^ 
should not attempt to enter the Kei Biver. When examined in 1858 
the channel was close to a ledge of sunken rocks extending from the 
northern shore, the depth on the bar being probably not less than 
6 or 7 feet at low water. 

Directions. — If attempting to enter the river, in a case of neces- 
sity, the above ledge of rocks, over which the sea breaks heavily, 
should be watched for an opportunity to offer, pulling in when this 
occurs, and keeping the rocky shore so close as to leave just sufficient 
room f orthe oars. During heavy rollers the breakers on the bar ex- 
tend to the rocks, when, of course, the channel is impracticable. 

Landing. — If landing is necessary and the bar is impassable, it 
may possibly be effected at a sandy pit, sheltered to some extent by 
a patch of sunken rocks southward of it ; these rocks, over which the 

167 



168 KEI EIVEB TO CAPE COEBIENTES. 

sea breaks, lie 200 yards oflF-shore at three-quarters of a mile south- 
westward of the Kei River. 

When attempting to land on the spit with the in-going stream, and 
while waiting for a smooth, care must be taken that the boat be not 
swept too far northeastward, as it has been found that a boat, 
swamped in the endeavor to pass through the surf, was not thrown 
on the spit by the rollers but carried northeastward by the in-going 
tidal stream into the breakers on the bar, and from thence into the 
river through the channel, not being recovered for a considerable 
time. 

Equal care is necessary during the outgoing stream that a boat 
be not drifted to the southwestward, where the surf is much heavier 
and the beach rocky. 

Landing in surfboats is sometimes practicable in the sandy bay 
1^ miles northeastward of Kei River, and also on the beach near 
Kologha Biver. 

Anchorage. — ^There is temporary anchorage off the river, east- 
ward of the snag rocks, in depths of from 10 to 16 fathoms, but it is 
not recommended. 

Tides. — ^It is high water, full and change, at the Kei River, at 
about 4 h. m. ; springs rise about 5 feet. 

Tidal streams. — The stream during the rising tide sets north- 
eastward close inshore, and the other stream southwestward. At 1 
mile off the Kei River the current sets southwestward with a velocity 
of about 1^ knots. 

Coast. — The onlv sand hills for 100 miles northeastward of the 
Kei River are a sandy bluff at Sandy Point and a similar one 18 
miles farther northeastward. Between the Kei River and these 
sandhills, the coast is covered with grass and bushes down to the 
beach. 

Koko River, i mile northeastward of Kei River, has its mouth 
generally closed at low water, and from the Kei River the beach 
is fringed with rocks; with the exception of a bushy hill, 110 feet 
high, on the eastern side of the Koko River, the coast is low and 
grassy. 

Kologha Biver, 600 yards wide in the entrance, is open at high 
water, the channel being close to the southwestern point ; a sand spit 
extends from the northeastern point nearly across the entrance. 
From 1 mile south-westward of Kologha River to 4 miles north- 
eastward of it, the coast is grassy and covered with small hillocks 
about 10 feet high, formerly ant hills, over which stunted bush has 
grown ; when 4 or 5 miles distant, these hillocks are a conspicuous 
feature on this line of coast. 

At 800 yards southward of the western point of Kologha River is a 
sunken rock, and at 200 yards westward of it is the eastern end of a 



KEI BIVEB TO CAFE COBBIENTES. 169 

ledge 1,000 yards long, which uncovers at low water. Eastward of 
the sunken rock just mentioned is another lying 400 yards south- 
southeastward of the western point of Kologha River. 

The beach is fringed with rocks for the next 3 miles eastward, as 
far as the Kobinnaba Eiver, and at 500 yards southwestward of that 
river is a sunken rock on which the sea breaks. 

Eobinnaba Biver is always open, and the tidal stream runs up 
about 3 miles, where there is a ford ; off the extreme of the eastern 
point is a rock visible at low water. About f mile eastward of the 
river is Kobinnaba Point, with a hill 300 feet high within it. Several 
low-water rocks lie off the point. 

Nzaxa Biver^ generally open, has a low western point of en- 
trance, with a reef extending 200 yards off it in an easterly direction, 
close to which is the narrow channel into the river. The northeast 
entrance point is a sand hill covered with bush, with a sandy spit 
extending nearly across to the western side. 

The coast hills, rising precipitously from the sandy beach, form a 
ridge covered with dark bush and faced with sand to some height, and 
these extend from Nxaxa River to about i mile beyond Sandy 
Point, on which are four distinct peaks, the third from the westward, 
280 feet high, being the highest. 

Bowkers Bay, northeastward of Sandy Point, is a bight into 
which a stream discharges. 

Anchorage. — ^The British naval vessel Active^ in 1878, found 
good anchorage, with shelter from westerly winds, in a depth of 10^ 
fathoms, over sand, 1 mile off the stream, and the bay being examined 
under favorable circumstances it appeared to afford the best anchor- 
age on this part of the coast, and certainly the safest place for 
landing. 

Landing. — Fronting the stream, landing was effected in a whale- 
boat manned by boatmen from Port Elizabeth, but the surf broke in 
a depth of 3 fathoms abreast of the landing place. 

Coast. — ^Umfani River is IJ miles northeastward of Bowkers 
Bay, and about 700 yards farther is the Istamfoona River, both 
rivers open at high water. Between these rivers is a rocky point, 
behind which is a bushy peak, 255 feet in height, appearing in some 
directions as a double summit ; sand extends about 40 feet up its sea 
face. At 600 yards southeastward of the mouth of Umfani River is 
a sunken rock which frequently breaks. 

Stony Point is nearly 1 mile northeastward of Istamfoona River, 
the coast between being fringed with rocks to a distance of 200 
yards; the point is low, with a rock 6 feet high at 100 yards and 
rocks extending 200 yards off it, while two breaking patches lie 
southward of the point, the outer ^ mile distant from it. 



170 * KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 

Obstruction. — An obstruction, on which a vessel struck, was 
reported (1913) to exist at about 1^ miles southeastward of Stony 
Point. 

Coast. — Between Stony Point and the Manubie River is the Umtil- 
wane River, the mouth of which is nearly closed; the shore between 
is low, with a rocky beach, skirted with rocks. 

Manubie River, open at high water, has a spit of sand extending 
nearly across its mouth, the channel being on its western side. At 
the western point of entrance the land is 95 feet high and covered 
with bush ; the eastern point is low, being the extreme of a ridge of 
beach hills which rise abruptly. At 800 yards eastward of the Ma- 
nubie River are several rocks about 200 yards from the shore, and 
about li miles northeastward of the same river is the mouth of the 
Kleena, which is open at high water. 

Mazeppa Pointy close eastward of Kleena River, the shore be- 
tween being fringed with rocks, may be identified by a grassy peaked 
islet, 26 feet high, lying about 10 yards off it, but there are no 
dangers, although the sea breaks some distance off in bad weather. 

Mazeppa Bay^ between Mazeppa Point and Kogha River, some* 
times allows cargoes to be landed from small vessels in very fine 
weather, but with great difficulty; the best place is on the beach just 
eastward of Nebbelelli River, but in bad weather rollers set in right 
across the bay. A path runs from the western side of this bay up the 
ridge, through the Manubie forest, and continues up the ridge to the 
Natal Road, about 30 miles from the coast, joining it a few miles 
eastward of Butterworth mission station. 

The Nebbelelli River, discharging into the center of the bay, is 
open at high water, and from its rocky eastern point a ledge dries 
out 200 yards to a patch of rocks; from this point a sandy beach 
commences and continues northeastward for about i mile, when the 
shore again becomes rocky. 

Eogha River, 2 miles northeastward of Mazeppa Point, is always 
open, and has a sandy spit extending nearly across its mouth from 
the western point, the land over which is 150 feet high and covered 
with bush. The eastern point, also bushy, is 87 feet high, and from 
its base a rocky point extends southwestward, with a low-water rock 
about 100 yards from its extreme. 

Its banks are high and in many parts perpendicular, and on the 
right bank, about 3 miles from the mouth, the Manubie Forest com- 
mences, extending about 2J miles northwestward, nearly parallel to 
the river, and is about 1 mile in width ; the river is tidal for 4 or 5 
miles from its mouth. 

At 800 yards northeastward of Kogha River and IJ offshore is 
a ledge of rocks 3 feet high, and two-thirds of a mile northeastward 



KEI BIVER TO GAPE GOBBIENTES. 171 

of the river, is a low rock point with a sunken rock 150 yards off it; 
in the bight between are several low water rocks. 

Juju River, 1 J miles northeastward of Kogha River, is generally 
open at its entrance; its western point is low and rocky. On the 
northeastern bank of the river, a short distance from the mouth, is a 
dark bushy head about 90 feet high, and from its base a sandspit 
extends nearly across the river, leaving only a narrow channel be- 
tween. 

Coast. — One mile northeastward of Juju River is a stream gen- 
erally open at high water, and on the extreme of its western point 
is a green hummock 15 feet high, with a rock 100 yards off. From 
this stream the shore trends northeastward for IJ miles to Shekleen 
River, the coast between having sandy hillocks covered with bush 
and rising to a height of 200 feet at i mile inland ; nearly midway 
between these streams, and 150 yards from the shore, are some sunken 
rocks. 

Shekleen River is generally open, the channel running close to 
the base of a peak, 120 feet high, which drops perpendicularly on 
the western side of the river; the eastern side is low, with a sandy 
beach. Between Shekleen River and the point of the same name is a 
black headland from which the land rises abruptly to a height of 275 
feet. 

Shekleen Point, about 50 feet high, is connected with the coast 
ridge by a neck of sand and bush, and when seen from near the 
coast it makes as an islet. At 1^ miles northward of Shekleen Point 
is Onabie River; and beyond it the Kawka River, with the Gnab- 
bakka River 2 miles farther northeastward ; between the Kawka and 
Gnabbakka Rivers the coast is fringed with rocks. 

Gnabbakka River, 4^ miles northeastward of Shekleen Point, 
has a wide entrance, and its mouth is common to two streams; the 
eastern stream is the larger, and the tidal stream runs up it about 5 
miles. From thence to Gnabbakka Point, about 1^ miles farther, the 
coast is rocky, attaining a height of from 200 to 300 feet at ^ of a 
mile inland, and is broken by several ravines. 

Ingoma River lies about 1^ miles northeastward of Gnabbakka 
Point, and i mile farther is KaboUa River; between the two is a 
rocky point, the coast being about 170 feet high. From KaboUa 
River the coast, composed of perpendicular cliffs about 160 feet in 
height, trends eastward to Udwessa, a dark bluff point, i mile north- 
eastward of which the cliffs cease, and the coast, to Amendu Point 
and River, is fringed with rocks in places. 

Amendu Point is a rocky projection with a bushy hillock 25 feet 
high on it, and on the western side of Amendu Point is a hill 115 
feet high ; several rocks above water lie near, and a sunken rock lies 
about 500 yards off the point. Between Amendu Point and Bashee 



172 ~ K£I BIVEB TO OAPE COBBIBirTE& 

Eiver, 2 miles northward, the coast hills, covered with bush, are 
about 60 feet, and are backed by land about 180 feet, high. The 
Amendu River forces its way to the sea through a sandy spit, which 
stretches across from the eastern point. 

Bashee River. — The entrance to Bashee River is about 600 yards 
in width, with sandy spits extending from both points, leaving a 
channel about 50 feet in breadth, with a depth of 2 or 3 feet at low 
water; within the entrance are sandbanks drying at low water, the 
channel lying westward of them and close alongshore; above the 
sand banks the river expands to an average width of 300 yards. 
The sea breaks for 400 yards or more outside the entrance. 

The western point of entrance is low and grassy, but about i mile 
up the river on the western side is a grassy hill 270 feet high ; the 
hill on the eastern side of entrance is high and covered with bush. 
The banks of the river are steep and generally free from bush on 
the western side, but on the eastern side, from half a mile within the 
entrance, they are covered with thick bush. About 1^ miles up the 
river, and i mile from the western bank, the dense Udwessa Forest 
commences, and extends in a westerly direction for about 5 miles, 
with a width of IJ miles. 

Beacon. — ^A black beacon consisting of a timber tripod, 50 feet 
in height, stands on a round-topped grascy hill, about 150 feet above 
high water, and half a mile northeastward of Bashee River en- 
trance; it is reported to be very indistinct and probably not visible 
more than 6 or 7 miles. 

Anchorage. — ^The British naval vessel Active, in 1878, found 
good anchorage off this river in a depth of lOJ fathoms, over sand, 
with Amendu Point bearing 227°, and the western head of the river 
294°. Rollers set in after a strong westerly or southwesterly breeze, 
occasionally breaking in 6 or 7 fathoms, but generally, off the mouth 
of the river, in 3^ or 4 fathoms. 

Landing is dangerous, and of two attempts made by a boat from 
the British naval vessel Active; in the first case the boat was carried 
1^ miles westward to a sandy beach from 1,000 to 1,400 yards north- 
ward of Amendu Point, the crew having to return to the vessel, while 
on the second attempt the boat was capsized, one life was lost, and 
the remainder of the crew, reaching the shore with difficulty and 
being unable to return to the ship, had to proceed by land to East 
liondon. 

Caution. — Before attempting to land in Amendu Bight on this 
beach, which is about 200 yards in length, the direction of the current, 
outside the edge of the surf, should be ascertained so as to avoid 
being set over the rocky ground, which evidently extends from the 
shore on either side of the sandy beach. The rollers occasionally, 



KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 173 

without warning, break heavily a considerable distance outside the 
usual line of breakers. 

Bashee Point, about 1 mile eastward of the river, is bushy, with 
a grass hummock ; a rock lies a short distance off it. 

Current. — The Agulhas' Current off this coast generally sets par- 
alel with the shore, with velocities of from 1 to 3 J knots ; it is weak 
near the shore, and stronger near the edge of the bank of soundings. 
It almost invariably sets south westward through all the anchorages 
between East London and Bashee River, but sometimes, in fine 
weather, within about 2 miles from the shore, a weak current may 
be found setting northeastward; this northeasterly set has occasion- 
ally been known to eidiend 7 or 8 miles off the land. 

Coast. — Between the Bashee and Umkomass Rivers the coast is 
fringed with outlying rocks for distances varying from 200 to IfiOO 
yards. 

Hole in the Wall. — About 17 miles northeastward of Bashee 
River are two rocks about 100 feet high. The southwestern rock is 
flat-topped, has a natural archway caused by a perforation at the 
base, and is known as the Hole in the Wall; the northeastern, and 
higher rock of the two, has a wedge-shaped cleft in the summit. 

Whale Rock Pointy about 8 miles northeastward of the Hole 
in the Wall, is 70 feet high and wooded for about 300 yards inland ; 
Whale Rock lies close off the point. The surrounding country is grass 
land, with the exception of two patches of trees between it and the 
Umtata River to the westward. 

Rame Head, about lOJ miles northeastward of Whale Rock Point, 
is a rocky point, sloping gradually, with a small rock at its extreme ; 
about 1,600 yards offshore, a little westward of the head, there are 
depths of from 8 to 10 fathoms. Brazen Head, the summit of which 
is 809 feet high, is about 5 miles northward of Rame Head, and when 
seen from the eastward has the appearance of two distinct points, 
densely wooded, steep, and bold. 

Landmarks. — Between Rame Head and Waterfall Bluff, about 
32 miles northeastward, the coast is faced with a number of high 
bluffs, which do not occur on any other part of the coast, eastward 
or westward, for a long distance. St. John River is about midway 
in this line of coast, and about 4^ miles southwestward of its en- 
trance, and connected to the shore, is a remarkable Sugar Loaf Rock. 
Cape HermeSy the south extreme of Gordon Bay, is a round 
grass-covered hill, 433 feet in height, with a rock 8 feet high lying 
2CD yards off it; th« north extreme of the bay has a similar hill 
over it, but of less height. 

Light. — About 100 yards westward from the extreme of Cape 
Hermes, stands an octagonal tower of dark gray masonry, 44 feet in 



174 KEI RIVBE TO CAPE COBRIENTES. 

height, with a white lantern, from which is exhibited, at an elevation 
of 180 feet above high water, a white flashing light; it should be 
visible in clear weather from a distance of 20 miles. For bearings of 
arc of visibility, see Light List. 

Signal station. — Vessels can communicate by the International 
Code with a signal station on Cape Hermes. 

Landing. — ^Just within the cape, at the junction of the rocky 
shore with the sand, is Pauls Cove, where landing may sometimes be 
effected when the bar of the river is impracticable ; if necessary, boats 
can be dragged from thence along the beach to the river. Should a 
boat be swamped in the surf, it would be almost impossible for the 
crew to reach the shore, as sharks are numerous both outside and 
inside the river. 

Close inshore during the ingoing tidal stream, which runs regu- 
larly, a strong stream was found setting southward along the sandy 
shore inside the breakers, and along the rocky shore in the direction 
of Cape Hermes. This stream should not be forgotten in attempting 
to land with the in-going stream, for on one occasion it was found so 
strong that a cutter could barely stem it. 

The anchorage, in a depth of 13 fathoms, with Cape Hermes 
Lighthouse 273°, distant 1,650 yards, and Porpoise Rock 316° was 
found to be good; but a berth in about 8 fathoms nearer the river 
entrance would probably be better. No current was experienced at 
the anchorage. 

Gordon Bay, the indentation in the coast northeastward of Cape 
Hermes, into which the St. John River flows, affords fair anchorage, 
but is exposed from about east by north, round by south, to west by 
north. 

St. John (Umzimvubu) River, rising in the Drakensberg, is 
navigable for vessels of 6 to 7 feet draft for about 12 miles, the dif- 
ficulty being the bar at its entrance. The appearance of the land 
from off the mouth of this river is so remarkable that it is easily 
recognized, as, at the entrance, a table mountain, 1,200 feet high, ap- 
pears to have been cleft to its base, leaving a wedge-shaped gap in 
the center, through which the river discharges into the sea. 

St. John's Gates, the upper part of this tableland, is bare stratified 
sandstone rock, like Table Mauntain ; but, at 200 feet below, a dense 
forest covers the cliffs to the edge of the river. The gates are IJ 
miles from the entrance of the river, the western gate, 1,239 feet high, 
being very steep; the eastern gate, 1,1G3 feet high, has two distinct 
terraces of tableland with grass on them. 

Below the gates the river banks are so steep that small craft may 
lie alongside them, but above them the bottom is very irregular, with 
shallow reaches and recurring deep holes, a depth of 56 feet having 



KEI EIVEB TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 175 

been found in one place; the river also becomes more open and its 
banks lined with reeds. 

The comitry is well watered and capable of supporting large herds 
of cattle, and near the coast the soil is said to be suitable for the 
growth of cotton, sugar, and coffee; copper is supposed to exist in 
various places in the vicinity. 

White's Station is a trading post 7 miles up the river on the right 
bank, and about 2 miles beyond is a wagon drift, known as Davis's 
Drift, but it is a dangerous crossing. Small craft drawing 6 feet can 
navigate to within ^ mile of the drift, and in many places can lie 
alongside the banks. There is plenty of good timber and limestone 
in the neighborhood of the river, which is tidal to about 1 mile above 
the site of Fort Harrison, dismantled in 1882. 

Port limits. — ^The following are the limits of the port under the 
harbor authorities as defined by the Government : The area included 
within a line drawn from Cape Hermes Signal Station to a point at 
sea bearing 180°, 1 mile; from that point to another point bearing 
from it 90°, 2 miles; and from the last-named position to Bluff Point 
bearing 2.6 miles. Also the whole area of tidal waters of St. John 
River and its tributaries including its banks and foreshores to high- 
water mark. 

The port is under the control of the department of railways and 
harbors, eastern division, the local authority being the port officer, 
whose orders, messages, or signals should be promptly obeyed and 
carried out. 

Bar — Depths. — ^The bar, about 500 yards southeastward of Por- 
poise Rock, the eastern point of entrance, is about 200 yards in 
breadth, the average depth at low water being about 6 feet ; on both 
sides of the channel there are often heavy breakers, and at times 
the sea breaks across the entrance for four or five successive days, 
especially after southwest gales, when the rollers are unsusally 
high. 

The bar is of quicksand and constantly shifting, and in December 
the channel is on the eastern side near the Porpoise Rock, but as the 
dry season advances it moves westward until June or July. In June, 
when the bed of the channel is on the western side, the depth on the 
bar may be as little as 4 feet at low water, and in the rainy season 
it may increase to about 8 feet, but the depth entirely depends on 
the rainfall. 

As much as 20 feet has been found in freshets, and these may occur 
at any time, as in June, 1902, when a sudden freshet, of which there 
was no warning, came down the river and took to sea a sailing ketch, 
which was lost with all hands. The rainy season prevails from 
October to April. 



176 KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 

Even during the unfavorable part of the year for small craft enter- 
ing the river, except during very boisterous weather, the bar is always 
practicable for surfboats, but* no boats are permitted to cross the bar 
without permission of the port officer, imder a penalty of £10. 

Bar signals are made from the signal mast at the port office, and 
in no case should a boat attempt to cross the bar unless the blue 
flag is hoisted at it. 

1. Blue flag at east yardarm : Open boats may cross or recross bar. 

2. Black ball close up under west yardarm: Bar impassable for 
any open boat. 

3. Black ball as above at the dip : Caution is requisite. 

4. Red flag over blue flag at east yardarm: Becall for all fishing 
boats. Come at once. 

5. Bed flag at west yardarm, blue flag at dip at east yardarm: 
Wait until flood tide. 

6. Red flag at masthead : Freshet expected. Secure all small boats. 
Life-saving station. — ^A rocket apparatus is stationed at St. 

John Harbor. 

Tides. — ^It is high water, full and change, at St. John River, at 
4 h. 8 m. ; the rise is about 5^ feet. 

Settlement. — A settlement, formed in 1883 on the western bank 
of the river, contained in 1912 a European population of about 250. 
The resident magistrate of the territory discharges the functions of 
port officer. A wooden jetty extends for a distance of 170 feet along 
the west bank of the river just within the entrance; it is 35 feet in 
width and has a depth of 9 feet alongside. 

Communication. — ^The construction of a railway has been pro- 
posed which will have two branches, one extending westward to 
Umtata, the other northward to Kokstad in Griqualand ; when com- 
pleted there will be through communication between Cape Town and 
Port Natal. 

Supplies. — ^Provisions and good water are obtainable, but no 
coal, and there are no facilities for repair. Timber and limestone are 
abundant. 

Trade. — ^The values of the exports and imports are very small ; 97 
steam vessels entered in 1912. 

Bluff Point is about 2 miles northeastward of the entrance to 
St. John River, the shore between being skirted with rocks in places 
to a distance of 200 yards ; a small stream enters the sea about 1,000 
yards westward of that point. At 400 yards from the shore on the 
eastern side of Bluflf Point is St. John Reef, with a least depth of 6 
feet at low water. 

Coast. — Northeastward of Bluff Point the coast, continuing high 
for about 15 miles to Waterfall Bluff, is intersected by a number 
of ravines, through which small streams discharge into the sea. The 



KEI BIVEB TO CAPE COBBIENTES. 177 

Igosa Forest stretches from St, John River to Port Grovenor, a dis- 
tance of about 22 miles. 

The Entafufu Biver is about 6 miles and the Umzimklava Biver 
9 miles northeastward of St. John Biver; the latter has a round hill 
on its eastern side, with two rocks at its base, and the Umzimpunzi 
and Embotyi Bivers are 3 and 4 miles northeastward of it. 

Waterfall Blu£F^ the easternmost of a succession of bluffs, is 
abo]it 200 feet high, and from its summit two streams of water fall 
into the sea, the westernmost forming a continuous cascade, but the 
eastern broken at about a third of the distance down. These falls 
may be seen 7 or 8 miles off, but in dry weather the voluijie of water 
is probably much diminished, if not entirely dried up. 

Coa^t. — ^Northeastward of Waterfall Bluff, the coast, which is 
moderately high inland, sloping gently down to the beach, has a 
luxuriant appearance in the wet season, being clothed with bright 
green grass and clumps of trees and bushes, frequently relieved by 
streams and small cascades; but it is probable that a few weeks of 
drought greatly alters its appearance. 

Port Grovenor. — A bight in the coast about 6 miles northeast- 
ward of Waterfall Bluff, has Ubazi Biver entering its head; there 
appears to be but little difficulty in landing goods here. A detached 
coral patch, reported to lie about 400 yards off the reef fronting 
the western point of the bay, or about 1,000 yards offshore, is said to 
extend farther seaward than as charted. 

Coast. — A bight similar to Port Grovenor, situated about 4J miles 
northeastward, and into which the Umtsikaba Biver discharges, has 
on its eastern side South Sand Bluff, a round-topped^sand hill pre- 
senting a sandy bluff to the westward, the top being covered with 
bush. A similar sand bluff, which is very conspicuous, lies 21 miles 
farther northeastward, and midway between them is a red-topped 
hill, which is in sight from both bluffs. 

The Umtentu and Isikota Bivers enter the sea between South Sand 
Bluff and Bed Hill, and the Umyameni, Umzamba, and Umtamvuna, 
besides smaller streams, between the Bed Hill and North Sand Bluff, 
the latter 11 miles northeastward. The southern point of the Um- 
tentu Biver is marked by a quoin-shaped hill, and on the southern 
side of the Umtamvuna Biver there is a strip of sand up the side of 
a wooded hill, which shows like a road ; coming from the northward 
it opens out when bearing about 248^. 

The Umtamvuna Biver forms the southern boundary of the 
Province of Natal. 

Coast. — ^The coast trending for a distance of 21 miles in a north- 
east direction from the Natal boundary to the Izotsha Biver is with- 
out prominent features or offlying dangers of any sort, except that 

39511—16 12 



178 KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORREENTES. 

7 miles northeastward of the boundary and 1 mile southwestward of 
Umpenjati River are two sunken rocks 1,000 yards offshore. 

Congella Shoal^ on which a vessel grounded in 1906, is reported 
to lie about 1 mile offshore, and about 55^, distant about 4 miles from 
North Sand Bluff. 

Izotsha Biver, about 18 miles northeastward of North Sand 
Bluff, may be known by the large house on its southern bank; foul 
ground has been reported to exist at from 1 to 4 miles offshore in 
the vicinity of the Izotsha and Umbango Rivers. 

Port Shepstone. — ^TJmzliiikulu Blver, B^ miles northeastward 
of Izotsha Jliver, is easily recognized, as on the southern side of its 
entrance is a long low point, which rises to a height of 300 feet at 2 
miles from the sea, and has on it the signal station and signalman's 
lookout. Behind it lies the scattered village of Lower Umzimkulu. 

Light. — On the southwest point of entrance is a black and white 
checkered tower, 25 feet in height, with a white lantern which ex- 
hibits, at an elevation of 78 feet above high water, a white occulting 
light; it should be visible in clear weather from a distance of 15 
miles. (For bearings of arc of visibility, see Light List.) 

Port. — ^The estuary forming Port Shepstone extends about 8 
miles inland, with a width of about 200 yards at its mouth, but no 
seagoing craft of any description can cross the bar, which has shoaled 
to such an extent that the river mouth is sometimes completely 
closed. 

Communication. — The south coast line of railway skirts the 
coast to Port Natal, via Umzinto, a distance of 74 miles, while a line 
runs inland to Harding; there is telegraphic communication with 
the telegraph system of the colony. 

Trade. — ^The trade consists of lime, cement, marble, cattle, grain, 
fruit, and farm produce, and there are sugar and tea plantations and 
factories. 

A rock was reported in 1895 as lying 1,500 yards offshore at 
about 3 miles northeastward of Port Shepstone. 

Life-saving station. — ^A rocket apparatus is maintained at Port 
Shepstone. 

Coast. — Red-topped Hill, 231 feet high, and about 15 miles north- 
eastward of Port Shepstone, has a ^ative kraal in the valley just 
eastward of it. Umtwalumi River, about 3^ miles farther north- 
eastward, is conspicuous, and somewhat resembles St. John River ; it 
is the only river with high, steep banks northward of Port Shep- 
stone, and when it is open a remarkable rocky peak is seen in the 
opening, and high up on the left bank are a few houses. 

Besides the streams mentioned by name between St. John River 
and Natal are many concerning which there is no information beyond 



SBI BIVBB TO GAPS OOBBIEKTES. 179 

that shown on the chart, and it will be noticed that few soundings 
have been taken in this locality, so that caution should be exercised. 

Current. — Owing to the configuration of the coast northward 
of Cape Natal the Agulhas current is deflected from the shore line 
at Durban but strikes it again in the vicinity of Port Shepstone, 
causing an interval of slackness between the latter point and Durban, 
and a vessel proceeding within 2J to 3 miles from the coast would, 
after passing Port Shepstone, gradually lose the current until Aliwal 
Shoal is reached, when its effect would be practically imperceptible. 

TJmzinto River and Bay. — ^The mouth of the Umzinto River is 
26 miles northeastward of Port Shepstone, and 3 miles inland of 
Umzinto village are the Umzinto Co.'s sugar estates and several 
farms. Umzinto Bay is about 1 mile northward of the river. There 
is a whaling station, the headquarters of the vessels being at Dur- 
ban ; as these vessels can not come alongside here, the whales have to 
be hauled through the surf. 

Gonununication. — ^The coast railway runs southwestward to 
Port Shepstone and northeastward to Port Natal, and a line to 
Donnybrook connects with Pietermaritzburg ; telegraphic communi- 
cation with all parts. 

Scottsburg is « small town about 5^ miles northeastward of 
Umzinto River, and midway is Park Rynie, both being stations on 
the south coast line. 

Beacon. — ^A beacon, consisting of a mast surmounted by a disk, 
the upper half of which is red and the lower half white, at an eleva- 
tion of 159 feet, stands on the shore at Scottsburg, and southward of 
the entrance to Umpambinyoni River. 

Green Point, about 2^ miles northeastward of Scottsburg, rises 
to 360 feet at about 1,200 yards within it. 

Lights. — On Green Point is a cylindrical tower 68 feet in height, 
with red and white bands, which exhibits, at an elevation of 282 
feet above high water, a white group flashing light, which should be 
visible in clear weather from a distance of 23 miles. 

From the same tower a red fixed light is shown at an elevation of 
248 feet, covering Aliwal Shoal. (For bearing of the arcs of visi- 
bility of both lights, see Light List.) 

Beacon. — ^About 500 yards southeastward of the lighthouse is a 
pyramidal beacon, surmounted by a cask, which in line with the light- 
house, bearing about 282°, points out the direction of Aliwal Shoal. 
By day the lighthouse may probably be seen from distances of 14 
or 15 miles, and a white house, just eastward of Hafa River, is also 
a useful mark when approaching from the southwestward. 

Aliwal Shoal, rocky, dangerous, and about 1,400 yards in length 
in a northeast and opposite direction, and 200 yards in width, 
between the 5-fathom contour line, has a least depth of 1^ fathoms 



180 KEI RIVER TO CAPE OORBIBNTBS. 

on its northeast end, and lies in the track of vessels proceeding along 
the coast, being 2^ miles off Green Point with the lighthouse and 
beacon in line. The depths are from 14 to 17 fathoms at 400. yards 
from the shoal, and from 12 to 15 fathoms between it and the coast 

Directions. — By day, in clear weather, there is no difficulty in 
passing inside Aliwal Shoal ; in thick weather, either by day or night, 
vessels should pass outside, and not stand into less than 40 fathoms. 

By night. — ^To pass inside the shoal, if from the southward, steer 
toward Green Point white flashing light, keeping it a little on the 
port bow, and, as it is approached, shaping course so as to pass about 
IJ miles seaward of the point. When the red fixed light shows, and 
until it disappears, the vessel will be passing between the Aliwal 
Shoal and the shore, about 1 mile distant from the shoal. After pass- 
ing the shoal a course may be steered as necessary up the coast. 

If from the northward, reverse the directions just given. 

To pass outside the shoal, from either direction, when Green Point 
white flashing light is sighted, steer so as to pass about 5 miles out- 
side it. When passing through the arc of red light, the shoal should 
be about 1^ miles inshore of the vessel, and the depth of water be- 
tween 30 and 40 fathoms. 

Current. — A strong current sets over the Aliwal Shoal in a south- 
westerly direction, but midway between the shoal and Green Point it 
is reduced to 1 knot or less, or at times a counter current sets to the 
northeastward. 

Beacon. — ^Amahlongwana River is nearly 2 miles northeastward 
of Green Point, and on the north side of the entrance is a beacon 
170 feet above high water, consisting of a mast surmounted by a 
white triangle. 

Umkomass (Umkomanzi) River^ 3 miles northward of Green 
Point, had from 6 to 7 feet over its bar, at high water, its mouth 
being a tidal estuary, about 100 yards in width, which formed a port 
suitable for small coasting steamers; but owning to the shoaling of 
the bar and its extension across the entrance, the estuary can not 
now be considered available even for small craft. Several estates 
and scattered farms are in the district, and near a hotel, at about 8 
miles from the mouth of the river, is good fishing, while higher up 
the scenery becomes broken and wild, and game is abundant. 

Communication. — ^The railway between Port Shepstone and 
Port Natal, crosses the river close to its mouth, and a good road 
traverses the whole of the country ; a ferryboat crosses the river near 

the hotel. 

Bock — Caution. — ^At 8 miles northeastward of the Umkomass 
River is the little river Amanzimtotana, and in 1903 the existence of 
a rock, awash at half tide, was reported at about 1 mile eastward of 
its entrance^ As no soundings have been obtained between the neigh- 



KEI BIVBB TO OAPE COEBIENTEB. 181 

borhood of the Aliwal Shoal and Port Natal, this shore must be con- 
sidered dangerous of approach. 

False Bluffy 418 feet in height, is about 12 miles northeastward 
of Umkomass River, and 2 miles farther in the same direction is the 
Umlazi River, which drains the Ipisingo Flat and the sugar plan- 
tations; there are several steam mills near the river. 

Cape Natal, also known as Natal Bluff, 9^ miles northeastward 
of Umlazi River, is a high wooded tongue of land terminating in a 
remarkable bluff, 195 feet high; it is easily identified, the coast to 
the northward receding and being low for several miles. On the 
summit is a light tower, signal station, and time ball, and at its base 
a quarantine station and several whaling factories; on its eastern 
side is Cave Rock, 20 feet high. There are no outlying dangers in 
approaching the cape, the water being deep close to the breakers. 

Light. — Near the extreme of Cape Natal is a white, conical, iron 
tower, 81 feet in height, which exhibits, at an elevation of 282 feet 
above high water, a white revolving light, which should be visible 
in clear weather from a distance of 24 miles. 

Lloyd's signal station. — Vessels can communicate by day by 
the International Code, with a Lloyd's signal station near the light- 
house, and by night by Morse signals,- signals being passed through 
to the port office, situated within the root of the North Pier, both 
signal stations having semaphores and being connected by tele- 
phones. 

Sadie station. — The radio station, situated at Stamford Hill, 
about 4 miles northwestward of Cape Natal, is open at all times to 
the public, the call letters being V. N. D. 

A weather report issued from this station every day, except Sun- 
days, at 1 p. m., contains, in plain language, meteorological informa- 
tion affecting the coast of the Union of South Africa. 

Port Natal. — The peninsula, of which Cape Natal is the extreme, 
forms the southeast side of a bay, or landlocked lagoon, about 3^ 
miles in length in an east-northeast and opposite direction, with a 
width of 2 miles, the northeast side of the bay being inclosed by 
another peninsula extending southeastward; this bay, partly filled 
with sand banks, dry at low water, is intersected by channels, and 
has large deep-water areas, available for ocean shipping, on its 
northeastern, or point side, and on the bluff side, also to. the west- 
ward at Congella. 

Entrance. — ^The entrance is formed on its southeast side by a 
south breakwater, which extends about 36° for about 1,200 feet, from 
the extremity of Cape Natal, and by a north pier extending about 
3,000 feet, in a similar direction, from the eastern point of the penin- 
sula on the opposite side ; between this pier, which curves somewhat to 



182 KEI BIVEB TO GAPB COHBIEKTBS. 

the eastward at its extreme, and the south breakwater, the entrance is 
about 600 feet in width. 

Lights. — On the south breakwater head is an iron tower, 9 feet 
in height, with red and white bands, from which is exhibited, at an 
elevation of 22 feet above high water, a white fixed light, visible in 
clear weather from a distance of 3 miles. 

About 200 feet from the breakwater head, a temporary white fixed 
light is exhibited from a pole, at an elevation of 20 feet above high 
water, as a substitute for the breakwater light, which will not be used 
until the work in course of construction is completed. 

On the extremity of the north pier is a red tower, exhibiting a red 
occulting light. In clear weather it should be seen from 4 miles. 

At the rocket station, on the east side of the peninsula on the north- 
west side of the entrance, and 1^ miles northward of its extreme, is a 
triangular beacon, from which a white flashing light is exhibited at 
an elevation of 88 feet. It should be seen from 5 miles in clear 
weather. 

Life-saving station. — ^A rocket apparatus is kept near the pre- 
ceding light, being in charge of the light keeper ; another is situated 
at the root of the old north pier, and a third is at the extremity of the 
bluff, near Cave Rock. 

Natal Scad, the space fronting the entrance to the port, is free 
from dangers in the approach, and on the south side the east shore of 
the peninsula has no dangers outside of 200 yards distance ; on the 
west side of the road the 3-fathom contour line trends from the end 
of the north pier, having within it the old north pier, level with low- 
water spring tides, and having a beacon, consisting of an iron triangle, 
surmounted by a disk, on its outer end, from which the contour passes 
nearly 450 yards outside of the rocket station. 

Outer anchorage. — ^The best berth in the road is in a depth of 
10 fathoms, over good holding ground, with Cape Natal Lighthouse 
bearing 188°, and the rocket station 254° ; but there is no shelter dur- 
ing southerly and easterly winds, and a heavy swell always sets in 
along the coast. In a more southerly position the outgoing tidal 
stream swings vessels broadside on to the swell, causing them to roll 
heavily. 

A vessel arriving in the road during bad weather should signal for 
instructions before anchoring, and with bad weather threatening a 
sailing vessel should anchor in a depth of about 16 fathoms, at 2^ 
miles from the cape lighthouse, so that it would be possible to 
fetch out on one tack or the other, with the wind from any quarter ; 
but in the event of parting, a sailing vessel should run for the beach 
abreast the rocket station, keeping the head sails set and the crew on 
board until communication with the shore is established by the rocket 



KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 183 

apparatus; wrecks are, however, infrequent, none having occurred for 
20 years. 

Caution. — ^When the wind is inclined to freshen from the south- 
eastward, with a long swell and a high barometer, vessels should 
proceed to sea as soon as possible. Heavy seas from the southeast- 
ward sometimes occurring, are generally preceded by an unusually 
low barometer for three or four days before being felt in the roads. 

Port. — The entrance channel is about J mile in length in a south- 
west direction, and the port then turns northwestward for about 1 
mile, with a greatest breadth of about J mile in its center, where it 
extends southwestward. Training walls and wharves extend along 
the southeast side, the extent of the latter on that side being 1,585 
feet of permanent quay wall, and 1,050 feet of timber wharfage. 

On the northeast side, known as the Point, are 6,866 feet of per- 
manent quay wall, with rapid electric coaling plant, available for day 
or night use ; there are also 1,395 feet of timber jetties. The wharves 
are fully equipped with railway lines, and electric and hydraulic 
capstans at convenient distances for hauling rolling stock. 

The port is equipped with the following cranes: One of 50 tons, 
one of 10 tons, 28 of 3 tons, and 16 of 1^ tons, all worked by hydrau- 
lic power. There are 11 electric cranes of 3 tons, 2 steam of 5 tons, 
and 2 of 3 tons, besides a 15-ton floating crane, and there are also 17 
hydraulic, and 8 electric wharf capstains. At Congella, on the 
western side, are 2,660 feet of timber wharfage. 

Sheds have an aggregate storage room for about 104,000 tons, not 
including the bond store, which is fitted with a 50-ton hydraulic lift 
to take loaded trucks up two floors; the whole of the wharves and 
sheds are lighted with electric arc lampa 

Lightbuoys. — On the southeast side of the entrance channel, and 
on the 5-f athom contour line, about i mile inside the head of the 
south breakwater, is a lightbuoy showing a fixed white light. 

A similarly lighted buoy is moored on the northwest side of the 
channel, about 300 yards westward of the preceding buoy. 

A red lightbuoy, showing a white fixed light, is moored at the 
northeast end of the bank on the northwest side of Bluff Channel, 
and 350 yards northwestward of the west end of Bluff Quay. 

A similar lightbuoy to the preceding one marks the northeast side 
of a bank which fronts the quays on the northeast side of the port. 

Leading lights. — Two leading lights, for use in entering the port, 
are situated on the south side of the harbor, and are in line bearing 
217°, and 1,200 yards apart. 

The rear light, which is fixed white, is on the peninsula on the 
south side of the harbor, 600 yards southeastward of Milne Point; 
the front light, fixed red, is on the eastern edge of a drying bank, 
which forms the west side of Bluff Channel. 



184 KEI BIVEB TO CAPE COBRIEKTES. 

Depths. — ^The depths on the bar vary constantly and especially 
after strong winds, but any banks formed are removed by dredgers 
with as little delay as possible, and at low water a depth of 35| feet 
is maintained on the bar, so fliat vessels of deep draft can enter at 
all times of tide, the greatest draft, entering in 1914, being 31^ 
feet, while within, the depths in the port are from 30 to 46 feet, 
except within the 5-fathom contour line on the south side. 

At Bluff Quay, on the southeast side, the depths are from 30 to 
84 feet, and there are similar depths at a wharf on the northeast side 
and Main Quay, on the same side, which is 6,866 feet in length, *has 
from 23 to 3SJ feet; several quays or wharves have from 24 to 25 
feet alongside, and the total length of quayage in 1914 was 13,556 
feet. 

Three main channels lead through the sand and mud banks. Bluff 
Channel, the southeastern, having from 3 to 15 feet; Salisbury 
Channel, the middle one, from 7 to 14 feet, and Esplanade, the north- 
western, which leads to Congella Wharf, recently constructed, and 
having a length of 2,660 feet, with a depth of 25 feet alongside, has 
from 24 to 30 feet in the fairway. 

Dredging signals. — ^The depths are maintained by dredging, and 
when dredgers are at work, or in a position for working, the follow- 
ing signals are shown, indicating that the dredger is not under com- 
mand, and can not get out of the way, therefore the speed of vessels 
must be reduced to insure passing the dredger without causing 
damage : 

By day. — 1. Three black balls, placed about 10 feet apart, in the 
form of a triangle. 

By night. — Three red lights similarly placed. 

2. One red ball placed underneath the triangle, at the end of the 
yard, by day, or one white light similarly placed, by night, indicates 
the side on which the dredger may be passed, and when this signal is 
not shown the dredger can not be passed on either side. 

Mooring buoys. — Fifteen sets of moorings are placed in the port, 
three in low water depths of 30 feet, and the remainder in from 9 to 
24 feet. 

Pilots. — On the usual signal for a pilot being made, one will be 
sent to a vessel arriving in the roads unless the surf on the bar is too 
heavy, in which case the fact will be communicated by signal. Ves- 
sels are taken in by night as well as by day, and those arriving in the 
road by day and wishing to enter the harbor, are generally taken 
in at once. Pilotage is compulsory, and no vessel should attempt to 
cross the bar without one. 

Should the entrance be considered to be impassable, a black cone, 
point downward, by day, or a red light, by night, is hoisted at the 
yardarm of the signal station. 



KEI BIVEB TO GAPE OOBBIENTES. 185 

Tugs. — ^Three Government tugs, as well as numerous private ones* 
are available. 

Directions. — ^The only danger in approaching Natal Road from 
the southwestward is Aliwal Shoal, which may be easily avoided by 
attention to the lights and directions given at pages 166, 167, and in 
thick weather a vessel should not stand into a less depth than 40 
fathoms when in its vicinity. Southward of Port Natal the sound- 
ings are coarse gray sand and stones, whilst to the northward fine 
black sand will be found ; the roadstead may be safely approached by 
the lead, the decrease in the depths being regular. 

Having passed about 8 miles outside Aliwal Shoal, Cape Natal 
Lighthouse . by day, or the light by night, bearing about 20^, leads 
outside all known dangers until abreast of Umlazi River, and when 
to the northward of it, the vessel should be kept about 1 mile from 
the land until Cape Natal Lighthouse bears 272°, when the road- 
stead may be steered for. 

If entering the port and the leading light structures can be made 
out, they should, when in line, bearing 216®, lead nearly in mid- 
channel through the entrance channel, as also the leading lights by 
night. Vessels of almost i^ny draft can lie alongside the wharves at 
low water, and unload directly into railway trucks, and when re- 
moved from the wharves they will be taken to moorings. Vessels 
laden with explosives are berthed on the Bluff side or at the 
moorings. 

Bar signals. — The following bar signals, to indicate the state of 
the bar, are made from the flagstaff at the port office : 

1. A cone hoisted halfway to the yardman : Bar dangerous. 

2. A cone hoisted to the yardman : Bar impassable. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Port Natal at 4 h. 
30 m. ; springs rise 6J feet, neaps rise 4 feet, neaps range 1^ feet. 

Tidal streams. — The in-going stream through the entrance chan- 
nel has a velocity of about 2^ knots, and the outgoing stream about 
3i knots; the north-going stream in the roads is that of the rising 
tide, the other stream setting to the southward. 

Current. — Caution is necessary to allow for the strong current, 
generally setting southwestward, at rates of from 2 to 3 knots an 
hour, beyond a distance of about 3 miles from the shore. 

Winds. — The prevailing winds at Port Natal are from northeast 
to east, and from southwest to south, in about equal proportions, 
alternating throughout the year, in periods seldom exceeding a few 
days for either. Although the wet season is from October to March, 
rain occurs occasionally all the year round, and after a continuance 
of rain with a rising barometer, an easterly gale follows, after which 
the weather clears. 



186 KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 

During the finest months, May to July, inclusive, a light breeze 
comes in from seaward by day, and a land breeze blows during the 
night, but strong gales both from the eastward and westward occur 
even during these months, and from August to October, inclusive, 
the most boisterous months, when the range of the barometer is 
great, gales alternate between east and west. 

Gales from the eastward blow from about southeast at from 50 to 
100 miles off the land, but being deflected to east northeast or north- 
east on reaching the coast the swell set up by the wind at southeast 
so far seaward, catches vessels at anchor in Natal Eoad, and heading 
to the wind on the starboard bow, causing them to ride uneasily, and 
if they part their cables, to cant toward the shore. 

Town. — ^Durban, the town of Port Natal, standing on a low flat, 
is the largest town in the Province, and said to be the cleanest and 
best kept town in the Union of South Africa ; it is well laid out, with 
wide streets lined with trees, the houses being principally of brick, 
but most of the wealthy inhabitants reside on the Berea, a wooded 
height overlooking the town. 

It has excellent public buildings, consisting of banks, institutes, 
societies, clubs, Anglican churches, and various chapels, besides a 
market and several good schools; the town is lit by electricity, and 
has electric trams in the streets. In 1911 the population was 72,512, 
of which number 38,271 were whites. 

Coznmunication. — The following are the principal steamship 
lines visiting the port : Union Castle Line mail steamers from South- 
ampton and intermediate steamers from London monthly ; Aberdeen 
Direct Line and Natal Direct Line from London fortnightly ; Liver- 
pool White Star, P. & O. Branch service, Aberdeen White Star and 
Blue Funnel Lines from Australia to England monthly. Several 
lines of freighters have regular sailings from the United Kingdom, 
the Continent, and North America. 

The railway which runs to the Bluff as well as to the Point con- 
nects Durban with Thomville Junction, from which a line runs 
northward to Pietermaritzburg, and with branches to Mid Illovo 
and to Eichmond; the coast lines run south westward to Port Shep- 
stone and northeastward to Somkele, in Zululand, with numerous sta- 
tions near the coast between. 

Submarine cables connect Durban with England via Dela^oa Bay 
and Zanzibar, also via Cape Town, while another connects with Mau- 
ritius direct, and thence via Rodriguez, and Cocos Island, to Fre- 
mantle, in Australia. 

Coal and supplies. — About 25,000 tons of coal are kept in stock, 
and from 8,000 to 9,000 tons could be obtained daily from the mines, 
the amount being only limited by the labor supply; an Admiralty 
contract exists for a supply of Natal coal to British transports. 



KBI BIVBB TO GAPE COBKEBNTES. 187 

The coaling plant at the Bluflf can load at the rate of 400 tons an 
hour, either from bins or direct from trucks, the whole plant being 
worked by electricity, and weighing done automatically. 

The Government wharves are from 580 to 4,860 feet in length, with 
depths of from 25 to 38 feet alongside, and 5,000 tons could be put 
on board in 24 hours from them, or, if coaling elsewhere by baskets, 
about 2,000 tons, there being 48 lighters holding from 90 to 240 ton? 
each, but if coaling in the roadstead §trong southwest and eastnorth- 
east winds might interfere with coaling. 

Fresh provisions and supplies of all kinds may be obtained and 
excellent water is laid on to the wharves, and is sent off to vessels in 
the roadstead. 

Dock. — A floating dock is situated at the northwest end of the 
port, and a small patent slip is on the north side of Salisbury Island. 
The construction of a large graving dock has been sanctioned. 

Repairs. — ^Large repairs to machinery can be effected, and the 
various cranes have been mentioned in connection with the wharves ; 
there are two steam hammers, the largest 15 hundredweight. 

Hospitals. — The Government hospital, within 1 mile of the ship- 
ping, admits all classes, and a sanatorium and private hospital are 
situated on the Berea. 

Time signal. — The time signal is situated about 200 yards south- 
westward of Cape Natal Lighthouse, and the ball is dropped, except 
on Sundays, at noon, South Africa standard time, corresponding to 
22 h. m. s. Greenwich mean time; if the signal fails in accuracy, 
a blue flag with a white center is hoisted about 5 minutes after the 
time of the signal, showing that it was imreliable. 

In addition to the time signal on the Bluff, an hourly signal is 
sent to the port captain's office, where it rings a bell. 

Trade.— In 1912 the exports were valued at $24,930,783, including 
gold, and the imports at $58,494,869. 

Coast. — ^Umgeni River, 3J miles north-northwestward of Cape 
Nat^l, rises at Spion Kop, is about 120 miles in length, and has 
two large waterfalls, one at Howick being a magnificent fall, 350 feet 
in height, while the other, 12 miles lower down the river, is 70 feet; 
the valley through which the river runs is well defined from seaward, 
as the hills on the north side of it are wooded, and those on the south, 
forming the Berea Eange, are thickly covered with houses. 

Trout having been introduced into the river, excellent fishing may 
be obtained on it; Umgeni village, about 1 mile within the entrance, 
is a station on the Coast Railway. 

Life-saving station. — A rocket apparatus is situated on the 
rocky foreshore, about 1^ miles northeastward of the Umgeni River 
mouth. 



188 KEI BIVEB TO CAPE COBBIEKXES. 

Depths offshore. — Depths of 10 f athomSj over sandy bottom, will 
be found about J mile ofF the river mouth. 

Coast. — From Umgeni River the coast, trending northeastward 
for lOi miles to the Umhloti River, is generally sandy and backed by 
hills from 300 to 550 feet in height; a considerable amount of thw 
iand is under cultivation, but there are extensive groves of trees on 
the slopes and in the valleys. 

Umhlanga River, entering the sea about 7 miles northeastward ol 
Dmgeni River, is small, and its mouth is not so clearly defined a* 
those or other rivers on this coast ; in its vicinity the summits of the 
coast hills are rounded and gras^, without any conspicuous features. 
At Ottawa, about 5 miles up the river, is a station on the Coast Rail- 
way. 

Umhloti Biver is readily distinguished by a steep wooded blulf 
iOO feet high, and with a black appearance, on the south side of it^ 
mouth, and also by the comparatively gradual slope of the hills ou 
its northern side. Mount Moreland, about 3 miles from the entrance, 
18 a station on the Coast Railway. 

Tongaat Biver, 5^ miles northeastward of Umhloti River, has 
a well-marked valley, and a rocky coast to the southward of its en- 
trance. Between these riyers the hills are from 300 to 600 feet high, 
their seaward slopes being steep and partly wooded, with several deep 
ravines, but their summits are diflBcult to distinguish. Tongaat is a 
station on the Coast Railway. 

Tongaat Bluff, a conspicuous dark hill, 460 feet high, and hav- 
ing a whale-back appearance, is partly covered with trees, and has a 
farmhouse on its sunmiit. 

Coast. — From Tongaat River the coast, trending northeastward, 
is sandy for a distance of 2 miles, and then changes its character, and 
for the next 2 miles is very broken with some conspicuous red cliffs, 
about 50 feet high, and having sandy beaches between them. For the 
next 3} miles, the coast is alternately rocky and sandy, as far as 
Umhlali River, the entrance to which is very narrow, and has a long, 
low sand spit on its northern side. There is a station at Umhlali, 
about 4 miles from the entrance. 

From Umhlali River, the coast trending to the northeastward for 
5^ miles to Umvoti River is somewhat broken, and is composed of 
sand and rocks, with one or two off-lying rocks close to it ; the coast 
hills, from 200 to 350 feet high, have a few patches of trees on the 
seaward slopes, and some red scars in the valleys. 

Umvoti Biver, rising near Bester Hoek. has a course of about 
80 miles, the land near its entrance being low and sandy, except at 
the eastern extreme of the southern point of entrance, which is rocky 
and has a patch of rocks extending off it for a distance of about J mile. 




w ' 



KEI BIVBB TO CAPE COBfilEKTES. 189 

Knob Hilly 346 feet high, and situated 1 mile westward of the 
mouth of Umvoti River, has a peculiar spherical knob on its sum- 
mit and several large scars; it is a conspicuous mark from seaward. 

Coast. — From Umvoti River the coast, trending northeastward 
for about 13 miles to the Tugela River, is generally sandy ; the coast 
hills, from 150 to 370 feet high, having round grassy summits which 
are not easy to identify. 

The Umhlutane, Nonoti, and Sinkwasi, three small streams, run 
into the sea on this stretch of coast, their courses being readily dis- 
tinguished by the valleys, which form most useful marks in this 
locality. 

Depths offshore. — No off-lying dangers exist between the Umgeni 
and Tugela Rivers, and depths of 10 fathoms or more are found at 
a distance of 1 mile from the coast, except in the vicinity of these 
two rivers, where the depths increase rapidly to 20 fathoms. 

The 100-fathoms contour line, passing about 6^ miles outside Cape 
Natal, gradually increases its distance from the shore until off the 
Tugela River, from which it is upward of 25 miles; the bottom is 
chiefly sand or mud, but in the vicinity of the Tugela River are 
some patches of rocky ground. 

Anchorage on this part of the coast is not recommended, but 
should it be absolutely necessary to anchor, the best holding ground 
will be found in depths of 25 fathoms, and at least 100 fathoms of 
cable should be veered. 

Winds. — May, June, and July ai'e comparatively fine months, but 
gales from northeast and southwest, seldom lasting for more than 
two days, are experienced, with sometimes dangerous shifts of wind 
from the former to the latter direction ; the barometer generally falls 
for northeast and rises for southwest winds. In these shifts the 
wind may be from northeast, with a force of from 4- to 5, and the 
barometer standing at 29.90, when the change, occupying only a few 
minutes, and with a brief interval of calm and a cloudless sky, takes 
place to the southwest, the force increasing to from 6 to 7. 

Current. — From Cape Natal -to the Tugela River the current is 
weak in force and generally influenced in direction by the wind 
when in depths of less than 50 fathoms, but outside the 50-fathoms 
contour the current is more regular, setting southwestward with a 
velocity of from i knot to 1 knot. 

It seems possible that the current, formed by the junction of the 
trade drift from the southern end of Madagascar with the Mosam- 
bique Channel current, is deflected from the coast by the bank ex- 
tending off the Tugela River, and that consequently there is little 
or no current near the coast until it recurves in the neighborhood 
of the IJmtamvuna River. 

Tugela River, rising on the eastern side of Mont Aux Sources, 
in the Drakensberg, where near its source it falls almost perpen- 



190 KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 

dicularly from a height of 1,800 feet, runs through deep, rocky 
channels in a wild, hilly country, he scenery throughout being pic- 
turesque and often grand; while the Victoria Falls, on the Zam- 
bezi, may exceed the Tugela in volume of water, the latter are said to 
be the more beautiful. 

From the foot of the falls the river winds for 200 miles to its 
louth, recdving in its course the Klip, Sundays, Buffalo, Bushman, 
and Mooi Rivers, the two last its principal tributaries. When in 
flood the upper portion of the river is a succession of rapids, and the 
lower river is useless for transport in winter, the dry season, as then 
boats ground repeatedly. 

The entrance is easily recognized from seaward by Tugela Bluff, 
its southern head, which is 337 feet high, covered with trees, and 
having a black appearance, while on the noithem side is Red Hill, 
287 feet high, scarred with red, and having a peculiar knob on its 
sunmiit. The bar is impassable and the river unnavigable. Trout 
introduced into the Bushman's and Mooi tributaries afford good 
fishing. 

Beacons. — A number of beacons^ for surveying purposes, have 
been erected on the coast between Tugela River and Cape St. Lucia. 

Communication. — A station on the Coast Line is near the en- 
trance to Tugela River. 

Coast. — From the Tugela River the coast trends in a northeast 
direction for about 11^ miles to Matikulu River entrance, and in- 
land are several mountain ridges having no conspicuous features; 
the coast hills, rounded and grassy, are marked in places with red 
scars, and on a flat summit, 386 feet high, and 6 miles northeastward 
of Tugela River entrance, is a single tree standing up conspicuously. 

Inyoni River, breaking through the coast ridge about 3J miles 
northeastward of Tugela River, and flowing along the coast for 5 
miles, just inside the sand ridges, discharges, in the rainy season, 
about 3 miles to the southward of the Matipulu River entrance. 

Dangers. — Off the northern side of the entrance to Tugela River 
the 5-fathom contour line is 1 mile off, and inside it the bottom is 
very irregular, with several patches having from 2^ to 3 fathoms over 
them; the coast reef, on which the sea breaks heavily, extends about 
600 yards off this coast. 

Matikulu Bluffy about 8J miles northeastward of the Tugela 
River, is a round, dark, wooded hill, 313 feet high, and the most re- 
markable headland in the neighborhood. 

Matikulu River is easily recognized by Matikulu Bluff, as it 
passes close under it and then runs along inside the beach, discharg- 
ing about 2^ miles farther northeastward; the river is open after 
heavy rains, but the sea breaks heavily across its mouth. 



KEI EIVEB TO CAPE COEBIENTES. 191 

Rocky ledges, having depths of from 3 to 5 fathoms over them, 
extend off the mouth of the Matikulu River and the adjacent coast 
for a distance of 1,800 yards. 

Coast. — From Matikulu River the coast trending northeastward 
for about 13 miles to Umlalazi River has innumerable shifting ridges 
of sand formed just within the beach, but the coast hills, consisting 
of long grassy ridges of moderate height, possess no distinctive fea- 
tures except being noticeably lower than those to the southwestward 
of the Matikulu River; several farms and sugar plantations may 
be seen dotted over the hills. 

Vedette Hill, 319 feet high, and about 1 mile westward of Um- 
lalazi River, has the Mtunzini Magistracy, situated in a clump of 
trees on its summit, forming a fairly conspicuous object; a few 
houses are scattered along the ridge to the northeastward of it. 

The North Coast Railway, from Durban to Somkele, after cross- 
ing the Tugela at Bond Drift, runs from 5 to 8 miles inland, but 
again approaches the coast at Emoyeni station and hill, about 15 
miles from Tugela River, and then runs close within the coast and 
on the seaward side of Vedette Hill. 

Glenton Beef, an extension of the coast reef seaward, between 
Matikulu and Umlalazi Rivers, commencing just northeastward of 
the former, gradually increases its distance from the coast, until 
abreast the southern side of Vedette Hill, where it is IJ miles off- 
shore; it has depths of from 1 to 2 fathoms, and breaks heavily. 
Vessels should keep at least 3 miles from the coast, or in not less 
than 10 fathoms water, when passing it. 

Umlalazi River, flowing through the hills to the northeastward 
of Vedette Hill, and then taking a sharp turn to the southwestward 
under that hill, runs eastward just inside the sandy ridges, and dis- 
charges into the sea about 3^ miles eastward of Vedette Hill. 

Ungoye Mountain, about 7 miles northward of Vedette Hill, is 
an extensive flat-topped mass, with no very distinctive summits, but 
rising at its greatest elevation to 1,584 feet; the ridge gradually 
descends on the eastern side, until it is merged in the lower country 
at about 7 miles from the hill. 

Coast. — The coast from Umlalazi River, trending east-northeast- 
ward for 10^ miles to Durnford Point, has generally low coast hills, 
few being over 200 feet, and, with the exception of Mainhluyami or 
Grassy Hill, are sandy and covered with bush. 

Tenedos Shoal, large, irregular shaped, and extending 1^ miles 
from the coast, at the same distance eastward of Umlalazi River 
entrance, has a least depth of IJ fathoms, situated IJ miles, 117°, 
from the mouth of that river, and in the bight between Glenton Reef 
and this shoal are a number of rocky ledges with from 3^ to 5 
fathoms over them and extending 1^ miles from the coast. 



192 KEI EIVEB TO CAPE COBRIENTES. 

A narrow passage between Tenedos Shoal and the shore has 
depths of from 2^ to 4 fathoms, but it is only available for boats 
and in fine weather. 

Fort Diirnford is about 2^ miles eastward of Tenedos Shoal, 
and off the mouth of the Umhlatuzana River, which is usually 
blocked by sand, but its position may be known by a gap in the hills 
through which the river runs, and by Mainhluyami or Grassy Hill, 
which appears flat-topped and grassy, when seen from the eastward, 
and has a dark bushy summit, surmounted by a round tree, just west- 
ward of it. 

Directions. — Approaching Port Dumford from the southwest- 
ward, Durnford Point should be steered for, bearing 51°, until a 
conical sandhill, i mile eastward of Umhlatuzana River mouth bears 
349®, when the anchorage may be steered for; from the eastward the 
two obelisks, near Durnford Point, should be a good guide for fixing 
the position of the vessel. 

Anchorage may be obtained, in depths of from 4^ to 6 fathoms, 
at about i mile offshore, with Umhlatuzana River mouth bearing be- 
tween 295 ^^ and 2°, and Dumford Point 64°; this anchorage is a 
good one with easterly winds, but with those from the westward a 
sea soon gets up and heavy rollers set in, necessitating putting to sea. 

Landing may occasionally be effected at the mouth of Umhlatu- 
zana River, and stores were landed here by surf boats in the months 
of July and August, but landing appears to be better in May and 
June. 

Communication. — Port Durnford Station, on the North Coast 
Railway, is about 1^ miles from the coast abreast Tenedos Shoal, 
after which the railway strikes inland, running about 15 miles within 
the coast to the northward. 

Depths offshore. — The 10-fathom contour line passes about 6 
miles off Port Dumford and about 3^ miles off Dumford Point, the 
bottom being everywhere rocky; reefs extend in places to 2 miles 
from this coast, and in bad weather the rollers break heavily in from 
7 to 8 fathoms. 

Current. — The current outside the 100-fathom contour line sets 
southwestward at rates of from 1 to 2 knots, but in fine weather on 
the bank within that depth it will generally be found setting north- 
eastward with velocities varying from J to 1 knot ; with fresh north- 
east winds this current quickly changes its direction, setting south- 
westward, with rates varying according to the strength of the wind, 
the maximum velocity observed, during the survey of the coast by 
the British naval vessel Mutine, 1911, being f knot. 

Caution. — ^Occasionally during this survey a current was observed 
to set between north and northwest, or directly on-shore, at rates 
varjring from i to 1 knot, this current extending to a distance of 20 



KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 193 

miles from the land ; its existence is a serious danger to vessels navi- 
gating the coast in the vicinity. 

Dumford Point may be recognized by Pudding Hill, 287 feet 
high and wooded, which is situated 1 mile westward of it. As 
already mentioned the bottom inside the 10-fathoms contour line is 
rocky, the bottom being uneven, and the sea brakes in depths of 
from 7 to 8 fathoms, while oflF the point reefs with depths of from 
2i to 5 fathoms extend for a distance of 2^ miles, and break in rough 
veather, so that the point should be given a wide berth. 

Obelisks. — A white obelisk, 31 feet in height, its base at an eleva- 
tion of 112 feet above high water, stands close to the beach at 2 9-10 
miles westward of Durnford Point. 

A black and white horizontally striped obelisk, 31 feet high, is 
situated close to the point, its base being 52 feet above high water. 

Coast. — Cape St. Lucia is nearly 30 miles northeastward of Durn- 
ford Point, the coast between being formed by a sandy beach fronted 
by breakers, landing on the beach being practically impossible ; this 
coast has several lagoons a short distance within it. 

For a distance of 2^ miles northeastward of Durnford Point the 
coast hills are wooded and over 200 feet high, but from this they 
decrease in height to the mouth of Umhlatuzi lagoon, forming sand- 
hills with occasional patches of bush. 

XTmhlatuzi Lagoon, separated from the sea by a strip of land 
about 1 mile in width, is about 4 miles in length in the direction of 
the coast and 2^ miles in breadth ; its entrance, nearly 6 miles from 
Durnford Point, is 300 yards in width, the sea breaking heavily 
across it. 

Coast. — ^Umhlatuzi bluff, 1 mile northeastward of the entrance 
to the lagoon of the same name, is steep, about 100 feet high, and 
appears well defined when seen from the eastward ; from this bluff 
to O'Neill Peak, a distance of 4^ miles, the hills, of moderate height, 
are covered with bush, varied by occasional patches of open grass 
country. 

A reef, with depths of from 3J to 4 fathoms, extends 1,600 yards 
from the shore at 2J miles northeastward of the entrance to Umh- 
latuzi Lagoon, and several roclcy heads, with from 4^ to 5 fathoms, 
are situated from IJ to 2f miles southward of O'Neill Peak, and 
about 1 mile offshore. 

O'Neill Peak, a thickly wooded cone, 401 feet high, is the most 
conspicuous object in this locality. 

Beefs, with depths of from 2 to 3 fathoms, extend f mile from 
the shore under this peak, and for a distance of 2J miles northeast- 
ward of it, and the coast in the vicinity should not be approached 
closely, especially in fine weather, when the dangers are not breaking. 
39511—16 13 



194 KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 

Bonambi Mission. — A steep reddish bluff, 330 feet high, and 
wooded on its summit, is situated nearly 3 miles northeastward of 
O'Neill Peak, and at 1 mile northeastward of the bluff is Bonambi 
Mission Station, with a church having a red spire, and a few houses, 
not easily distinguishable from seaward, in the vicinity. 

Nhlabane River, about 5 miles northeastward of O'Neill Peak, 
is a small stream issuing from Nhlabane Lake, about 1 mile in ex- 
tent; the mouth of the river is somewhat difficult of recognition, 
but a black bluff, 128 feet high, is situated on its western side, and 
close southward of this is a black bush-covered hununock, while at 
1 mile northeastward of the entrance is a broad sandy valley. The 
river is infested by crocodiles. 

Nhlabane Bock, with a depth of 3 fathoms, lies 1-^ miles south- 
southeastward of the river mouth. 

Cone Point, 2J miles northeastward of the entrance to Nhlabane 
River, is surmounted by a small conical hill, 101 feet high, inland 
of which the hills are dark and thickly wooded. 

Coast. — A grassy hill, having a patch of bush on its summit, is 
situated 1 mile northeastward of Cone Point, and IJ miles farther 
in the same direction is a bare sandhill, 348 feet high, appearing as 
a steep summit when seen from the eastward ; from this to Cape St. 
Lucia, a distance of 7 miles northeastward, the hills, increasing in 
height to 500 feet, are covered with bush, and have ridges of sand 
extending from them to the coast. 

Cape St. Lucia, low and sandy, has a hill rising above it to a 
height of 530 feet, on the seaward slope of which is an open grassy 
space shaped like a boat ; northward of the cape are some ledges of 
light brown rocks, and the cape when seen from the eastward appears 
as a group of islands. Hills from 400 to 650 feet high and covered 
with bush extend northward of Cape St. Lucia, terminating in a bluff 
marking the entrance to St. Lucia River. 

Light. — Northward of Cape St. Lucia is a tower, 25 feet in 
height, with black and white bands, which exhibits, at an elevation 
of 383 feet above high water a white group flashing light which in 
clear weather should be visible from a distance of 15 miles. For 
bearings of arc of visibility see Light List. 

Current. — The general direction of the current, observed during 
the months of Mav to Julv, inclusive, off the coast between Durnford 
Point and O'Neill Peak, was to the southwestward, and at from 2 to 
8 miles from the shore the rate varied between i knot and 1 knot, 
but at 11 miles seaward of Durnford Point a velocity of 2 knots was 
observed. 

Inshore, after the prevalence for a few hours of westerly winds, the 
direction of the current changed to the northeastward, maintaining 
the former rates above mentioned, but on one occasion attaining a 



KEI EIVEB TO CAPE COBEIENTES. 195 

velocity of 1^ knots ; but this northeast set quickly disappeared with 
a change of wind, and it rarely happened that no current was 
experienced. 

From off O'Neill Peak to Cape St. Lucia the direction of the cur- 
rent was always to the southwest or a point more westerly, the 
velocity in the vicinity of the 100- fathoms contour line being about 
3J knots, reduced at from 1 mile to 2 miles from the shore to 1 knot 
or 2 knots ; but southwest winds retarded and northeast winds acceler- 
ated this current. 

With a smooth sea a line of ripples was frequently observed in the 
vicinity of the 100- fathoms contour line, the current running inshore 
of it with considerably lessened strength. 

Winds. — ^In fine weather light easterly breezes by day and land 
breezes by night were experienced, and, as a rule, on this coast a 
falling barometer indicates the approach of northeast and a rising 
barometer of southwest w^inds, the latter when strong causing a 
high sea. 

St. Lucia Bay, the slight bight formed at the entrance to St. 
Lucia Lake, 8 miles northward of the cape of the same name, may 
be recognized by a conspicuous sugar-loaf hill of sand, 200 feet high 
and overgrown w^ith bush and scrub, nearly J mile southward of the 
southern point of entrance to St. Lucia Lake, but this hill is not seen 
when approaching from the southward until it bears westward of 
320°. 

About 3J miles northward of the entrance to the lake is a square- 
topped sand hill, 330 feet high, and similarly overgrown, but not 
easily distinguished. Discolored water extends some distance from 
the entrance, to the lake. 

Anchorage. — The bay, exposed to winds from south-southwest, 
through east to northeast, has a sandy bottom, with good holding 
ground, the depths gradually decreasing to the shore, and a good 
berth is in a depth of 10 fathoms, with the Sugar-loaf Hill bearing 
about 235° and the square-topped hill 2°. With the Sugar-loaf 
bearing northward of 250° the bottom is foul. In 1884 the British 
naval ship Sylvia rode out a fresh southwest gale in this berth, but 
with the wind more to the southward it would be necessary to put 
to sea. 

Landing. — The best and only place for landing is under the 
Sugar-loaf, as the bar at the entrance to the lake is apparently never 
practicable, and after northeast or east winds the heavy swell causes 
so much surf on the beach that landing should not be attempted, 
under such conditions, in ship's boats, as, if capsized, the risk to life 
is great, seeing that sharks are both numerous and voracious. 



196 KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 

Northward of the entrance the breakers extend a long distance sea- 
ward, and, around the shores of the bay, even in fine weather, the 
surf extends from 200 to 500 yards from the beach. 

St. Lucia Lake^ a shallow lagoon about 55 miles in length and 
10 miles in breadth, communicating with the sea by the narrow en- 
trance just mentioned, is continued to the northward by a number of 
smaller lagoons, backwaters, and passages nearly as far as Delagoa 
Bay. 

In the dry season the entrance to St. Lucia Lake is completely 
blocked by a dry sand bar formed by deposits from the Umvolozi 
Eiver, which discharges immediately within its southern point of 
entrance, and which is annually swept away by the floods; probably 
the depth is never more than 3 or 4 feet at high water, and with 
heavy breakers right across. 

Within the entrance the narrow channel, sometimes known as St. 
Lucia River, trends northward almost parallel with the coast for 
about 9 miles to its junction with St. Lucia Lake, and has probably 
a depth of about 9 feet, but is reported to be gradually silting up and 
tideless, and its waters, being very brackish, are quite useless for all 
purposes. The eastern side of the lake is separated from the sea by 
a strip of land about 3 miles wide, with sand hills from 300 to 500 feet 
high. 

Coast. — About 9 miles north-northeastward of the entrance to 
St. Lucia Lake is a conspicuous sand slip, from whence to Cape 
Vidal, a further distance of 9 miles in the same direction, is a range 
of dark-colored, steep hills of even height. Detached rocks lie a short 

distance off the projecting points. 

Cape Vidal, rising to a peak 500 feet high, shows a long tii- 
angular patch of sand, extending to its summit, when bearing about 
227° ; when seen from the southward, two reddish-colored patches 
appear on it. 

Coast. — From Cape Vidal to Delagoa Bay, a distance of about 
130 miles, the coast, trending in a northerly direction in a nearly 
straight line, is moderately high close to the beach, forming a 
ccntinuous line of wooded hills with rounded summits, from 500 to 
000 feet high, faced with sand to about half their height. A few 
straggling black rocks lie along the shore. 

Toward Cape Colatto, near Delagoa Bay, the land is well wooded, 
and the interior southward of Delagoa Bay appears to be a low level 
country like park land, with clumps of trees here and there, but 
about 10 or 12 miles inland a few hills, apparently 800 or 1,000 feet 
high, are visible. The Lubombo Mountains run parallel with the 
coast at about 40 miles inland. 

Leven Pcint. 12 miles northward of Cape Vidal, may be known 
Avhen bearing northward of 250° by four sandy roads extending from 
the sea to the summit of the coast hills, 9 miles northward of Cape 



KEI RIVEE TO CAPE COBEIENTES. 197 

A'idal. Havergal Hill, 21 mlleT northeastward of Leven Point, is a 
conical hill 465 feet high, with a flat top and a sandy road from base 
to summit, and Sordwana Koad is about 3 miles northward of it. 

Dangers. — Leadsman Shoal, a small patch of coral about 1,000 
yards long, has 2J fathoms water, and lies nearly 1 mile from the 
shore and 6 miles northward of Leven Point; a 4^ fathom coral 
patch lies 3^ miles north-northeastward of Leadsman Shoal and 
about 1 mile offshore. Vessels should not approach either shoal to a 
less depth than 20 fathoms. 

Sordwana BrOad, open to winds from seaward between northeast 
and southwest, is no better than other open anchorages on this coast, 
as the holding ground, which is not good, being partly rock, is worse 
nearer the shore, and there is considerable swell, while strong on- 
shore winds render the anchorage untenable. 

The point on the south side of the road has a dark bluff, 150 feet 
in height, within it, which is covered with scrub, is conspicuous from 
seaward, and has a flagstaff in front of it ; the coast on the west side 
of the road, northward of it, consists of sand hills ranging from 40 to 
200 feet in height. 

Sordwana River, an insignificant stream, enters the sea northward 
of the point, its entrance being 20 feet wide, with rocky bottom ; it 
dries 4 feet at low water, springs. This stream carries off the surplus 
water from two shallow lagoons a short distance inland; the first ^ 
mile distant from the shore, is about ^ mile in extent, covered with 
grass and reeds, and very shallow ; the other, 4 or 5 miles in length, 
is but little separated at its southwest end from the northeast end of 
St. Lucia Lake. 

The land in the neighborhood being covered with scrub, and un- 
suitable for agriculture, is sparsely populated as regards natives. 

Beacons used for surveying purposes are situated on the shore 
northwestward of the anchorage. 

Anchorage. — Temporary anchorage, about i mile offshore, in a 
depth of 7 fathoms, may be taken up by steam vessels in the road 
north-northeastward of a projecting point which affords some slight 
shelter, with the flagstaff on the point bearing 203°, distant about 
1,500 yards. Nearly on the same line of bearing, but 700 yards 
farther out, there is a patch with only 4f fathoms. 

La.nding. — A reef about 200 yards in extent extends northward 
from the point just mentioned, affording some slight protection to 
the landing place, but owing to the heavy surf and rollers usually 
prevailing landing is generally dangerous, and at times impracticable 
even to surfboats. 

Coast. — Sordwana Point, 8 miles northward of Sordwana Road, 
is rocky, and rises to a hill 485 feet high. Lava HilL 15 miles farther 
north-northeastward, is a grassy hill 300 feet in height, with a sharp 



198 KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 

summit, and prolmbly forms a good landmark. Boteler Point. 4 
miles beyond Lava Hill, j)rojects a short distance as a dark rocky 
clitf. 15 feet hi<rh. About 12 miles north-northeastward of Boteler 
Point a reef extends i mile offshore. 

Eosi Biver^ the entrance to which is about 50 yards wide at low 
water, and conspicuous from the noitheastward, has a soft and 
sandy beach on either side, and a rocky and sandy bar, almost dry 
at low water, extending completely across the entrance, over which 
the stream is constantly running out at a rate of 4 knots when at its 
full strength ; heavy rollers break across the bar and for 200 yards 
outside it. 

Within the river the depths are from 2 to 3 feet, and the constant 
sti*eam comes from Kosi Lagoon and Kosi Lake beyond it, the first 
certainly very shallow, the other probably so. 

Anchorage^ no better than other anchorages on this exposed 
coast, may be taken up off Kosi River in depths of from 6^ to 10 
fathoms, but the entrance should not bear northward of 250°, the 
bottom having many rocky patches when southward of that line. 

Landings always difficult, and generally attended with danger, 
has been found practicable with the aid of surfboats and trained 
crews, but for ordinary ships' boats it must be considered imprac- 
ticable. The best spot is about 600 yards northward of the river 
entrance ; it should never be attempted southward of the entrance. 

Oro Pointy about 3 miles northward of Kosi River, is a low dark 
cliffy point, with Oro Peak 394 feet high, on the coast range behind 
it. Foul ground extends ^ mile northw^ard of the point, and in this 
locality is a small creek, where landing appears to be better than 
anywhere in the neighborhood of Kosi River. 

Beacon. — On Oro Peak is a conspicuous iron pyramidal beacon, 
26 feet in height, marking the position of the boundary between 
British and Portuguese possessions. 

Coast. — About 6 miles northward of Oro Point are three peaked 
hills, forming conspicuous landmarks from all directions. Florence 
Peak, the highest, is 390 feet high, and about 9 miles farther north 
is Muthonde Beacon, and 10 miles farther, in the same direction, 
(irassy Hill, 246 feet high, is conspicuous from the northward. 

Dundas Hill, 13 miles northward of (Jrassy Hill, rises 240 feet 
above the sea, and has two sandy roads on its seaward slope. These 
roads cross each < ther diagonally, and. when coming from the south- 
ward until abreast of the hill, form a conspicuous mark. 

Beacons. — Mathonde Beacon, of iron, and 16 feet in lieight, stands 
on a sand hill near the coast, at an elevation of 344 feet. 

Tane Beacon, small and elevated 295 feet, is on the southwestern 
summit, rising over HoUond Point, and 15 miles northward of 
Mathcmde Beacon. 



KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 199 

Coast. — At 13 miles northward of Oro Point, foul <^round, 3 miles 
in length, fronts a slightly receding portion of the coast to a distance 
of 1^ miles, and Steamer Kock, about 5^ miles northward of Holland 
Point, is a conspicuous mark, resembling the hull of a steam vessel 
low down on the beach. 

Cape Sta. Maria, the southern point of entrance to Sta. Maria 
Inlet, has ^ mile southwestward of it a round-topped hill 289 feet 
high, known as Mount Colatto, and somewhat resembling a haycock. 
The cape is the northern extreme of the Inhaca Peninsula, which, 
with Inhaca (Inyack) Island and its shoals, forms the eastern bound- 
ary of Delagoa Bay. 

Sta. Maria Inlet is fronted at its entrance bv a bar, the southern 
part of which, forming the entrance channel, is dangerous, as the 
sea breaks frequently on it and there are dangerous rocks. Torres 
Point, the south extreme of Inhaca Island, is the northern point of 
entrance. There is a depth of 2| fathoms at low water on the bar 
and within a deep channel, with 4 to 6| fathoms, extends for about 
I mile. 

Inhaca (Inyack) Island is 6^ miles in length in a north-north- 
east and opposite direction^ and about 3^ miles in greatest width; 
near its east coast, at 2^ and 5 miles, respectively, north-northeast- 
ward of Torres Point, are Mount Botello, 315 feet, and Mount Inhaca, 
387 feet high, wooded, and with a dome-shaped summit. 

The north extreme of Black Bluff, the northwest point of the 
island, has on its summit, partly hidden by trees, a flagstaff and a 
yellow barrack with red roof, and at 1 J miles southward of the bar- 
rack is the highest part of the bluff, 177 feet high, with a red streak 
down its northern face. 

Beacon. — On Mount Inhaca is a white masonry beacon 16 feet in 
height, with sloping sides and a cylindrical topmark. 

Cape Inhaca, the northeast extreme of Inhaca Island, has a steep 
face, and a lighthouse standing on a sand hill, about 800 yards 
within it. 

Lights. — The lighthouse on Cape Inhaca is a black iron tower, 
90 feet in height, which exhibits, at an elevation of 349 feet above 
high water, a fixed white and flashing light, with a red sector cov- 
ering Danae Shoal ; the fixed light should be visible in clear weather 
from a distance of 22 and the flashing light from 25 miles. For 
bearing of red sector, see Light List. 

About f mile westward of the preceding, a fixed white light is 
shown from Inhaca white triangular beacon, 39 feet in height, and 
should be visible in clear weather from 8 miles. 

A fixed white light, with white and red sectors, is exhibited, at an 
elevation of 200 feet above high water, from the barracks on Black 



200 KEI RIVER TO CAPE* CORRIENTES. 

Bluff, and in clear weather should be visible from a distance of 6 
miles. For bearings of sectors, see Light List. 

Signal station. — A signal station, with which vessels can com- 
municate by the International Code, is situated near Cape Inhaca 
Lighthouse, and is in telegraphic communication with Lourengo 
Marques. 

Danae Shoal, with a least depth of S^ fathoms on its northern 
end, is about 800 yards in length in a north and south direction, 
within the 5-fathoms contour line, and lies on a shoal with depths 
under 10 fathoms, 1^ miles in length in the same direction; the sea 
is said to have been seen to break heavily on the shoal with smooth 
water and in fine weather. 

Shoal. — A shoal, with a depth of 5 fathoms over it, chartered at 
13J miles north-northeastward of Cape Lihaca, was searched for 
unsuccessfully by the British naval ship Forte^ 1900, nothing less 
than 35 fathoms being obtained, but, as there may be less water in 
the vicinity, it should be avoided. 

Clearing marks. — The yellow barracks on Black Bluff in line 
with the white triangular beacon, westward of Cape Inhaca, bearing 
240°, leads 1 mile southeastward, and Mount Inhaca Beacon in line 
with Cape Inhaca Lighthouse 208° leads about J mile northwestward 
of Danae Shoal, which by night is covered by the red sector from 
Cape Inhaca Light. 

Anchorage may be obtained in depths of from 6 to 7 fathoms, 
at the entrance to Portuguese Channel, a bight in the bank extending 
northward of Inhaca Island, with Cape Inhaca Lighthouse bearing 
136°, distant about 3 miles, but two patches of 4 J fathoms are situ- 
ated close to the anchorage. 

Delagoa Bay, first discovered by A. de Campo, a captain of one 
of Vasco da Gama's vessels, and named Lourengo Marques after the 
first settler, is formed on its eastern side by Inhaca Peninsula and 
, Island, together extending nearly 20 miles north-northeastward; 
'from the south end of Inhaca Peninsula is a nearly similar distance 
in a north-northwest direction to the entrance to Espirito Santo 
River, at the head of the bay, the northwest shore being formed by 
the mainland and Chefina Grande and Pequena, two islands. 

On the south side of the bay is Machangulo Bay, fronted by 
numerous shoals, almost entirely blocking its approach, and through 
. the middle of the head of the bay the Maputo River discharges, while 
the Espirito Santo River, formed by the Tembe IJmbeluzi and Matola 
Rivers, runs into its northwest corner. Farther notheastward on 
the northwest shore the Incomati River flows into that side of the 
entrance to the bay on either side of Chefina Grande and Pequena, 
the entrance to the bay, between Cape Inhaca and these islands, being 
144 miles in width. 



KEI RIVEB TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 201 

Shoals extend northward of Cape Inhaca for a distance of about 
19 miles, terminating in Outfield Shoal, between which and tho 
northwest shore is North or Outfield Ohannel, 5 miles in width, which 
is the widest and deepest of any of the pai^ages into the bay. 

Buoyage — Caution. — The buoys in Delagoa Bay should not be 
depended on, as, although their positions as charted are from the 
most recent information, they may have disappeared or have drifted 
from the proper positions. 

Magnetic disturbance. — Considerable local magnetic disturb- 
ance has been observed over parts of Delagoa Bay, the variation 
differing from the normal value, and, in 1907, showing the f oUowing^ 
which values afford an approximate guide for navigation : 

In approaching the bay, when in a depth of more than 15 fatlioms—. 19° 30' W. 

In the bay, when in a depth less than 15 fathoms 18** 30' W» 

Westward of Ponta Vermelha ^ 21° 0' W. 

On-shore at Ponta Vermelha 21* 40' W. 

The annual change of variation has altered from 5' decreasing to" 
10' decreasing. 

Pratique. — Vessels requiring pratique should, when passing Oape 
Inhaca by night, hoist a green light, and also again before arriving 
abreast of Ponta Vermelha Lightbuoy; the health officer will visit 
mail or passenger steamers at any hour of the day or night, and other 
vessels up to 10 p. m. 

Portuguese (Elephant) Island, on the northwest side of a dry- 
ing bank which extends nearly 3 miles northward of Inhaca Island^ 
is about 1 mile in extent, 25 feet high, and sandy, with bushes on it ; 
Gibao (Gibbon) Point, the western extreme of a small island off its 
west side, is steep to, but on other sides the island has a drying bank. 
A leper establishment is on the west side of the island. 

Cockbum Shoal — Channels. — The line of shoals extending 
about 19 miles northward of Oape Inhaca, is broken in several places 
by channels, and on the southern side of this line of shoals is Oock- 
burn Shoal, extending for a distance of 4J miles from the northern 
side of the drying bank stretching northward of Inhaca Island, the 
least depth on it being 1 fathom, near its northern end. 

Light. — On the north end of Oockburn Shoal, i mile northwest- 
ward of the 1-fathom patch, is an iron pile structure, which exhibits,, 
at an elevation of 39 feet above high water, a white fixed light, with 
white and red sectors, visible 10 miles. 

South or Cockbum Channel, passing along the northeast side of 
Oockburn Shoal, is about J mile in width between the 5-fathoms con- 
tour lines, with Middle or Hope Shoals forming its northeast side. 

Middle or Hope Shoals, on the northeast side of Oockburn 
Shoal, have a least depth of 3 fathoms on two patches. 



202 KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 

Middle or Hope Channel, passing between a 3-fathom patch 
on the north end of Middle Shoals, and a 2J-fathoms patch on the 
north side, is about J mile in width. 

Buoys. — ^A black can buoy is moored about midway through 
South Channel, on its southwest side. 

A conical buoy, surmounted by a triangle, is moored on the north 
side of Middle Channel, immediately southward of the 23-fathom 
patch. 

Domette Shoal, with a least depth of 2 fathoms, and 3| miles 
northward of Middle Channel, is separated from the 2f-fathom 
patch of Middle Channel by a passage, in which there are depths of 
from 3J to 5 fathoms, with a detached patch of 2f fathoms in it, 
nearly 1 mile southward of Domette Shoal. 

Faiva Manso Shoal, with a least depth of 2^ fathoms, lies about 
2J miles northward of Domette Shoal, the channel between having 
depths of from 3J to 3^ fathoms, with patches of 2f and 3 fathoms 
in it. 

Cutfield Shoal, having a least depth of 2 fathoms, is nearly 2 
miles northward of Paiva Manso Shoal, the channel between having 
from 3 J to 4 fathoms, with a patch of 2^ fathoms in it. 

North or Cutfield Channel has general depths of from 6J to 
10 fathoms, the deeper water being toward Cutfield Shoal; from 1 
mile to 2 miles off the mainland side of the channel are two patches 
of 5 fathoms. 

Mount Cutfield, 180 feet high, situated near the shore, about 6^ 
miles northward of Cutfield Shoal, shows a bushy top from seaward, 
and when westward of Cutfield Shoal a large streak of sand appears 
down its side, while when in the channel within the shoals and with 
it bearing about 0° it shows two peaks. 

Beacon. — On Mount Cutfield is a white pyramidal beacon, sur- 
mounted by a black triangular topmark, pointing downward, the 
whole 40 feet in height. 

Depths. — South or Cockburn Channel, usually preferred by ves- 
sels coming from the southward and suitable for those of moderate 
draft, has depths of from 19 to 21 feet on the leading marks, but its 
bar is subject to change, and the least depth in 1914 was reported 
to be 24 feet. 

In Middle or Hope Channel, nearly always used by mail steamers 
and merchant vessels from the northward and more adapted for 
deep-draft vessels, a least depth of 27 feet can be obtained. 

North or Cutfield Channel has from ^ to 10 fathoms water. 

LourenQo Marques, the port formed by the estuary of the Espi- 
rito Santo or English Eiver, is approached through Delagoa Bay, 
where it is considerably encumbered by shoals. The southern side 
of the approach in the bay is formed by the drying flats which 



KEI BIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 203 

front Machangulo Bay and the entrance to Maputo River, and on the 
north and northwest sides by the coast extending south-southwest- 
ward for 19 miles from Mount Cutfield to Macaneta Point, the 
northern point of entrance to Incomati River. 

Chefina Grande, the northeast point of which forms the south- 
west side of the entrance to Incomati River, is about 4^ miles in 
length in a northeast and opposite direction; low, sandy, with some 
hummocks, and covered with dense bush. The lower part of the 
island is white sand and is difficult to distinguish from the mainland 
behind it. 

Beacon. — On Timpson Point, the southwest point of the island, 
is a white beacon consisting of a column, which formed a portion of 
an old light tower, and is surmounted by a pole. A house, 100 yards 
westward of the beacon and having a galvanized roof, is said to be 
a good mark, being visible about 10 miles in clear weather. 

Chefina Fequena. — ^The entraace to Incomati River, between 
the points mentioned, is about 8 cables in width, with a depth of IJ 
fathoms on a bar fronting it, and about J mile within the entrance to 
the river is the south extreme of Chefina Pequena, which island ex- 
tends northward for about 2^ miles, with a greatest width of 1 mile. 
Its southern part is surrounded by a bank uncovering at low water. 
Another channel of entrance to the river runs close along the north- 
west side of Chefina Grande. 

Northwest shore. — From the western point of the entrance to 
the Incomati River the shore of the bay trends south westward for 
9 miles to Ponta Vermelha, a bold red blufT, 102 feet high, rising 
abruptly from the water, and the northern point of entrance to 
Espirito Santo River, and midway is a high sand hill. Ponta Ma- 
hone, the south point of entrance to the river, and 2J miles southward 
of Ponta Vermelha, is cliflFv. 

Approach — Dangers. — The approach to Delagoa Baj^ from sea- 
ward is either by South or Cockburn, Middle or Hope, or by North 
or Cutfield Channels, the latter the deepest and widest. Lourengo 
Marques may be approached through three channels, named, respec- 
tively, South and North Passage and Chefina Grande Passage. 

South Passage. — From the southwest side of Cockburn Shoal a 
line of shoals, with depths under 5 fathoms, extends southwestward 
until it joins Great Maputo Flats, off Maputo River, and about mid- 
way is (jibao Shoal, IJ miles westward of Portuguese Island, having 
i\ least depth of If fathoms over it. 

This line of shoals and Great Maputo Flats form the south side of 
the South Passage leading to Espirito Santo River, but northward of 
Great Maputo Flats, and on the south side of South Passage, is also 
Captain Shoal, detached, about 1 mile in extent, and with a least 
depth of 2 fathoms. The above line of shoals and Great Maputo 



204 KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 

Flats also form the northwest side of Great Channel, leading to 
Alachangiilo Bay. 

The only danger on the north side of South Passage, and separat- 
ing it from North Passage, is Serra Shoal, about J mile in length in 
a northeast and opposite direction, and with a least depth of 2J 
fathoms. 

North Passage^ entered about 2 miles westward of Cockbum 
Shoal pile light structure, has on its northern side Chefina Grande 
Bank, and Fawn, Eibeiro, and Passage Shoals. 

Chefina Grande Bank. — From Chefina Shoal, extending about 
1,200 yards southward of Timpson Point, the southwest extreme of 
Chefina Grande, the 3-f athoms contour line trends in an east-north- 
easterly direction for 8 miles, and then, curving round northward and 
northwestward, forms within it Chefina Grande Bank and Incomati 
Flats, the east extreme of the former being 4 miles east-southeast- 
ward, and of the latter nearly 5 miles eastward of Macaneta Point; 
the outer part of Chefina Grande Bank frequently breaks. 

Fawn Shoal — Ribeiro Shoal. — The 5- fathom contour line passes 
at a distance of about 1^ miles to the southward of Chefina Grande 
Bank, and within its eastern extreme is Fawn Shoal, with a depth 
of 2 J fathoms, and the easternmost of several detached patches, of 
from li to 3 fathoms, extending west-southwestward from it- for 
2 miles to Eibeiro Shoal (Lech Reef), which is close to the edge of 
the 5-fathoms contour line, and has a least depth of 1^ fathoms. 

Passage Shoal, a sandy patch about f mile in length in a northwest 
and opposite direction, has a least 2 fathoms, and lies 1 mile west- 
north westward of Ribeiro Shoal. The tidal stream, especially that 
of the rising tide, sets toward Ribeiro Shoal. 

Clearing mark. — The yellow barracks on Inhaca Island in line 
with Gibao Point, bearing 166°, leads eastward of Fawn Shoal, 
Chefina Grande Bank, and Incomati Flats. 

Lights. — A green fixed light, with a red sector, is exhibited from 
a beacon on the southern edge of Ribeiro Shoal. 

On the southern edge of Chefina Shoal is a cement pile structure, 
which exhibits, at an elevation of 26 feet above high water, an un- 
watehed flashing light, with white and red sectors, visible in clear 
weather from a distance of 8 miles, but the'flashes show irregularly. 

Buoys. — Fawn Shoal is marked by a red conical buoy surmounted 
bv a staff and triangle and moored 800 vards eastward of it. 

A black can buoy is moored about 1§ miles eastward of Chefina 
Shoal pile light structure. 

Chefina Grande Passage, between Fawn and Ribeiro Shoals, on 
the south, and the edge of Chefina Grande Bank, on the north side, 
is about § mile in width, but it is obstructed at its western end by 
Passage Shoal. 



KEI KIVER TO CAPE CORRIEXTES. 205 

Depths. — South Passage has depths of from oj to 9 fathoms on 
the track recommended, which is shown by a pecked line on the plan, 
until Hearing the 5-fathom contour line outside the bar, and North 
Passage has from 5^ to 9 fathoms on a similar track, while Chefina 
Grande Passage has from 4^ to 9 fathoms water, avoiding Passage 
Shoal. 

Espirito Santo Biver^ 2^ miles in width at its entrance between 
Ponta Mahone and Ponta Vermelha, the former having two faces of 
red earth sometimes showing well against the dark foliage, and the 
latter, a bold red bluff, rising abruptly to 102 feet, is fronted by a bar, 
continued for about 6^ miles eastward, by Polana Shoal, between the 
north edge of which and the south side of Chefina Shoal is the en- 
trance to the river through Polana Channel ; within the bar the river 
deepens, and is about 600 yards in width, forming the port of Ltou- 
rengo Marques. 

Light. — On Ponta Vermelha, the northern point of entrance, is 
a cylindrical stone tower, 59 feet in height, which exhibits, at an ele- 
vation of 157 feet above high water, a fixed light, with wiiite and red 
sectors; it should be visible in clear weather from a distance of 17 
miles, and in very favorable weather it may possibly be visible from 
eastward of Cockburn Shoal. 

Pilots may be obtained, although reported to be not very reliable, 
the pilot hulk flying a flag with a dark P on a white ground by day 
and showing a white fixed light by night, being generally moored 
inside Cape Inhaca, and the pilot boats, which are schooners, sliow- 
ing letter P in white on a black ground, both on the mainsail and flag, 
cruising, weather permitting, a few miles northward of the cape and 
outside Middle Shoals. Pilotage is compulsory for merchant vessels. 

Tugs. — Two tugs are available. 

Directions — South Channel. — ^If intending to enter the bay by 
the South Channel, Cape Inhaca should be rounded at about 2 miles 
distant, steering about 284° until Cape Inhaca Lighthouse and the 
beacon westward of it, from which a light is shown, are in line, 
bearing 143°, when alter course to 328°, with these marks astern, 
which should lead through the channel, but passing close westward 
of patches of 2J and 3 fathoms, and eastward of a patch of the 
former depth, southward of which is a black can buoy ; when nearing 
this buoy the marks should be slightly opened to avoid the patches 
on the east side. 

When steering on the above marks it should be remembered that 
the tidal streams set obli(|uely across the channel, the west-ffoing 
stream being that of the rising and east-going stream that of the 
falling tide, and when the pile light structure on the north end of 
Cockburn Shoal bears about 240° that shoal may be gradually 
rounded, and when Black Bluff is open westward of Cockburn light 



206 KEI RIVEB TO CAPE COBBIENTES. 

structure, bearing 164°, the vessel is westward of Cockburn Shoal. 
Reliance should not be placed on positions obtained by cross bearings, 
as in some parts of the bay the compass is reported to be very slug- 
gish; therefore angles should be used for fixes as much as possible. 

North and South Passages. — From the foregoing position 
there is the choice of proceeding to the port or anchorage off the bar 
by two passages, of which North Passage is the most direct, but South 
Passage is that generally taken by the pilots ; Chefina Passage is not 
buoyed and is obstructed by Passage Shoal. 

If intending to use South Passage, from the last position steer 2J^5° 
until the beacon on Ponta Vermelha is in line with the light tower 
on that point, bearing 260°, which leads between Captain and 
Serra Shoals to an anchorage southeastward of Chefina Shoal light 
structure. 

By the North Passage, from the position westward of Cockburn 
Shoal, steer 245° for about 1 mile to a position southward of Fawn 
Shoal Buoy, and then alter course to 252°, passing southward of 
the light structure on Ribeiro Shoal, to an anchorage about 2 miles 
eastward of Chefina Shoal light structure. 

By night. — A vessel entering by North Passage will be guided by 
bearings of Ponta Vermelha Light, nearly ahead, and by the lights 
shown from the light structures on Ribeiro and Chefina Shoals, as 
well as the lightbuoys. 

Middle Channel. — ^The Middle Channel is approached steering 
about 284°, and a depth of 27 feet will be maintained when ap- 
proaching from the southward by preserving an angle of about 39° 
between Cape Inhaca and Gibao Point, until the former bears 159° ; 
when leaving the red conical buoy to the northward, about 300 
yards distant, steer 219° for Cockburn Shoal light structure until 
within i mile of it or the marks for Cockburn Channel come in 
line, when the previous directions to the westward may be followed. 

The tidal streams set almost directly across Middle Channel, and, 
with the west-going stream, care is necessary not to be set north- 
westward of a line joining the red buoy and Cockburn Shoal light 
structure until the marks for Cockburn Channel are in line, but the 
foregoing drections should be used with caution, on account of the 
changing nature of the shoals. 

By night. — Cockburn Shoal light structure, bearing 222° by day 
if coming from the north, or the light on the same bearing by 
night, will lead through Middle Channel in a least depth of 27 feet. 

North Channel. — Vessels preferring to enter by the North 
Cliannel, after passing from a mile to 2 miles eastward of Cape 
Inhaca Lighthouse, should steer about 350°, leaving Danae Shoal 
on the east side, and taking care not to bring the lighthouse to l)ear 
to the southward of 176° until Cutfield Hummock bears 32-1°, when 



KEI KIVEE TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 207 

it may be steered for, its approximate distance being obtained by 
means of a vertical angle of the summit, which is 180 feet above high 
water. 

When about 2^ miles from the beacon the course may be gradually 
altered to the southwestward, to bring it to bear 357°, and steering 
177° keep it on that bearing as a stern mark as long as the beacon 
I'emains in sight, or until Cockburn Shoal light structure bears 
about 157°, when steer about 169° for the position already men- 
tioned to the westward of Cockburn Shoal, observing that the yellow- 
barracks on Black Bluff, in line with or open eastward of Gibao 
Point, bearing about 156°, leads eastward of Fawn Shoal. 

Anchorages. — ^The anchorage recommended for deep-draft ves- 
sels is in depths of from 6 to 8 fathoms, with Chefina Shoal light 
structure bearing 295°/ distant about 2^ miles; or if of moderate 
draft, anchorage may be taken up somewhat closer to the light 
structure in from 4f to 5 fathoms, with it bearing about 308°, dis- 
tant IJ miles. 

There is also anchorage on the north side of the North Passage, 
with Chefina Shoal light structure bearing 263°, distant 2 miles, 
in depths of from 4^ to 5 fathoms, or in about 3^ fathoms, near the 
entrance to the dredged channel. 

Bar — Polana Channel. — Polana Channel, dredged to a depth of 
21 feet, 328 feet in width, and nearly 4 miles in length, passes over 
the bar, and is entered about 2 miles westward of the pile light struc- 
ture, southward of Chefina Shoal ; the bottom is soft mud, and the 
channel is in course of being deepened to 26 feet. On the south side 
of the bar, Ponta Mahone Shoals, with depths of and under 1 
fathom, extend 2 miles northeastward of the point of the same name- 

Leading lights. — At Catembe, on the south side of the river^ 
about 2^ miles within Ponta Mahone, two leading lights, for use in 
passing through the dredged channel of the bar, are situated ; they 
are 2,040 yards apart, and in line bearing 239°. 

The rear light, white fixed, with red sectors, is shown at an ele- 
vation of 95 feet above high water, from a white iron tower, 33 feet 
in height, and having near it a small house with a red roof; the 
light should be visible in clear weather from a distance of 9 miles- 
The front light is red fixed, the light structure being a beacon situated 
on the shore bank extending from the southern bank of the river. 

Beacons. — About 400 yards westward of Ponta Vermelha is a tri- 
angular beacon 48 feet in height and 136 feet above the river, the 
white top of which shows a pale yellow apex to seaward and bluff- 
colored towards the port, but when it is in line with the lighthouse 
this is not easily seen. 

A white triangular beacon, 42 feet above the river, is situated about 
200 yards in front of the rear leading-light tower. 



208 KEI EIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 

A cylindrical beacon, 12 feet in height, stands just within the edge 
of the mud flat westward of Ponta Vermelha. 

Lightbuoys. — Polana Channel is marked by lightbuoys as fol- 
lows, those with red lights being on the port, and those with green 
on the starboard hand : 

A black can buoy, showing a red fixed light, on the south side of 
the entrance of Polana Channel. 

A lightbuoy, exhibiting a red fixed light on the south side of the 
channel, and about 1 mile eastward of Ponta Vermelha. 

A red buoy, showing a green fixed light, visible 2 miles, at the 
inner end of Polana Channel. 

Beacons. — In addition to the beacons above mentioned the limit 
of the dredged channels on either side is indicated by a red pole 
beacon in front, placed on each side of the channel, and two small 
white triangular beacons on the shore on each side of the lighthouse 
in the rear. 

Port. — The port of Lourengo Marques, formed by the estuary of 
the Espirito Santo River, fronts the town of Lourengo Marques, 
Gorjao Quay occupying nearly the whole of the frontage on that 
side; it is 3,469 feet in length, of which 2,197 feet will accommodate 

4 vessels of 30 feet draft, while the remaining 1,272 feet will allow 

5 vessels of 25 feet draft to lie alongside at low-water springs. 
The quay, which is lighted by electricity, has several lines of rail- 
way on it so that trains can run alongside vessels, while it is equipped 
with several electric cranes, the largest lifting 20 tons, and four 
transporters are available; a steam launch is fitted with an ap- 
paratus for the disinfection of holds of vessels. The customhouse 
and port captain's office are eastward of Gorjao Quay, and on the 
south bank of the river, which is chiefly mangroves, are disused 
naval workshops. 

Harbor works. — It is proposed to extend the quay to the west- 
ward for an additional length of 4,328 feet, which will enable 10 
vessels of an average length of 430 feet to berth alongside; the 
wooden quays are being replaced by concrete. A boat camber for 
motor boats, etc., is under construction. 

Harbor lights. — Two green lights are shown at the customs 
landing, and a red light from the naval workshops at Catembe. 

Directions. — From the anchorage outside the bar, steer for the 
houses on Somerschields concession, on the northern slope of the 
high ground of Polana, bearing 271° until the white iron light 
tower at Catembe is in line with the white beacon fronting it, bear- 
ing 230^ true, and proceed through the dredged channel on these 
marks, leaving the black liglitbuoy at the entrance and the inter- 
mediate lightbuoy (both red lights) on the south, and the light- 
buoy (green light) southward of Ponta Vermelha to the northward. 



K?:i BIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 209 

By nighty a vessel will be guided by bearings of Chefina Shoal 
light when approaching the dredged channel, as well as the light- 
buoys, and the leading lights in line, bearing 239°, will lead through 
Polana Channel. 

Anchorages. — The anchorage for vessels of war is in the south- 
east part of the port, off and southeastward of the southeast end of 
Gorjao Quay, the depths being from 36 to 48 feet. 

The anchorage for merchant vessels, in depths of from 48 to 78 
feet, is northwestward of a. line crossing the port from the north- 
west end of Gorjao Quay. The space fronting Gorjao Quay, and 
between the above anchorages, is prohibited as anchoring ground. 

The quarantine anchorage is on a line joining Ponta Vermelha 
and the leading light beacons, as near the southern shore as possible, 
and vessels laden with explosives must anchor in that portion re- 
served for vessels of war, but not less than J mile from any other 
vessel. 

Vessels ready to leave the port, or waiting for the tide, may anchor 
in the entrance to the port, southeastward of the line of the leading; 
marks for Polana Channel, and not less than 600 yards to the 
southward of the light buoy off Ponta Vermelha. . 

Vessels can make fast alongside the quay up to 11 p. m., but if 
wishing to go alongside after that hour notice must be given to the 
secretary of the port commission before 7 p. m. 

Pratique. — Vessels requiring pratique should hoist a green light 
when passing Cape Inhaca, and also when abreast of Ponta Ver- 
melha. The health officer boards vessels, and no communication 
with the shore is permitted until he has done so, the regulations 
being very stringent. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in South or Cockbum 
Channel, at 4 h. 48 m., springs rise 9f feet ; at Chefina Grande, at 4 h. 
51 m., springs rise 12 feet ; and at Lourengo Marques, at 4 h. 56 m., 
springs rise V2i feet, neaps rise 7^ feet. The age of the tide is about 
2 days, and there is considerable diurnal inequality. 

Tidal streams. — Seaward of the line of shoals fronting the bay 
the north-going stream^ or that of the rising tide, sets with a 
velocity of 2 knots, wdth a strong indraft toward South or Cock- 
burn Channel, across which it sets obliquely, necessitating caution 
to guard against it when passing through ; the other stream sets in 
an opposite direction. 

Within the line of shoals the southwest-going stream, or that of 
the rising tide, setting through Xorth or Cutfield Channel, over 
Chefina Grande Bank, enters Espirito Santo River with velocities 
of from 1 knot to 3 knots, the other stream setting in an opposite 
direction. 

39511—16 14 



210 KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 

Winds. — From October or November to April, although the hot 
and rainy season, the weather is mostly fine, accompanied by 
strong sea breezes of a force from 4 to 5, and succeeded by light land 
winds by night, but sometimes the sea breeze only decreases in 
strength for two or three nights running; after some days of fine 
weather the sea breeze fails, and rain accompanies south or south- 
west winds. 

Gales from southwest of 36 hours' duration are not infrequent, the 
wind then drawing to the southward, and the weather becoming 
fine at southeast, after which the wind draws gradually to northeast, 
continuing fine for a few days, and then undergoing a similar 
change. Bad weather always comes on with winds between west 
and south; improving as the wind draws to east; an unusual gale 
from south, of hurricane force, was experienced in the middle of 
October, 1903. 

From April to October the sea breezes blow with less force, calms 
are more frequent, and rain only falls on from 2 to 6 days in a 
month, whereas in the opposite season, it may fall on about 11 days 
in the same period. 

Weather forecasts. — Information regarding the probable 
weather likely to be experienced in the Mozambique Channel can be 
obtained at the port office, being telegraphed there from Mozambique. 

Town. — Lourengo Marques, standing on the northern bank of 
Espirito Santo River, about IJ miles within Ponta Vermelha, is the 
capital of the Southern Province of Portuguese East Africa. 
Swamps which formerly surrounded the town have been filled up 
and the land reclaimed, and amongst the most conspicuous buildings 
are a church on the hill behind the lower town, with a large hospital 
near it, the capitania buildings, the treasury, post and telegraph 
offices, municipal buildings, and court of justice, all being prominent. 

The town, with a population of 13,353 in 1912, of which number 
5,324 were white and 6G8 British subjects, is lighted by electricity 
and has good macadamized roads, with a service of electric trams in 
them. 

Communication. — Steam vessels visiting the port belong to the 
Union Castle, Clan, AberHeen, Prince, British India, Chargeurs 
Reunis, and Empreza Xacional de Xavegagao lines. Other steamers 
call at irregular periods. 

The railway to the Portuguese frontier, a distance of 57 miles, is 
continued to Pretoria, the total distance being 346 miles, from which 
there is railway communication with all parts of South Africa. Be- 
sides this line there is a branch to Barberton and the De Kaap gold 
fields. A railway to the borders of Swaziland is under construction 
and nearing completion in 1913. 



KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 211 

Submarine cables connect LourenQo Marques with Port Natal and 
with Aden, via Mozambique, and land lines give telegraphic com- 
munication with all parts. 

Coal and supplies. — About 1,200 tons of Transvaal coal are kept 
in stock, and large amounts are available at very short notice. About 
14,000 tons are imported annually. Coaling is carried on by baskets 
and about 400 tons could be put on board in 24 hours, there being 
about 30 lightere and a coal wharf 3,000 feet in length, with a depth 
of 24 feet alongside. Collieries have been opened on the border, 55 
miles from the port. 

Fresh meat, bread, and vegetables can be procured, the latter being 
plentiful and mostly grown in the neighborhood. Fish are abundant 
and good. The supply of water — of excellent quality — is abundant, 
and mains are laid on the quay for shipping, which are supplied at 
2s. 8d. per ton for drinking and Is. 9d. for boiler purposes, but at 
the anchorages 6s. is charged. 

Repairs. — Small repairs might be effected at the Government 
workshops at Catembe. A steam launch is fitted with Clayton appa- 
ratus for the disinfection of vessels' holds. 

Hospital. — In addition to the free hospital, containing 300 beds, 
a large hospital is in course of construction in the upper part of the 
town. 

Time signal. — A time signal, made by means of an electric light, 
exhibited on Gorjao Qua}^, and worked from the observatory, is made 
at mean noon of the thirtieth meridian east of Greenwich, and subse- 
quently every three hours, both by day and by night. The light, 
exhibited 5 minutes before the hour, is extinguished exactly at the 
hour. 

Trade. — The exports in 1913 were valued at $3,847,954, the transit 
trade amounting in value to $21,275,115; the imports, principally 
timber, machinery, railway material, and general merchandise, were 
valued at $5,224,772. In this year 577,248 tons of Transvaal coaj 
were exported. 

In the same year the port was entered by 779 steam and 11 sailing 
vessels, with aggregate tonnages, respectively, of 2,605,107 and 19,127 
tons. 

The retail trade is chiefly in the hands of Europeans, but a large 
business is transacted bv Banians or Hindu traders. 

Climate. — The climate is very pleasant from May to September, 
when there are bright sunny days, and the temperature in the shade 
seldom rises above 80° or falls below 60° F., but the other half of 
the year contrasts most unfavorably with this period, as typhoid 
fever has then been more or less prevalent. Improvements that have 
been made in filling in the swamps, reclaiming the foreshore, drain- 



212 KEl RIVER TO CAPE CORRIEXTES. 

ing, and road making, together with the abundant supply of pure 
water, are stated to have considerably improved the health of the 
town. 

Port Melville, scuthwestward of Portuguese Island, and between 
the drying bank, on which that island stands, and a narrow shoal 
extending for a distance of 2 miles southward from about J mile 
southwestw^ard of Gibao Point, is about 400 yards in width between 
the 5-fathom contour lines on either side, and has depths of from 
8 to 11 fathoms, affording good shelter from all winds but those from 
southwest, which raise a sea at the anchorage. 

Directions. — Having arrived at the position westward of Cock- 
burn Shoal Light Structure, by one of the channels througli the line 
of shoals already described, keep to the southwestward until Gibao 
Point is midway between the yellow barracks on Black Bluff and 
Mount Inhaca, bearing about 125°, and steer on these marks, which 
will lead, in a depth of 4^ fathoms, over the shoal ridge connecting 
Gibao Shoal with the southwest patches of Cockburn Shoal. 

When about 400 yards distant from Gibao Bluff, and the yellow 
barracks bears 150°, alter course for them," anchoring in a depth of 
about 10 fathoms, over sand, with the northernmost house on Portu- 
guese Island bearing 70°; but if proceeding farther southward to 
the anchorage off Black Bluff, a vessel should n;ot pass westward of 
the line joining Cockburn Shoal Light Structure and Gibao Point, 
bearing 359°, which line may be used as- a stem mark to the anchor- 
age; but these directions should be used with caution, as the shoals in 
the vicinity appear to be of a shifting nature. 

Supplies. — Some small supplies may be purchased from the na- 
tives on Inhaca Island, but bullocks are scarce ; if water is required, 
wells should be dug 10 or 12 feet deep, about 70 yards inland, on the 
western and highest part of the island, or from 6 to 8 tons might be 
obtained in a day by sinking casks in the sand. A well of good water 
is situated near the beach. A detachment of soldiers is stationed at 
Black Bluff. 

Machan^lo Bay, on the southeast side of Delagoa Bay, is ob- 
structed by shoals, through which are three channels; of these Inhaca 
Channel is the easternmost, Direct Channel the middle, and Great 
Channel the westernmost. -^ 

Depths. — InhiH^a Channel, approached through Port Melville, has 
a least depth of If fathoms; Direct Channel has about the same 
depth, and both channels pass over a bar of \\ fathoms at their inner 
part. Great Channel, which bifurcates some way within its entrance, 
has about 2 fathoms, and the tracks through these will be seen marked 
by pecked lines on the plan. The anchorage, in a narrow space at the 
head of tlni bay, is in a depth of about 4J fathoms. 



KEI BIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 213 

Maputo River, about 9 miles northwestward of Machangulo Bay, 
is approached through Maputo Channel, between Great Maputo 
Flats and the shore bank, under 3 fathoms, extending nearly 5 miles 
eastward of Ponta Mahone; it is said to be navigable for boats for 
about 60 miles until the month of June, but after this, during the 
dry season, they would probably not be able to ascend beyond the 
limit of tidal influence. 

For about 17 miles the banks of the river are of low alluvial soil, 
lined with mangrove forests, but beyond that is a fine open country, 
with sandy soil, and river banks about 6 feet high; these plains ex- 
tend about 2 miles within the banks on either side, with some fine 
ranges of hills, before reaching ther foot of the Lubombo Mountains. 
Moham is situated about 35 miles, and Upanhlain Drift, about 130 
miles from the mouth, is considered to be the head of navigation. 

Buoys. — Maputo Channel is marked by the following buoys : 

A fairway buoy, conical and surmounted by a triangle, at the 
entrance. 

A can buoy, surmounted by a cylinder, on the east side of the 
fairway, about 5 miles within the preceding. 

Two conical buoys, surmounted by triangles, on the western side 
of the fairway, one at the entrance to the river and the other about 

1 mile within it. 

A can buoy, surmounted by a cylinder, on the east side of the fair- 
way of the river and | mile within the last of the above buoys. 

Depths. — ^Maputo Channel has a least depth of 3J fathoms, but 
a bar of 2f fathoms crosses the river about 1 mile within its en- 
trance. In the river there is a depth of 4 fathoms at high water, 
and during the month of April a depth of 18 feet was obtained for 
20 miles from the entrance, after which an average of 6 feet for 
50 miles, then 4 feet for a farther 30 miles, and about 2 feet for 
the last 30 miles, gradually shoaling above this to a ford about 

2 miles beyond the junction with the Usutu River. 

Tidal stream. — The outgoing stream runs strongly at the en- 
trance to the river for about 7 hours, and in some of the bends it 
attains velocities of from 2 J to 5 knots. 

Espirlto Santo River, formed by three tributaries, the Tembe, 
Umbeluzi or Dundas River, and the Matola River, all entering it 
about 8 miles from its mouth, from their junction with it flows 
first northeastward and then southeastward, and from 13 fathoms, 
its greatest depth, in front of the town of Lourengo Marques, it 
decreases in depth to 25 fathoms belo^ its head. 

Tembe River, the southernmost tributary, can be navigated by 
vessels drawing 13 feet for 19 miles, and those of 6 feet for 60 
miles from its mouth, the depths for the last 25 miles of this dis- 
tance being 9 feet and very regular. 



214 KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 

Some of the land is under cultivation, and fresh water is abundant ; 
that in the river is said to be drinkable in the upper part, but it is 
salt in the lower reaches. 

Umbeluzi (Dundas) River, the middle tributary, is navigable 
for large boats as far as Bombai, about 10 miles from its entrance, 
near which is a ford only passable by boats at high water ; the river 
is 80 yards in width a short distance below the ford, and the water is 
fresh a few miles from the river entrance. 

Matola Biver, the northernmost tributary, and narrower and 
shallower than the Tembe River, is 320 yards in width and 16 feet 
in depth at its entrance, while at 8 miles above its width dimin- 
ishes to 30 yards and its depth to 8 feet, above which boats can 
only ascend a short distance. 

Incomati (King George) Biver, entering Delagoa Bay imme- 
diatelv to the northward of Chefina Grande Island, rises near Levden- 
burg in the Lumbombo Mountains. 

The entrance, fronted by Chefina Grande Bank, extending 4^ miles 
eastward of it, has a channel on the north side of this bank and also 
one passing along the western side of Chefina Grande Island, and 
from its mouth it has a general northerly direction, with several wind- 
ings, passing about 3 miles westward of Mount Cutfield. 

For some distance from the mouth the banks are more or less bush 
covered or mangroves, and higher up, on the western side, is a ridge 
of high land, approaching the river at a few points, but frequently 
separated from it by flat marshy tracts of country, several miles in 
width, and densely covered with a coarse species of guinea grass from 
6 to 6 feet in height. 

On the eastern side are also flats of a similar kind, which at the 
highest point to which the river has been ascended were only bounded 
by the horizon ; for many miles of the upper river there is no timber, 
except here and there a straggling fir tree, bent over the river l)y 
the force of the southeast winds. Care is necessary when landing 
on the banks, which can not be easily penetrated, except where the 
grass has been burnt, as in places they are honeycombed with pits 
as traps for hippopotami and other animals. 

The least depth over the bar of Incomati Flats and northward of 
Chefina Grande Bank is 1^ fathoms, and in the river, which has been 
ascended for between 120 and 140 miles in a sailing cutter, the depths 
throughout were from 12 to 18 feet in the fairway and from 6 to 9 
feet near the banks, which were frequently brushed by the cutter's 
mainsail. 

At Magud\s Kraal, about 30 miles from the mouth, is a ferry, and 
here the river has a navigable deep-water channel for almost its entire 
breadth, sugar cane, cotton, and indigo growing well on its banks. 



KEI EIVER TO CAPE CORKIENTES. 215 

Coast. — From Mount Cutfield the coast, curving round to the 
eastward, consists of sand hills, from 150 to 200 feet high, for a dis- 
tance of 17 miles, when near Mabamba is a long, bare sandy ridge 
having four small cones, 290 feet high, which form a conspicuous 
landmark; within this coast are Lakes Pate and Muandje. 

Beacons. — At Mabjechine, 6 miles northeastward of Mount Cut- 
field, is a beacon on a hill 235 feet high. 

A white masonry beacon, surmounted by a white cylinder, stands 
on the 290- foot hill of the long bare sandy ridge near Mabamba. 

Several black pyramidal surveying beacons, about 19 feet high, are 
erected on hills near the coast between Delagoa Bay and Cape Baza- 
ruto. 

Lagoa River, flowing out of Lake Huendje, is 26 miles eastward 
of Mount Cutfield, and between Lagoa and Limpopo Rivers the sand 
hills increase in height to from 380 and 430 feet ; at the western point 
of the latter river is a red-topped sand hill, whilst at 17 miles east- 
ward is Salmon Cliff, backed by cultivated and grassy hills. 

Huendje Lake. — Lagoa River, forming the entrance to Lake 
Huendje, is 27 miles northeastward of Mount Cutfield, its western 
point rising to a sandy hill 245 feet high. When near the shore the 
lake is easily identified by the limestone cliffs or blocks of stone, 
about 80 feet high, facing the sand hills, extending some distance on 
either side of it, and forming a gap about 500 feet in width. This 
break in the cliff has caused the lake to be mistaken for a river, 
whereas it extends back only about 3 miles, and is but a ravine full 
of water, separated from the sea by a ridge sometimes 30 feet above 
sea level. 

During the survey in 1884 a narrow stream of water was visible 
communicating with the lake at half tide, but it was breaking heavily 
right across the entrance; the sand hills in this neighborhood are of 
a reddish color, differing from those about Delagoa Bay. 

Lagoa Shoal, the eastern extreme of which is 4 miles southward 
of Lagoa River, and near the northern approach to Delagoa Bay, is 
a ridge of rock and sand, extending 5 miles southwestward of its 
eastern end, with a width of 500 yards, and lying parallel with, and 
between 4 and 5 miles from, the shore. The least depth of 2J fath- 
oms is near the center of the shoal and about 66°, distant 21 miles 
from Mount Cutfield. 

Limpopo or Innampura River, also known to the natives as 
the Krokodil, the Oori, the Lebepe, the Lebempe, and the Do Onoro, 
rises in the Cats Rand Mountains, and flows through gold-bearing 
land past Johannesburg and Pretoria, having a course of about 1,500 
miles. 



216 KEI KIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 

Maquitane Point, on the western side of the entrance, has several 
sand hills 200 feet high, the outer one being red, and forming a con- 
spicuous mark for identifying the river; Chai Chai Point, on the 
eastern side, is a narrow sand spit about 12 feet high. 

The first 12 miles of the river has mangrove-covered banks, above 
which, for about 60 miles, the country is low, level, and almost desti- 
tute of timber, but from this it gradually rises to hills and mountains 
in the interior and is well wooded. 

Light. — On Monte Bello, a hill 278 feet high, situated 1^ miles 
northward of Maquitane Point, is a masonry tower 35 feet in height, 
which exhibits, at an elevation of 305 feet above high water, a white 
group flashing light, visible in clear weather from a distance of 24 
miles. 

Beacons. — A white masonry beacon, surmounted by a white cyl- 
inder, stands on a sand hill, 452 feet high, on the western side of the 
river entrance. 

Two leading pyramidal pile beacons with black disks as topmarks 
are for use in entering the river ; the lower beacon stands on the north 
side of Maquitane Point and the upper beacon is about 700 yards 
270° from it. 

Dangers — Entrance. — South Bank, forming the south side of 
the entrance channel, extends about 1,800 yards eastward of Maqui- 
tane Pointy being about i mile in width at its inner part and tapering 
to a point. 

North Bank, the continuation of a bank, partly dry, which extends 
about 250 yards southward of Chai Chai Point, draws off the land to 
a distance of nearly 800 yards when farther eastward, and between 
its southern edge and the extreme point of South Bank is the bar, 
about 200 yards in width, but the entrance channel, westward of this, 
narrows to a little more than 100 yards. Breakers extend about 3 
miles seaward of the bar. 

The river channel has a westerly direction for 1 mile from the 
bar and then turns sharply to the eastward, around the extreme of a 
hank extending i mile westward of Chai Chai Point, after which 
the channel is on the southeast side of Limpopo Bank, which dries 
in parts, and then turns to the northwestward. 

Depths. — There is stated to be only a depth of 2 fe,et on the bar 
at low water, and it is subject to change. Within the bar the river 
varies in depth from 13 to 50 feet, and it is said to be navigable for 
light-draft steamers for a distance of about 60 miles, to Manjobo's 
Kraal, to which place a steamer of 6-foot draft has ascended, finding 
nothing less than ^ fathoms, but at Manjobo's Kraal a crossing with 
cometimes as little water as 4 feet bars the river, but at the time of 
Ihe visit of the above steamer the depth over it was 8 feet. 



KEI RIVEB TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 217 

It is supposed that the river is navigable for light-draft steam 
vessels, even in the dry season, between Nuanetzi River and the Lipa- 
lule or Oliphant River, 100 miles apart, the junction of the latter 
river with the Limpopo being 120 miles from the mouth of the latter. 

Buoys. — ^A white can buoy marks the edge of the 3-fathom con- 
tour of the bar, moored on the line of the leading beacons. 

A black buoy, surmounted by a triangle, marks the north side of the 
narrowest part of the channel, within the bar, and two similar buoys 
are moored on the northwest edge of the bank extending from Chai 
Chai Point. 

Two black buoys, surmounted by cylinders, mark the southeast side 
of Limpopo Bank, but it is probable that both beacons and buoys are 
moved to meet the requirements of the changes in the bar and 
channel. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Limpopo River, at 
4 h, 20 ip. ; springs rise 6f feet. 

Tidal stream. — ^The outgoing stream sometimes attains a rate 
of 4 knots, and possibly more. 

Coast. — From Salmon Cliff, 17 miles eastward of Limpopo River, 
to near Zavala, about 60 miles east-northeastward, the coast sand 
ridges are low, but some hills about 3 miles inland rise to between 400 
and 500 feet, and between a hill 548 feet high, to the westward of 
Zavala and Zavora Point, are some hills over 600 feet. Within, and 
lying parallel to the coast, are several lakes. Lake Poelela, westward 
of Zavora Point, being the largest. 

Caution. — ^The soundings in the vicinity of Limpopo River, and 
eastward as far as Zavora Point, are from imperfect surveys, so that 
this coast should be given a wide berth. 

Shoals. — A shoal, composed of rock and coral, with a depth of 
1^ fathoms, is reported to lie with its western end about 8 miles east- 
ward of Limpopo River Bar, from which it extends about 7 miles in 
an east-northeast direction, at a distance of about 5 miles from the 
shore, and within it, about 3 miles offshore, depths of from 8 to 
9 fathoms were reported (in 1895) to exist for a distance of about 
15 miles. 

A shoal bank of stones, which breaks heavily, and on which are 
situated the Countess of Carnarvon and Courland Rocks, lies about 
6 miles southwestward from Foz Inhatumbo, 48 miles eastward of 
Limpopo River. 

Zavora Point, rising to a ridge 436 feet high, 3 miles to the 
northward of it, has no remarkable features, except that at IJ miles 
to the northward of it is a conspicuous sandy cliff, nearly i mile 
in length, and about 15 miles northeastward a remarkable clump of 



218 KEI RIVER TO CAPE CORRIENTES. 

trees forms a useful landmark, being the only trees in the locality. 
A surveying beacon stands on the summit of the ridge. 

Light. — On a sand hill close to the shore of Zavora Point is a 
white masonry tower, 42 feet in height, which exhibits at an eleva- 
tion of 233 feet above high water a white flashing light, visible in 
clear weather from a distance of 21 miles. 

Semaphore. — A semaphore, with which vessels can communicate, 
is situated on Zavora Point. 

Cape Corrientes, the southwestern extreme of the Mozambique 
Channel, is a rounded sandy point, partially covered with bushes, 
and rising at the back to a height of 361 feet, while the land on 
either side of it is somewhat higher. The cape may be recognized by 
detached black recks near it, also by an islet 15 feet high 2^ miles 
southwestward of it, and connected with the shore by a rocky reef; 
the coast about the cape is bold, and safe to approach within 1 mile 
or less. 

Current. — The current nearly always runs to the southward at 
rates of from 1 knot to 2 knots an hour, but in December, 1884, at 
1^ miles off Cape Corrientes the British naval vessel Sylvia found 
the current setting southward at the rate of 3 knots, although within 
1 mile of the shore; at 6 miles to the southward there was no cur- 
rent, while at a farther distance of 8 miles to the southward and 1^ 
miles offshore there was a counter set of 1 knot an hour. The cur- 
rents were found to be stronger off the cape than on any other part of 
the coast, though considerably influenced by the winds, but appar- 
ently always setting directly alongshore, and never on or off. 

Between Delagoa Bay and Zavora Point the British naval vessel 
jistrcea experienced a slight indraft, and in August of that year the 
same vessel when on a passage between Zanzibar and Port Natal, 
and being to the southward of Zavora Point, experienced a heavy 
gale with a current setting about 240^ 17 miles, or toward the land, 
during a run of 23 hours ; this was probably caused by the gale. 



CHAPTER VI. 



MOZAMBIQUE CHANNEL. 

CAPE CORRIENTES TO KILIMAN, INCLUDING THE ZAMBEZI AND 

SHIRE RIVERS. 

Coast. — ^From Cape Corrientes to Cape Innamban, 14^ miles 
northward, the coast consists of sand hills from 200 to 426 feet high, 
having at a distance the appearance of chalky cliffs, and generally 
visible 20 miles or more; a surveying beacon stands on Gumula, a hill 
of the latter height. In case of being becalmed anchorage may be 
obtained, in depths of from 15 to 20 fathoms, at nearly 1 mile oflf- 
shore, a fact of some importance to sailing vessels proceeding north- 
ward against the strong southerly current which generally prevails. 

Cape Innamban, about 14 miles northward of Cape Corrientes, 
has a grassy summit 200 feet high, and is nearly clear of bush, and 
5 miles northward of it is Burra Point, the southern boundary of 
Innamban Bay. 

Innamban (Inhambane) Bay^ contained between Burra and 
Algoa Points, the latter 9^ miles northwestward of the former, is 
almost completely filled by banks and breaking reefs, drying in places 
at low water, and extending out beyond a line joining these points 
at the bar of Innamban River, which enters the sea on the northwest 
side and abreast Algoa Point. 

Btirra Point is low, but rises at about 1 mile to the westward to 
a height of 230 feet in Barrow Hill, which has a sharp summit with a 
clump of trees on it ; this hill is readily recognized from the north- 
ward, and Burra Point may be known by the light tower on it. 

Light. — On a hill immediately within Burra Point is a white 
masonry tower, 31 feet in height, and having a green cupola, exhibit- 
ing, at an elevation of 80 feet above high water, a white fixed and 
flashing light, with a period of 25 seconds, the flash having 4 seconds 
duration ; visible in clear weather for a distance of 15 miles. 

Signal station. — Near the lighthouse is a signal station, with 
which vessels can communicate by the International Code, the signals 
being passed through Ilha dos Porcos to Innamban town, on the 
east side of the river. 

Beacon. — A black pyramidal-shaped beacon, about 19 feet high, 
stands on Barrow Hill. 

219 



222 CAPE CORRIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RFVERR. 

Buoys. — A red spar buoy, surmounted by a sphere, is moored 
about i mile eastward of the southern entrance, and two similar 
buoys are the same distance northeastward of the northern channel 
over the bar; the channel of the river is marked by two red and two 
black spherical buoys, but, owing to changes in the bar and channel, 
these and the beacons may be moved at any time. 

Depths. — In December, 1906, the depths in the southern channel 
over the bar were from 17 to 19 feet, and in the northern channel 
from 12 to 14 feet ; in 1912 a steam vessel found 25^ feet in the south- 
ern channel at one hour from high water. In the outer part of the 
river the depths are from 30 to 50 feet, increasing to 78 feet farther 
south, but abreast Mafarun Islet there appeal's to be a bar, with 
depths of from 14 to 18 feet, after which they again increase to from 
30 to 54 feet, the depths at the anchorage oflF the town being from 
24 to 32 feet. 

Pilots in Government employ may be obtained for the river and 
for other places on the coast, pilotage for the river being compul- 
sory on merchant vessels. Pilot boats always come out across the 
bar on the usual signal being made. 

Directions. — It will be evident, from the preceding remarks re- 
garding the changing nature of the bar, that no stranger should 
attempt to cross without employing a pilot, or previously examining 
it, as there is always a heavy swell on it, the sea sometimes breaking 
across the entrance, and in such conditions only vessels with good 
steam power and of light draft should attempt to enter. 

In 1912 the leading beacon on Kosh Hill and the beacon on the 
shore, 1 mile northward of Algoa Point, when in line bearing 292°, 
formed the leading mark for crossing the bar until Double Bush 
Beacon came in line with the Pedestal, about 234°, when this second 
leading line should be followed, altering course to 201^ when the 
beacons northward of Makukoni Point come in line. 

This line leads up to the red buoy abreast Mafarun Islet, when 
passing between it and the black buoy to the southward, to get 
on to the line of the fourth pair of beacons, bearing 212°, w^hich 
should be followed until within about ^ mile from the outer of the 
two leading beacons, situated on the north end of a drying bank, 
from which the two beacons near Banguei Point should be steered 
for, 167°, leading to the anchorage off the town. 

Anchorages. — The anchorage for vessels of war is northward of 
Casa Hollandesa (Dutch house), w^hich is situated a short distance 
to the northward of the church, and merchant vessels anchor between 
that position and the cemetery; farther to the southward are the 
anchorages for vessels in quarantine and for those laden with 
explosives. 



CAPE COERIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 223 

Tides. — ^It is high water, full and change, in Innamban River at 
4 h. 38 m. ; springs rise 11 feet, neaps rise 7 feet. 

Tidal streams. — The stream is strong in the river, and has a 
velocity of 4 knots off the town. 

Town. — The town of Innamban, standing on the peninsula of 
which Belan Point is the northwest extreme, surrounded by coconut 
palms, and so not easily seen until close-to, has no public buildings 
to attract attention; a small wooded landing pier, which does not 
reach to low water, fronts it. The small fort is garrisoned by native 
soldiers, and the population is about 3,500. 

Communicatioii. — The port is visited by steam vessels of thjB 
Empreza Nacional de Navegacao every three weeks, and those of the 
British India every month. A railway to the military post of Inhar- 
rime, a distance of about 60 miles, is under construction, about 46 
miles being completed in 1913; there is also telegraphic communi- 
cation. 

Supplies of cattle, poultry, fruit, and vegetables are readily pro- 
curable at the town, where good fresh water may be obtained by 
rolling casks up to wells ; firewood, cut by the natives, is brought by 
boats from Barrow Point. 

Trade. — The trade, mostly in the hands of Banians, consists of 
the export of local produce ; it is the principal port of embarkation 
for natives for the Hand. 

Climate. — Although Innamban is considered to be the most 
healthy port in Portuguese East Africa, fevers should be especially 
guarded against from November to May. 

Linga Linga Bay, at the mouth of the entrance to the northern 
branch of the Innamban River, where it joins the main channel at 
Linga Linga Point, forms a well landlocked harbor for small vessels, 
the depths being 2 fathoms at low water. 

Coast. — From Algoa Point to Burra Falsa, a distance of about 
45 miles, the coast, from 445 to 627 feet high, has no remarkable 
feathures, but 10 miles to the southward of the latter point the Sylvia 
Range of bare sand is 374 feet high, and had a solitary tree on its 
southern end. 

Beacons. — Black pyramidal beacons, about 19 feet high, for sur- 
veying purposes, are situated on Olengue Range, 8 miles, and on 
Inhoonitude, 23 miles, northward of Algoa Point, these hills being 
522 and 627 feet high, respectively, but the latter beacon is not easily 
distinguished. 

Sylva Shoal, a narrow coral ridge, which within the 5-fathom 
line is about 4J miles in length, has two patches of 2^ fathoms near 
its northern end, and lies parallel with the shore, distant 3^ miles 
from it; the northern end of the shoal is 9 J miles southward of 
Burra Falsa. 



224 CAPE CORBIENTES TO KILIMAX, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 

Current. — A strong southerly current is generally met with at 
less than 1 mile off Burra Falsa. When bound northward and clear 
of Zambia Shoal, the current is much less inshore in from 7 to 
8 fathoms, and at times there is a counter set to the northward. 

Burra Falsa, or Cape Lady Grey, is a low point rising to two 
small conical sand hills about 95 feet high, but to the southwestward 
of the point the land rises to 380 feet ; a considerable amount of sand 
about the high land over the cape makes it conspicuous from the 
northward. Good shelter may be obtained under the cape during 
southerly winds, and landing might be effected at times just north- 
\yestward of it. 

Beacon. — A black pyramidal-shaped beacon, 19 feet high, for sur- 
veying purposes, stands on the 380-foot hill southwestward of Burra 
Falsa. 

Fomene Biver, 3^ miles northwestward of Burra Falsa, was 
seen from the Sylvia at high water, neap tides, when there was ap- 
parently a narrow boat channel into it, and within the river opened 
out into a large expanse of water. 

Shivala Cliffs, 12 miles north-northwestward of Burra Falsa, 
are nearly 2 miles in length, about 120 feet in height, and of a red 
color, forming a conspicuous landmark. 

Zambia Shoal is a coral ridge rather more than 1 mile in length 
by i mile in width, its shoalest part of 3 fathoms lying about 4 
miles east-southeastward of Shivala Cliffs; the water deepens 
rapidly seaward of the shoal. 

Africa Shoal, about 1 mile in length and f mile in width, with a 
least depth of 2^ fathoms over sand and rock, is about 2^ miles off- 
shore and 10 miles northward of Zambia Shoal; a passage lies between 
the shoal and the shore. 

Beacon. — A black beacon, similar to that near Burra Falsa, is 
situated on Machekane, 416 feet high, and abreast of Africa Shoal. 

Foul ground. — At 26 miles northward of Shivala Cliffs, off the 
ISIejungo River, a depth of 3 fathoms was found 1 mile offshore, 
apparently part of a reef extending from the land; vessels should 
give this locality a wide berth. 

Cape San Sebastian is a steep bluff, 225 feet high, which from 
the southward shows a small white sand patch at its upper part, while 
from the northward the face of the cliff shows a considerable amount 
of red sand from base to summit. 

The coast hills terminate at 7 miles southward of Cape San Sebas- 
tian, and a sandy peninsula h mile wide and partially covered with 
straggling trees and bushes extends in a north-northeast direction for 
6 miles, to nearly abreast of the cape, from which Ponta Chambure, 
its northern extreme, is distant about 2 J miles in a southeasterly direc- 



CAPE COREIENTEB TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIBE EIVERS. 225 

tion. The peninsula has shallow water westward of it, and is 
boimded by the high land forming the cape. 

Beacon. — On Chikuenine, 315 feet high, situated 5^ miles south- 
ward of Cape San Sebastian, is a black beacon similar to that on 
Burra Falsa. 

Bazaxuto Islands, consisting of four principal islands and some 
islets, are situated on banks extending about 36 miles north-north- 
eastward of Cape San Sebastian, the three outermost islands being 
Xezine, Benguerua, and Bazamto Islands, while Ilha Santa Carolina, 
or Marsha Island, the fourth, lies westward of Bazaruto Island and 
nearer the shore. They are Portuguese possessions, a few troops are 
stationed on them, and the locality is the site of the famous pearl 
fishery of Sofala, pearls and mother-of-pearl being now occasionally 
met with. 

The principal establishment is on Ilha Santa Carolina, but the 
trade is insignificant, the small produce being conveyed by boats to 
Chiluan for shipment. 

Banque (Bango) Islet, about 3 miles northward of Cape San 
Sebastian, is low and sandy, with a dark clump of trees near its 
center, and Chinmdira, another small sandy islet, is nearly 2 miles 
northward of it. 

Xezine (Xegine) Island, or Ilha de Magaruque, 175 feet high 
and about 2^ miles to the northwestward of Chirundira Islet, may be 
recognized by some red cliffs near the southern part, the remainder 
of the island being wooded to the water's edge. It has few inhabit- 
ants. Neither Banque, Chirundira, nor Xezine Island is accessible 
from seaward. 

Benguerua Island, nearly square and about 4 miles in extent, 
is about 3 miles northward of Xezine Island, Molunga Islet lying 
between. Benguera Island is 170 feet high, sandy, and partly 
wooded and has several small villages on it. The island is sur- 
roimded by drying sand banks. 

Beacons. — ^A wooded sand hill with a double summit is situated 
on the east side of Benguera Island, and on the southern summit, 
170 feet high, is a black pyramidal-shaped beacon 19 feet high. 

A similar beacon also stands on Komuhine, a hill 154 feet high, on 
the mainland abreast Benguerua Island. 

Bazaruto Island, the northernmost and largest of the group, 
is 18 miles in length in a north-and-south direction, its southern end 
being nearly 3 miles northward of Benguerua Island. The highest 
part of the island, 370 feet, is about 5 miles from its southern end, 
and seen from the southward the island appears as a bare, sandy 
hogback. There is a boat passage between it and Benguerua Island, 
leading to the northwest side of the latter. 
39511—16 ^15 



226 CAPE COBMENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 

Beacon. — A similar beacon to that on Benguerua Island stands 
on the highest summit of Bazaruto Island. 

Cape BazarutOy the northern extreme of the island, has a reef 
extending about half a mile from its northeast side, and from its low 
extreme a sand spit, named Ponta de Carlos, partly covered at high 
water, with some islets on it and steep-to, extends 1| miles north- 
westward. 

Light. — On the summit of the northeast side of Cape Bazaruto is 
a stone tower, with dwelling attached, and from the tower, at an 
elevation of 379 feet above high water, a white group flashing light 
is exhibited; visible in clear weather from a distance of 30 miles. 
For arc of visibility see Light List. 

A flagstaff is situated on a hill 312 feet high near the lighthouse. 

Bazaruto Bay^ the space between the north end of Bazaruto 
Island and the western shore, is about 12 miles in width and encum- . 
bered by some large drying banks, of which Baixo de J'anjani and 
Baixo doh Phantasmas are the largest. The bay is entered between 
Ponta de Carlos and a bank northeastward of Baixo dos Phantasmas. 

Ilha Santa Carolina (Marsha) , on the southwest side of the 
l)ay, is low, but well wooded, with a sand hill on its northeast side, 
and is easily distinguished. It is the principal Portuguese establish- 
ment between Innamban and Sof ala, has a small garrison, and on the 
ai)proach of a vessel the Portuguese flag is hoisted near the center of 
the island, (lood building stone is obtained on the island, and there 
are two good wells of water, but not available for shipping. 

Light. — A white fixed light is exhibited, at an elevation of 92 
feet above high water, from an iron support on a masonry pillar 
fc^tanding on the north extreme of the island; in clear weather the 
light is visible from a distance of 10 miles. 

Beacon. — A black pyramidal-shaped beacon, 19 feet high, stands 
on the summit of Ilha Santa Carolina. 

. Depths. — The depths in the entrance to the bay between the 
banks are from 10 to 12 fathoms, and from 7 to 8 fathoms in the chan- 
nel, decreasing to 3 to 5 fathoms at the anchorage near the island. 

Pilots. — A pilot may be obtained to take a vessel to the anchorage 
at Ilha Santa Carolina; and as the channel is not buoyed, one 
should be employed. 

Directions. — When about 3 miles northeastward of Cape Baza- 
ruto a course should be shaped to pass about 1 mile northwestward of 
Ponta de Carlos Spit, from which steer about 217° midway between 
the banks on either side toward Ilha Santa Carolina, the light pillar 
and beacon on that island probably forming guides. 

Anchorage.^-The British surveying vessel Sylvia found anchor- 
age sheltered from southerly winds on the northeast side of Ponta 
de Carlos Spit, and anchorage may be obtained in depths of from 8 



CAPE COBRIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE BIVERS. 227 

to 10 fathoms about 1 mile off the southwest side of the bank extend- 
ing in that direction from Cape Bazaruto, or in from 8 to 5 fathoms 
about i mile off the northeast side of Ilha Santa Carolina. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Cape Bazaruto at 
4 h. 26 m.; springs rise 12 feet, neaps rise 7| feet, neaps range 3^ 
feet. 

Coast. — ^The coast from abreast Ilha Santa Carolina to Ponta 
Macovane, a distance of about 28 miles, is little known, but depths of 
from 6 to 7 fathoms are charted at about 3 miles off it. 

Porto Bartholomew Diaz entered between Points Macovane and 
Mafomeme, nearly^ 5 miles apait, has its channel reduced by drying 
banks extending from each side, that from Ponta Macovane stretch- 
ing nearly If miles northward, and that from Ponta Mafomeme 
nearly 3 miles southward, leaving between their extremes a chan- 
nel barely | mile in width. Ilha Movinges (Macondes) is situated 
on the western side of the port, and the Rio Govuro runs into its 
head. 

Shoal. — The master of the steamer Corfe Castle reports the exist- 
ence of a shoal with a depth of 8 feet at low water 1^ miles 97° from 
Beacon No. 6, Port Bartholomew Diaz. 

A rock with a depth of less than 6 feet has been discovered in 
the approach to Port Bartholomew Diaz, 3 miles 94° from Beacon 
No. 3 on Pedra Point. 

Bar — ^Depths. — The bar is subject to constant change, but in 
1910 there was a depth on it of 2^ fathoms, at low water, ordinary 
springs. Within, the channel to the anchorage has from 4 to 5 
fathoms. 

Beacons. — In 1910 the beacons were as shown, the upper beacons 
were as shown, the upper beacons being 82 feet in height, and the 
lower beacons 40 feet in height. 

Nos. 1 and 2 beacons, situated on the mainland, southward of 
Ilha Movinges, were in line bearing 247°, which cross the bar. 

Beacons 3 and 4, the outer on Ponta Pedra, and the inner nearly 
2 miles, 178°, from it. 

Beacons 5 and 6, the outer near the residency, and the inner on a 
point 151° from it. 

Pilot. — A pilot for the port may be obtained at Beira. 

Directions. — Considering the changing character of the bar, it 
would be extremely dangerous for a vessel to attempt to enter, 
without having first secured the services of a pilot. 

Beacons 1 and 2 when in line, bearing 247°, should lead across 
the bar, until the beacons near and southward of Ponta Pedra are 
in linC; 178°, which leads up the channel until the beacon at the 
residency and that to the southward come in line 151°, which should 
lead to the anchorage, but these bearings may be altered. 



228 CAPE COKRIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 

Anchorage, in depths of from 7 to 8 fathoms, may be obtained 
off the residency. 

Tides. — ^It is high water, full and change, in Porto Bartholomew 
Diaz, at 4 h. 40 m. ; springs rise 12 feet, neaps I'ise 7^ feet. 

Bio Sabi. — Ponta Machanga, low, with some sand hills just to the 
northward of it, is about 11 miles northeastward of Ponta Mafo- 
meme, and nearly midway is the southern entrance to Rio Sabi, which, 
with several shallow mouths, is also entered northwestward of Ponta 
Machanga, and is said to be 1 mile wide in the interior, but not 
navigable. 

It is stated to have been ascended in 1892 for a distance of 30 miles, 
presumably by boat, at which point the river ceased to be tidal; it 
was entered on this occasion by the northern or Makau Branch, which 
had a depth of 6 feet on its bar at low water, the entrance being i 
mile in width, and the return was made to Chiluan through a creek, 
branching off the Makau Branch, and navigable by boats. 

Ilha Chiluan Approach. — The coast from Ponta Machanga 
turning north-northwestward for about 16 miles to Ponta Ingo- 
maimo, is fronted by shallow ridges extending from 9 to 10 miles 
eastward, and the land being only just visible from the outer edges, 
care and attention to the use of the lead when approaching this 
locality are necessary. 

A prong of bank, with depths under 5 fathoms, extends for about 
11 miles in a northerly direction from Ponta Machanga, having 
depths of 4} fathoms near its extreme, but on this prvng are shoals 
with from 1^ to 3 fathoms over them. 

Misadjuana (Inverarity) Shoal, the outermost of these ridges, 
is about 2| miles in length in a northwest and opposite direction, 
within the 5-fathom contour line, the least charted depth being 1^ 
fathoms, but it is said to be nearly dry in one spot at low water ; it 
is steep-to on all sides from depths of 7 or 8 fathoms, and no land- 
marks can be seen from it, but heavy breakers usually show its posi- 
tion. Its southeast end, with 3J fathoms, is 8°, distant 14^ miles from 
Ponta Machanga. 

Shoal. — A shoal, with a depth of 5^ fathoms, is reported to be 
about 24°, distant 8 miles, from the northwest end of Misadjuana 

Shoal. 

Ilha Chiluan (Chiloane) , about 6 miles in length in a northwest 
and opposite direction, and 3 miles in greatest width, lies off, and 
partly within, the mouth of the Eio Ingomaimo ; it is low, in many 
places only a mangrove swamp, intersected by creeks navigable by 
boats at high water. The principal village and residence of the com- 
mandant is on the southern side, where there is a fort and a flagstaff ; 
the population of the island was estimated at about 2,000 in 1900, 
of which number 11 were Europeans. 



OAPE OOIUBIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIBE RIVEBS. 229 

Light. — A white fixed light is exhibited, at an elevation of 36 feet 
above high water, from an iron support above a white tower, situ- 
ated on Ponta Singune, the northwest extreme of the island. It 
should be visible in clear weather from a distance of 10 miles. 

Bio Ingomaimo — Channels. — Rio Ingomaimo is divided at its 
mouth into two channels, by Chiluan Island, the southern of these, 
about 7 miles in length, being entered over a bar formed between the 
shore bank extending 2 miles eastward of Ponta Ingomaimo, -on the 
south, and a drying bank stretching nearly 4 miles southeastward of 
Ponta Inhaguaia, the southeast extreme of Chiluan Island, on the 
north. 

Ponta Ingomaimo, the southern point of entrance, is low and sandy, 
and, having no mangroves, differs from other points in the vicinity. 
Ponta Inhaguaia, the northern point of entrance, shows as a low 
bluff from the northeastward. 

Beacon. — ^A beacon, consisting of a high pole surmounted by 
black and white diamonds, stands on Ponta Ingomaimo. 

Dangers. — South Breakwater, a bank about 3 miles in length in 
a north and south direction, fronts the bar of the South Channel, at 
a distance of about 4^ miles eastward of Ponta Ingomaimo, and near 
its southern extreme is Anson Knoll, with 1^ fathoms, while Richard- 
son Knoll, near its northern end, has only i fathom. A detached 
patch of 3 fathoms lies southward of Anson Knoll. 

Bar — ^Depths. — The bar of the south entrance, about 1 mile west- 
ward of Anson Knoll, is about i mile in width, with depths of 1^ 
fathoms at low water, and within it the depths increase to 3 and 5 
fathoms, to an anchorage in the latter depth, near the village at the 
south side of the island. 

North Channel. — Shore Bank, under 3 fathoms, extends about 
If miles off the northeast side of Ilha Chiluan, and is nearly 2^ 
miles in a northeast direction from Ponta Singune, forming the 
southeast side of the bar of the North Channel, the opposite side of 
the bar being a bank extending about 7 miles from the shore on that 
side. This channel leads to an anchorage off Ponta Singime. 

North Breakwater, a somewhat similar shoal to South Break- 
water, fronts the bar, about 4J miles northeastward of Ponta Sin- 
gune. It is about 2^ miles in length in a northwest and opposite 
direction and has a least depth of i fathom. 

Depths.^-The bar of North Channel has slightly more water than 
the South Channel Bar, the depths being from 22 to 28 feet at high 
water, while inside the channel has from 3 to 5J fathoms to the 
anchorage in from 4^ to 5 fathoms off Ponta Singune. The channel 
along the west side of Ilha Chiluan, connecting the South and North 
Channels, has only a depth of about J fathom in places, but with 



230 CAPE CORRIENTES TO KIUMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 

the assistance of a pilot can be used at high water by vessels of 14 
feet draft, which can thus proceed to the principal village. 

Pilots. — It is advisable to obtain the services of a pilot to enter, 
and vessels usually bring one from Innamban. 

Directions. — From the southeastward, Ilha Chiluan presents no 
recognizable features, and it will not be in sight from the vicinity 
of Misadjuana Shoal, but from the northward a few coconut palms 
on the northern side of the island, with a large clump of trees to 
the eastward of them may be seen, but not much farther to the north- 
ward than North Breakwater. The North Channel is that generally 
used, but it is not buoyed, and the banks are liable to shift. 

The following directions applied to the North Channel at the time 
of the survey in 1884 : 

Approach Ponta Singune Lighthouse with it bearing 257, until 
Ponta Inhaguaia bears 173°, when alter course to 308°, until the 
lighthouse bears 245°, when steer 272°, and on the lighthouse bearing 
212°, keep it a little on the port bow until the anchorage in a depth 
of 4 fathoms is reached, with the lighthouse bearing about 122®, 
distant 500 yards. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Chiluan at 4 h. 49 m. ; 
springs rise 18^ feet, neaps rise 13 feet. 

Tidal streams. — The tidal streams run from 3 to 4 knots in the 
entrances, setting across the North Channel, between North Break- 
water and Ilha Chiluan. 

Village. — The principal village on the south side of the island 
has a small fort and a flagstaff, and there is also a flagstaff at the 
village on Ponta Singune; there is little trade, and mails are sent 
irregularly, generally by Beira. 

Supplies of goats, fowls, and eggs can be procured in small quan- 
tities, but no vegetables. 

Trade. — The exports are chiefly rubber, groundnuts, and gum, and 
the imports cotton goods and hardware. 

Boene Island, about 21 miles northwestward of Ponta Singune, 
and off the mouth of the Gorongosi River, is small, overgrown with 
mangroves, with a grove of palms on it, and is uninhabited. An 
anchorage within Boene Island, known as Port Boene, is about 3 
miles in length by 2 miles in width, with depths of from 21 to 4f 
fathoms; it is frequently used by small vessels sheltering from bad 
weather. 

Sofala River, about 12 miles northeastward of Boene Island, is 
If miles in width at its entrance, but this width is nearly filled by 
sand banks drying at low water. Ilha Inhancata, forming the 
south side of the entrance, and separated from the mainland by a 
boat channel, is nearly 2 miles in length in a north and south direc- 



CAPE OOBBIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIBE BIVEBS. 231 

tion, while the northern point of entrance has on it the town and 
dilapidated fort of Sofala. 

The land about the town is low, with scarcely any trees except 
some coconuts near the fort and seen before it, but in the vicinity of 
the river it becomes somewhat higher and less regular, with tall, 
scattered trees. 

Bar — ^Depths. — The bar, situated about 4J miles east-southeast- 
ward of Ilha Inhancata, has a depth of about 1^ fathoms over it, 
and the 5-fathoms contour line passes about 9 miles outside the 
entrance to the river ; unless previously examined and buoyed the bar 
should not be attempted. 

Anchorage. — It being more than 90 years since the entrance was 
surveyed, it is probable that several changes have taken place since, 
so that little dependence should be placed on the plan. An anchor- 
age, used about 20 years later, was in a depth of 6^ fathoms, over 
sand, with the fort bearing about 320*^, distant 7 or 8 miles, but the 
depths outside this were found to be irregular, shoaling sometimes 
suddenly from 10 to 5 fathoms, and as suddenly again deepening, 
so that considerable caution is necessary considering that the rise 
and fall of tide is about 19 feet at springs. 

Tides. — ^It is high water, full and change, at Sofala River at 
4 h. m. ; springs rise 19 feet, and 32 feet at the equinox. 

Town. — The town of Sofala, standing on the sandy peninsula on 
the northern side of the river entrance, has an estimated population 
of about 2,000, and is the residence of a Portuguese governor; the 
fort, built in 1505, was the first constructed by the Portuguese on 
the east coast of Africa. The trade is insignificant, a small quantity 
of ivory, beeswax, and groundnuts being exported to Beira. 

Bank of Sofala^ the actual limits of which are not known, has 
depths increasing very gradually seaward, there being about 35 
fathoms at 70 miles, and 20 fathoms at half that distance eastward 
of the river mouth ; inside the 100-f athoms contour line it apparently 
follows the contour of the coast. The bottom is muddy inshore, 
near the mouths of rivers, changing to fine sand farther out, which 
becomes coarser as the distance from the land is increased, and is very 
coarse on the outer edge of the bank, where it deepens suddenly. 

Coast. — From Sofala River the coast trends in a northerlv direc- 
tion for nearly 20 miles, to the entrance to the Buzi River, and is 
low and unsorveyed, the only landmark being a detached clump 
of palm trees, known as Chirora Clump, about 3 miles southward 
of the Buzi River; this coast should not be approached within a 
distance of 8 miles, as at 6 miles patches of 3 fathoms are charted. 

Buzi (Busio) River, entered between the western shore, about 
3 miles northward of Chirora Clump and Ponta Massique, on 



232 CAFE COBBIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 

which are conspicuous mangroves 40 feet high, this being also the 
western point of entrance to the Pungue River, is said to be navig- 
able for vessels of 9 feet draft for a distance of 25 miles; within 
the entrance is Ilha Tocano's, connected at low water with the 
Chirora shore by a bank of sand and mud, and a sand bank, 
drying at low water, extends about IJ miles southward of Ponta 
Massique, the bar of the river lying to the southward of this bank. 

Buoys — Depth. — The bar is marked by a black sperical buoy 
moored 1^ miles southward of Ponta Massique, the depth on the 
bar being 4 feet in 1901. 

Settlements. — About 2 miles fi-om the mouth of the river the 
land, rising a few feet above the swamp, is never flooded, and at 
5 miles from the mouth it is cultivated and has a number of native 
villages. Jobo is about 1^ miles from the entrance and 1^ miles 
above it is a Portuguese military station, while on the banks of the 
river are several Portuguese settlers who grow wheat, sugar cane, 
rubber, and various vegetables, brickmaking being also a flourish- 
ing industry. The natives, who are peaceable and industrious, culti- 
vate manioc, rice, and bananas. 

Pungue Biver approach. — ^The land about the mouth of the 
Pungue River being very low can not be seen, if approaching it 
from the southward, until about 11 miles from it and near the 
fairway buoy; northward of the river a series of low sand hills 
covered with scrub extend along the shore. 

Outer dangers. — A line of soundings in a northeasterly direc- 
tion, passing about 22 miles outside of the entrance to the river, 
gives depths of from 9 to 14 fathoms, and within this line and about 
20 miles southeastward of the entrance is a patch of 7 fathoms, 
with a shoal of an unknown depth about 1 J miles northward of it. 

Northward of these dangers and in a direction about 94° from 
Chirora Climip, depths of from 4^ to 5 fathoms were obtained for 
a distance of 6^ miles, the outer soimdings being 22 miles from 
the entrance, and farther westward and about 11 miles southeast- 
ward of the entrance, depths of 3 and 4 fathoms have been re- 
ported. The positions of these and other outer dangers nearer the 
entrance will be best seen on the chart. 

Pungue River is entered between Ponta Massique and Ponta Jea, 
nearly 4 miles apart, the former point showing up well, making as 
a dark bluff, owing to the tall straight trees on it which grow down 
to the water's edge; Chirora Clump of three palms and the palm 
grove to the northward of it, being the only palms in the vicinity, 
will be easily recognized, and on closing the entrance to the river, 
Macuti Light Tower, 3f miles eastward of Ponta Jea, and other 
objects should be seen. 



CAPE OORBIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 233 

Lights. — About IJ miles northeastward of Macuti Point is a 
concrete tower, 95 feet in height, with black and white bands, which 
exhibits at an elevation of 100 feet above high water a white revolv- 
ing light, visible in clear weather from a distance of 16 miles. 

A red fixed light is shown from a pyramidal tower, 65 feet in 
height, with red and white bands at the end of the old railway pier, 
300 yards northward of Chivese Point, visible in clear weather 5 
miles. 

Fog signal. — During thick or foggy weather a fog horn is 
sounded at Macuti Point Lighthouse. 

Signal station. — Vessels can communicate by the International 
Code with a signal station near the lighthouse, which is in tele- 
graphic communication with the captain of the port's office. 

Beacons. — About 800 yards eastward of Ponta Jea is an iron 

»■' 

beacon 53 feet in height, surmounted by a St. Andrew's cross and a 
sphere, and another beacon, but 66 feet in height, is on Macuti Point. 

Fairway lightbuoy. — ^The black and white horizontally striped 
fairway buoy, exhibiting a white fixed light, is moored about 11 
miles 153° from Macuti Light Tower in a depth of 36 feet. 

Channels. — ^The entrance to the river, obstructed by constantly 
changing banks, which partially dry at low water, spring tides, and 
extend a considerable distance from the shore, has three channels 
leading to it through these banks. 

Portella (Southeast) Channel^ on the southern side of these 
banks, is at present the only one used by vessels of deep draft; it is 
entered about 2 miles 321° from the fairway buoy. 

Depths. — In 1914 the least depth on the bar of Portella Channel 
was 12 feet at low water, spring tides, and the banks in its vicinity 
are reported to be extending southeastward. 

Buoys. — In addition to the fairway buoy, Portella Channel is 
marked by two buoys and a lightbuoy : 

No. 1, a black spherical buoy, is situated 2^ miles northwestward 
of the fairway buoy. 

No. 4, a red conical buoy, is at a similar distance, and in about the 
same direction from No. 1 Buoy. 

Lightbuoy. — No. 2 is a red lightbuoy exhibiting a red fixed light, 
and moored nearly 1 mile northwestward of No. 1 Buoy. 

Bambler Channel^ branching off the northern side of Portella 
Channel, at about 2f miles westward of No. 4 Buoy, is about 5f miles 
in length in a northwest direction. 

Depths. — The least depths in Kambler Channel are from 17 to 18 
feet, on a bar crossing it towards its northern end. 

Lightbuoys — ^Buoys. — ^The channel is marked by four lightbuoys 
and two other buoys: 



234 CAPE COBBIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIBE BIVEBS. 

No. 6 Buoy, red, on the eastern side of the entrance to Rambler 
Channel, exhibits a white fixed light. 

No. 8, a red spherical buoy, showing a fixed green light, is moored 
nearly 1^ miles north-northwestward of No. 6 Buoy. 

No. 10, a red buoy, exhibiting a fixed white light, is moored on 
the bar, crossing the channel, at 4 miles north-northwestward of No. 6 
Buoy. 

No. 12, a red buoy, eidiibiting a fixed white light, is moored at the 
north end of the channel. If miles north-northwestward of No. 10 
Buoy. 

On the western side of the channel is No. 5, a black conical buoy, 
and off the town are Nos. 7, 9, and 11, the first black spherical, and 
last two black can. No. 7 Buoy shows a red fixed light. 

Mandovy Channel^ the third and northernmost entrance through 
the banks, has a number of shallow patches in it, which are of a 
changing nature ; it is not buoyed, and is seldom, if ever, used. 

Caution. — The positions of the buoys, as shown on the plan, are 
approximately correct, in relation to one another, but not in relation 
to the banks they are intended to mark, as these have changed con- 
siderably since the last survey. 

Pilots. — The pilot boat is stationed alwut i mile seaward of the 
fairway buoy, at the entrance to Portella Channel, and in rough 
weather the pilot service is maintained by means of a twin-screw 
vessel of 100 tons, which, whenever possible, will sound the bar ahead 
of the vessel entering, and signal the depths ascertained. Pilotage is 
not compulsory, but vessels of more than 500 tons must pay the 
pilotage dues. 

Tug^. — ^The services of a tug are always available. 

Directions. — If the vessel's position is known a course may be 
shaped for the fairway buoy, otherwise it is advisable to make the 
sandhills, to the northeastward of the entrance, and steer southwest- 
ward, keeping from 5 to 6 miles offshore or in a depth not less than 
7 fathoms. 

A good lookout should be kept for the fairway buoy, usually seen 
from about 5 miles, approaching it between the bearings of 235° and 
825°, which should lead clear of the banks extending from the river 
mouth on either side, and when near the buoy the land will gradu- 
ally become visible, as also Macuti Point Light Tower. 

The fairway buoy may be passed close to on either side, and from 
it steer to pass close eastward of No. 1 Buoy, and close southwestward 
of Nos. 2 and 4 Buoys, steering 284° from the latter buoy to pass 
southwestward of No. 6 Buoy, altering course to about 335° through 
Rambler Channel, being guided by the buoys, and leaving Nos. 8, 
10, and 12 to the eastward, and Nos. 5 and 7 to the westward ; after 



CAPE COBRIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 235 

passing No. 12 Buoy, alter course gradually for the anchorage, 
guarding against the tidal stream. 

A vessel arriving off the bar, with a draft of water approximating 
to the depth on the bar at the time, should remain outside No. 1 
Buoy until high water. 

Anchorages. — The limits of the anchoring space for vessels of 
war, on the south, is the line of the southern extreme of the highest 
part of the hospital, a red-roofed building on the sea wall, bearing 
1>0°, and on the north a similar line of bearing of the intendencia 
ilagstaff, the highest flagstaff in the town. 

The anchorage for merchant vessels is to the northward of that for 
vessels of war, the southern limit of this anchoring space being the 
railway pierhead bearing 90°; above this, and close inshore, is the 
anchorage for hulks. 

Vessels laden with explosives anchor to the southward of the 
anchorage for vessels of war, the northern limit of their anchoring 
space being the hospital bearing 48°, and the western limit the south- 
east point of Utanhe Island bearing 346°. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Beira at 5h. 10m.; 
springs rise 20 feet, neaps rise 13 feet, neaps range 7 feet (approxi- 
mate) ; the tides are irregular at neaps. The time of high water at 
the fairway buoy is about 40 m. earlier than at Beira. 

Tidal streams. — The tidal streams run very strongly, especially 
with a high river in the wet season, the outgoing stream at the 
anchorage attaining a velocity of 5 knots at springs, and from 2 to 
3 knots at neaps, these last rates being those of springs in the dry 
season, with a low river, at which time neaps run from 1^ to 2 knots. 
The in-going stream has a velocity of from 1 to 2 knots. 

During springs the outgoing stream runs from seven to eight 
hours, and the contrary stream from four to five hours, with very 
little time of slack water, and in places the streams set obliquely 
across the channel, so that vessels frequently ground through neg- 
lecting to allow for this, but, the bottom being soft, they usually 
get off without damage. 

Port. — Between Ponta Jea and Ponta Chiveve, the latter 1^ miles 
to the northward, the east shore is fronted by a drying bank extend- 
ing 1,200 yards south-southwestward of Ponta Jea and 1,400 yards 
from the shore between the points; the shore bank, under 3 fathoms, 
extends i mile farther westward. Northward of Ponta Chiveve is 
the entrance to Chiveve Creek, which extends about 1^ miles south- 
westward, parallel to, and about J mile within, the shore. 

A sea wall surrounding Ponta Chiveve extends to the southward 
to the extreme of Ponta Jea, thus inclosing a considerable amount 
of reclaimed land, and Chiveve Creek has also a wall with a re- 
claimed area. 



236 CAPE COBBIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 

An iron railway pier, 400 feet in length, will accommodate vessels 
of 32 feet draft alongside it at low water, and at the customhouse is 
a concrete wharf, at which dredging is being carried 6ut so as to 
allow lighters and small vessels to go alongside; it is equipped with 
five steam cranes lifting from 3 to 15 tons, and there is also one of 
the latter on the railway pier. The railway runs onto the railway 
pier and crosses Chiveve Creek on a steel three-span bridge, which 
opens to allow the passage of vessels. 

Town. — The town of Beira, founded in 1891, and standing on 
Chiveve Spit, separating Chiveve Creek from the river, is protected 
by sea walls from the encroachment of the river ; it is the principal 
port and capital of the Mozambique Co.'s territory, and, being the 
terminus of the railway to Salisbury, is of growing importance. It 
has an excellent British as well as a Portuguese club, several banks, 
good hotels, and sports club with grounds for football and cricket. 
The total population in 1913 was 8,710, of which 1,087 were whites 
and 268 were British subjects. A British consul is resident. 

Connnunication. — The British India Co. have fortnightly serv- 
ices to London and Bombay, and the Union Castle Line have a 
monthly service to the former place, also to Mauritius; Messrs. 
Rennie & Co., Clan, EUerman-Harrison, Bucknall, and Houston 
Lines have irregular services to London, Glasgow, and Liverpool, 
and the Empreza Nacional de Navegagao have a service to Lisbon, 
via the Cape. 

Mails are dispatched and received weekly from Europe, via rail 
to Cape Town, and twice weekly between Beira and Rhodesia and 
the southern districts of the territory. 

Beira has railway communication with Salisbury, distant 375 miles, 
via Manica, and Salisbury is in direct railway communication with 
Cape Town, via Bulawayo, also from Salisbury branch lines run to 
Ayrshire and Mazoe, and a railway will connect Beira with Port 
Herald; telegraphic communication with all parts, a submarine cable 
connecting Beira with Mozambique and Lourengo Marques. 

Coal and supplies. — About 500 tons of coal are stocked among 
two companies, who import about 2,000 tons annually for their own 
use, therefore vessels intending to coal here should give, if possible, 
10 days' notice; coaling is carried on by baskets, and about 300 tons 
could be put on board in 24 hours, 42 lighters being available. 

Fresh beef, vegetables, and bread are all plentiful, and can be ob- 
tained regularly, but mutton and other fresh meat is limited in 
quantity. Fish are abundant, and game can be obtained in season, as 
there is now a close time. Water is supplied to vessels by a water 
boat, and the river water can be obtained for boilers ; the water sup- 
ply is to be improved. 



CAPE OORBIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIEE RIVERS. 237 

Hospitals. — A hospital with 47 beds is maintained in the town, 
also isolation hospitals, in the event of plague, are on Ponta Jea and 
on a hulk; disinfecting apparatus is in constant readiness for use in 
the cases of individuals, baggage, or cargo. A new hospital, in 
course of construction, is expected to be completed in 1&16. 

Time. — Uniform time of the meridian of 36° east, or 2 h. 24 m. 
fast of Greenwich mean time is kept. 

Trade. — The principal exports, consisting of sugar, rubber, bees- 
wax, ivory, hides, and groundnuts, in 1913, amounted in value to 
$2,701,102, the reexports amounting to $3,166,340, and imports to 
$2,787,303; in the same year the port was entered by 534 vessels of 
an aggregate tonnage of 1,488,296 tons, of these 236 vessels of 
898,816 tons were British., 

Climate. — From December to March is the wet, and from June 
to October the dry season, November to April being the hottest, 
and from June to August the coolest months ; May, when the country 
dries up, is probably the most imhealthy season, but for four months 
after that the weather becomes almost pleasant and health improves. 

The prevalence of mosquitoes has been greatly reduced by filling 
in part of Chiveve Creek, the reclamation of land, and the clearing 
of bush for the extension of the town. 

Vessels in the river between June and August state that the climate 
was very pleasant, the maximum temperature being from 76° to 80° 
and minimum 59° or 60° F., the nights being cool, with heavy dews 
and thick mists hanging over the river from about 3 a. m., and not 
clearing away until between 8 and 10 a. m. 

Winds. — East to southeast winds prevail all the year round, the 
force sometimes being from 4 to 6, but calms are also frequent. 

Upper river. — Vessels of about 9 feet draft can ascend the river 
for 12 miles above Beira, beyond which place the navigable channel 
is winding, the banks and crossings continually changing, and it 
would be imprudent to attempt to ascend without local knowledge 
or the assistance of a pilot, although it is navigable for small vessels 
of 4 feet draft for about 100 miles during high and for about 50 
miles during ordinary low river. 

Sometimes with a very low river and at neap tides it is only navi- 
gable for canoes as far as Nhamacade Point, a few miles above the 
iron railway bridge, crossing the river at Fontesvilla, about 35 miles 
above Beira. The river trade with the Buzi River has considerably 
increased. 

Tides — ^Height of river. — ^It is high water, full and change, at 
Mapanda, about 43 miles above Beira, at about 6 hours later than at 
the latter place, and during the height of the dry season, about the 



238 CAPE CORRIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 

middle of July, the stream only runs up about one hour each tide, 
the rise being 18 inches at springs and 9 inches at neaps; no record 
is obtainable for the rainy season. 

The rise of the river, closely resembling that of the Zambezi, 
begins in December or January, attaining its maximum height about 
March, when beginning to fall; it reaches its minimum about the 
end of August, remaining so until October or November. 

Coast. — From Macuti Point the coast has a general northeast 
trend for 36 miles to Mavendeni Eiver, which is small, and on this 
stretch the coast rises slightly, and is bounded by a range of low 
sand hills ; at about mid-distance the sand hills are somewhat notice- 
able, as here there are a number of sharp-pointed hills about 200 feet 
high, resembling pyramids, and rendered more conspicuous through 
being without vegetation, as the surrounding country is thick jungle. 

From Mavendeni River to the western entrance to the Zambezi the 
land is lower, and several unimportant streams discharge, the princi- 
pal of these being the Nhamatarara and Mupa Rivers. 

West Luabo (Liiana) Siver^ about 50 miles northeastward of 
Mavendeni River, is entered between Kirk and Ord Points, 1^ miles 
apart, and near the latter point trees commence, thickly covering 
the eastern bank of the river; the land is low to the southwestward, 
but the river may be known by a range of hummocks on its eastern 
side. 

The river, which has been frequently mistaken for the Zambezi, 
but has no connection with it, except perhaps by small and entirely 
imknown creeks, has a winding course for about 20 miles, and at 
!25 miles from its mouth receives the Thornton River f rom the west wai'd. 

Bar — Depths. — The bar, extending more than 2 miles from the 
shore, had (1861) from 3 to 6 feet on it at low, and 16 to 17 feet 
at high, water, spring tides, but it is probably subject to consider- 
able change ; within the river has depths of 2 fathoms for about 20 
miles, beyond which it does not appear to have been sounded. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at 4 h. 30 m. ; springs 
rise from 2 to 15 feet. Both streams run regularly in the river at 
rates of from 1^ to 2 knots. 

Zambezi River, rising in the Lunda country, on the borders of 
Angola, probably in a marshy lake named Dilolo, after a course of 
more than 1,200 miles, falls into the sea through a delta about 37 
miles in width, having drained an estimated area of 600,000 square 
miles. 

From its source it is first known as the Liba, below which it is 
joined by the Longo-e-bungo or Dungeungo and the Liambe or 
Yambaji, the three streams uniting and, added to by the Uyengo, 
forming the Upper Zambezi, under which name it flows eastward of 
south through Barotseland. 



CAPE CORRIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVRRS. 23ft 

Below this it receives the Lunyantli or Chobe, and turning almost 
due east runs over the Victoria Falls, then turning northeastward 
it enters Portuguese East Africa at Zumbo, a small settlement at its 
confluence with the Loangwa or Aroangwa, which river forms the 
Anglo-Portuguese western boundary, and is its most important tribu- 
tary, except the Shire, which river drains Lake Nyasa, and receives 
the Ruo Eiver. 

' Delta. — ^The several mouths flowing through the extensive delta 
are the Milambe, the Inhamissengo or Kongoni, the Biver Zambezi 
(East Luabo or Koama), the Muselo, the Chinde with the Inhamaca- 
tiua entered from it, and the Inhamhona or Maria Mouth, all of 
which have bars changing in depth from time to time; the Chinde^ 
although one of the narrowest and most tortuous, is the deepest and 
the one now used. 

The large body of water, running out of the various mouths during 
the rainy season, combined with the continuous heavy ocean swell, 
so alters the position of the several bars, causing islands to form and 
to be washed away, that the entrances are never alike for two seasons. 

The bars have probably their maximum depth from the end of 
February to the end of March, when the river is in flood, and their 
minimum depth from September to the commencement of November^ 
and especially the latter period, which is the end of the dry season. 

The bars, details of which will be separately given, should never be 
attempted without the assistance of a pilot or previously examining 
them. 

Fluctuations. — The fluctuations in the depth of the river are 
very considerable, as, during the rainy season, the water rises in floods 
from 15 to 20 feet, sweeping down with great velocity and filling all 
the valley, but after the month of March it falls rapidly and at the 
height of the dry season the stream is reduced to channels of water^ 
winding I between dry sandbanks, with here and there shallows, not 
permitting the passage of a draft of 18 inches; there is, therefore, 
no permanence in either the direction or depth of the navigable 
passages. 

Navigability. — There is only a depth of 1 foot at low^ river in 
the dry season at the junction of the Chinde with th6 main stream, 
and vessels of 10 feet draft can seldom pass over the bank. For navi- 
gability above, see Inland navigation. 

Aspect. — The land separating the various entrances is low, the 
tops of the trees nowhere exceeding from 50 to 80 feet in height, and 
the similarity of the appearance of different mouths renders it some- 
what difficult to distinguish any particular one ; the Zambesi Mouth, 
li miles in width, and the widest and straightest entrance, lying 
between two comparatively high and densely wooded points, is per- 
haps the most easily distinguished on account of its width, the other 



240 CAPE CORBIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIBE BTVEBS. 

entrances being mostly narrow. The Chinde Mouth should be some- 
what conspicuous on account of the buildings, etc. 

Depths oflshore. — ^A line of soundings, with depths from 13 to 
15 fathoms, passes about 11 miles outside the mouths as far east- 
ward as the Muselo entrance, and about 18 miles outside the Chinde 
Mouth, whence it decreases gradually to the depth of 5 fathoms at 
5 miles off that river. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at the Zambezi Mouths 
at 4 h. 30 m. ; springs rise from 12 to 13^ feet ; neaps SJ feet. At 
Mchenga, 25 miles from the entrances it is high water, full and 
change, at 4 h. 50 m. ; springs rise 5 feet. There is no rise of tide 
about 5 miles above Mchenga, but the downward stream is checked 
by that flowing in the opposite direction, as far as Expedition Island, 
above which the downward stream is constricted, varying from 1^ to 
3^ knots according to season. 

Milambe River, the entrance of the Zambezi, 6 miles eastward 
of the West Luabo, and 3^ miles westward of the Inhamissengo, 
which it joins about 5 miles above its mouth, appears to be choked 
with sand banks at its entrance; it has not been examined. 

Inhamissengo (Eongoid) Biver^ the entrance to which lies 
midway between the West Luabo and Zambezi Mouths was, with 
the exception of the Chinde, the best-known entrance to the Zambezi, 
but it is now seldom used. The river has a direction to the northward 
for about 4 miles from the bar and then follows a rather tortuous 
course with a general northeast direction and depths of from 2 to 5 
fathoms for a farther distance of 8 miles to a position just above the 
village of Kongoni, where it bifurcates. 

The Doto, the northwestern branch, is very shallow and but little 
used; it joins the main channel of the Zambezi opposite the junction 
of the Chinde. 

In October, 1893, the British naval vessel Mosquito anchored about 
5 miles up this branch, and Lake Sakassa and Zuere Village, a few 
miles from its western bank, were visited, using a path across 
swamps ; the banks of the lake are high and well wooded, the water 
clear and good for drinking purposes, and fish were plentiful. 

Madaranda, the eastern branch, only 10 yards wide in places, turns 
sharply round the northern end of Monguni Island, and is scarcely 
3 miles in length to its junction with the Zambezi; it is said to have 
a depth of 2 fathoms at low water, but the channel is tortuous and 
there are many snags in it. In the same year the Mosquito passed 
^^^hrough with some difBculty, owing chiefly to the overhanging 
foliage, and it was by this branch that the expedition under Dr. 
Livingstone entered the Zambezi. 

Inhangurue Island occupies the space between the entrances to 
Inhamissengo and Zambezi Rivers, and within it is a boat channel of 



CAPE COBJBIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 241 

the same name as the island, communicating between the two rivers. 
The Mosquito passed through it in November, 1894, during the 
period of low river, in not less than 5 feet at low water; it is subject 
to change. 

Bar — ^Depths. — ^Each side of the entrance to the Inhamissengo is 
fronted by sand banks and breakers to a distance of 1^ miles where 
the outer parts of the banks are connected by a narrow sand ridge 
vith only from 2 to 5 feet at low water, springs, or from 14 to 17 feet 
at high water, springs, the greater depth usually being found during 
the height of the rainy season, about March. A steam vessel of 12 
feet draft has crossed the bar, which at times is possibly available for 
vessels up to 15 feet draft. In 1893, it was reported that there were 
19 feet at high water, springs. 

Directions. — Vessels proceeding to the anchorage off the Inha- 
missengo unless certain of their position should make Zambezi Biver 
mouth first, as its entrance is more easily discernible from its much 
greater width. Having made it, steer westward along the coast, keep- 
ing in depths of 4 or 5 fathoms, until the Inhamissengo entrance is 
identified, when the anchorage described should be taken up. 

If wishing to enter the river the bar should be examined before 
doing so ; the surf breaks right across it at low water and the channel 
can not be distinguished, but within the channel deepens. 

In crossing the bar a probable westerly set must be guarded 
against. 

Outer anchorage. — ^The most convenient anchorage off the bar 
is with the gap in the land bearing 347° in a depth of about 4^ 
iathoms, over sand; but except in fine weather vessels should lie 
farther out. The current generally sets westward, causing vessels at 
anchor to lie broadside to the usual southeast wind and to roll 
considerably. 

Tides. — ^It is high water, full and change, at 4h. 30m.; springs 
rise about 12 feet. At springs, the outgoing stream runs from 4 to 
4^ knots in the entrance. 

Settlement. — In 1893, of the settlement of Conceicao, 10 miles 
above Inhamissengo, only 'one house, that of the- owner of the Prazo, 
was standing, but the gardens contained quantities of oranges and 
lemons. Guinea fowl and wart hog abound, and also small leopards. 

Biver Zambezi (East Luabo, or Eoama) , 1^ miles wide in its 
entrance, between the points of Inhangurue and Timbue Islands, 
is the widest outlet of this river. First Bluff Point, on the western 
side of entrance, so named from its high straight trees standing very 
close together, and Hyde Parker Point on the eastern side, both suffi- 
ciently remarkable objects, coupled with the wide entrance between 
them, afford means for identification. 

39511—16 ^16 



242 CAPE COBRIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 

Bar. — ^The shallow water fronting the mouth of River Zambezi 
extends about 3^ miles seaward of the entrance, and at low water, 
the sea breaks completely across the passage, at which time a great 
portion of the banks are uncovered; it is said to be impracticable 
during the dry season, and is probably subject to alteration. 

In the rainy season, at springs, the river banks are frequently over- 
flowed, but not for more than three or four days at a time ; the water 
is fresh down to the bar with the outgoing stream. 

Inhangurue Island had a few straggling villages in 1894 and on 
Timbue Island there was a considerable population; coconuts and 
mangoes were plentiful. 

Muselo Biver, about 10 miles eastward of River Zambezi en- 
trance, has some sandy cliffs on its northeastern side, which may 
assist in identifying it; about 10 miles from its mouth it joins the 
Zambezi; the banks are thickly wooded, but there appears to be no 
villages near them. The bar, about 4 miles offshore, when examined 
some 40 years ago was stated to be impracticable even for boats in 
ordinary weather, there being a heavy surf on the only spot where a 
channel appeared practicable. 

The channel within the bar was examined by the British naval 
vessel Mosquito in October, 1894, the dry season, and was found to 
have but 3 feet at low water in one place. 

Chinde River, about 17 miles north-northeastward of Muselo 
River, and the best and now the only entrance to the Zambezi in 
general use, is about 20 miles in length between its entrance and its 
junction with the Zambezi. Foot (Liberal) Point, the southern point 
of entrance, is low, with some trees and scrub on it. Mitaone, the 
northern point of entrance, lies 1^ miles eastward of it, but the river 
is only 1,400 yards in width between Foot Point and the northern 
bank. 

Light. — ^A white fixed light is shown from a semaphore tower, 37 
feet in height, situated about \ mile southward of Foot Point, and 
should be visible in clear weather from a distance of 10 miles. 

Beacons — ^Lights.— Two black and white beacons stand on Mita- 
one Point, and in line lead over the bar ; by night each beacon shows 
a white fixed light. 

About 1^ miles within Mitaone Point are two white beacons which 
in line lead in the channel along the north bank; by night each 
beacon shows a red fixed light. 

Bar — Depths. — ^The points of entrance are fronted by sand banks, 
drying from 8 to 10 feet on their inner parts, and over which at 
times the sea breaks heavily to a distance of 2 miles, and between 
their extremes is the bar, which usually has over it about 6 feet at 
low water, springs, but in December, 1911, had 21 feet at high water ; 
the depth and direction of the best track over the bar are constantly 



GAPE OOBBIEKTES TO EILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 243 

shifting, and not to be depended on; therefore a pilot should be 
employed or the bar examined before entering. 

Within the bar the depths increase to from 10 to^ 30 feet, and 
abreast of Foot Point and westward past the settlement, the river is 
1,400 yards in width, gradually narrowing to about 800 yards abreast 
of the western end of Mitaone Island, 2f miles within Foot Point. 

From this to about 1 mile above Sombo, or 13 miles from the 
entrance, the river, 200 yards in width, has sufficient depth for any 
vessels that can cross the bar, but above this it becomes much nar- 
rower, and the depths are reduced to from 6 to 8 feet in places ; at its 
junction with the Zambezi there is a bank across the river with only 
1 foot in the dry season at low water. 

Buoys. — ^The fairway buoy, moored in a depth of about 7^ fath- 
oms, 4 miles southeastward of Mitaone Point, is a black can buoy, 
surmounted by a small \vhite cylinder. 

In 1911 the entrance channel was marked by a red conical buoy, 
surmounted by a triangle, on the starboard, and by a black buoy on 
the port, hand entering. 

Caution. — Neither beacons nor buoys are to be depended on. 

Pilotage, etc. — ^The native pilots for the river are both numerous 
and skillful ; the charge for either entering or leaving the river is 50 
milreis. Two steam tugs are available if required. 

Directions. — ^The land in the neighborhood of Chinde River en- 
trance is low, and similar to that at the other entrances to the Zam- 
bezi, but the somewhat conspicuous sand hills, 57 feet high, on the 
northern side of Inhamhona River, 2^ miles northeastward of the 
Chinde, will be identified on a nearer approach. 

Having identified the entrance, a vessel should steer for the outer 
anchorage to wait for a pilot, and if one can not be obtained the bar 
must be sounded before entering; the best time for crossing the bar 
being from li hours before to high water. 

Anchorage. — ^The outer anchorage is in a depth of 4 fathoms 
from 3 to 4 miles southeastward of Mitaone Point, outside the fair- 
way buoy. In the river there is good anchorage in the fairway be- 
tween Foot Point and Luabo Point Spit, 2 miles above, in from 2^ 
to 4 fathoms, good holding ground, but vessels should moor. Strong 
easterly winds render the anchorage off the concession untenable for 
small craft, but at such times they can shift higher up. 

Tides. — ^It is high water, full and change, in the Chinde entrance 
at 4 h. 30 m. ; springs rise 12 feet, neaps 8J feet, neaps range approxi- 
mately 5i feet. These observations were made in July, but in Sep- 
tember neap tides were found to be very irregular, with a range of 
from 1^ to 3 feet. 

Tidal streams. — ^The Chinde River is tidal throughout, the in- 
going and outgoing streams turning about one hour after high and 



244 CAPE CORBIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIEE BIVERS. 

low water at the bar, and running from 2^ to 3^ knots, respectively, 
at springs, but occasionally during neaps there is no perceptible 
ingoing stream. 

Chinde to Zambezi Biver. — The banks of the Chinde River 
between Chinde and the Zambezi are fringed by dense forests of man- 
groves, obscuring any glimpse of the grassy plains beyond, but the 
mangroves cease when nearing the Zambezi, and the banks, increasing 
in height, change from black clinging viscous mud to a sandy or in 
some places clayey character. 

There is depth enough at all states of the tide for a vessel within 
Chinde Bar to reach 1 mile beyond Sombo; but, if proceeding into 
the Zambezi, the arrival at Sombo should be timed to reach it about 
an hour or more before high water, as the river beyond has from 6 to 
8 feet only, in places, at low water, and is very narrow. The village 
of Sombo is about 12 miles above Foot Point, and the old village of 
Chinde is 8 miles farther, on the southern side, at the junction of the 
Chinde with the Zambezi, where the river is from 800 to 900 yards in 
width. 

A vessel of about 150 feet in length having reached the upper part 
of the Chinde must continue on into the Zambezi, as there is no room 
to turn. The bar abreast of the junction with the Zambezi has only 
a depth of 1 foot at low water in the dry season, when it is seldom 
that a vessel of 10 feet draft can pass. 

From the bar the turn northward into the Zambezi was sharp 
round a spit extending from the northern point, the channel between 
it and the bank in mid-channel of the Zambezi being only cd)out 30 
yards wide, and the deep water at this part being along the eastern 
bank. In September, 1890, the British naval vessel Redbreast 
anchored just above the junction in 4 fathoms, but had to shorten 
in cable when swinging to the tidal stream. 

Inhamacatlua Biver enters the Chinde between Maria and Fre- 
mantle Points, and about 5 miles up it is joined by the Inhaombe 
from the northwestward ; two islets and some drying banks lie within 
Inhamacatiua River entrance. In October, 1893, the low river period, 
the British naval vessel Mosquito entered the Inhamacatiua from 
the Chinde with a rising tide, and, without difficulty, reached the 
Zambezi at Juau, about 6 miles above the Chinde Junction, thus 
avoiding Sombo. 

This route is said to be 1^ hours shorter than by the Chinde, but 
the depth was as little as 3^ and 4 feet in places, and as at about 2 
miles from its entrance the river is crossed by a telegraph wire, 14 
feet above low water, springs, it would appear that only boats can 
navigate it. 

The Inhaombe was also ascended for some miles, to just above the 
village of Samakota, where the stream nearly dries at low water. 



GAPE COKBIBNTBS TO KIUMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIBE BIVEKS. 245 

springs, and the trees overhang the curves, which are very sharp; 
about 12 miles above this the river ends in a swamp. 

The stream entered about 1 mile soulhwestward of Fremantle 
Point was also examined, and up to its junction with the Inhama- 
catiua was found to be deep and sufficiently wide in all places for the 
Mosquito; by this stream the flats in the mouth of the Inhamacatiua 
are avoided. 

Settlement. — ^The Portuguese settlement of Chinde, situated on a 
sandy plain on the north side of the eastern extreme of Timbua 
Island, is governed by an intendente who represents the administra- 
tion of the Province; it consists chiefly of corrugated iron roofed 
houses, but there are some good buildings of both wood and iron, 
which include lookout house, two hotels, customhouse, and barracks ; 
a detachment of native soldiers under a commandant are stationed 
here. 

Westward and adjoining the Portuguese settlement is the British 
concession, with buildings, etc., which has a river frontage of about 
1,200 yards and extending back from it about 800 yards, but con- 
siderable erosion of the bank goes on continually ; the seaward por- 
tion is allotted to British trading companies. There is a patent slip, 
and there are workshops for the repair of river steamers. 

In 1913 the European population numbered 247, of which number 
57 were British subjects, while the native and other population was 
estimated at 2,115. 

Groynes have been built to protect the foreshore, but there is great 
difficulty in carrying out any effective works, in consequence of the 
continual erosion of the river shore, also on account of the occasional 
heavy floods. 

Communication. — The Union Castle Line have steamers every 
month, and the Empreza Nacional de Navegagao have irregular call- 
ings; at least one river steamer leaves Chinde for the interior every 
week. 

Chinde is connected by telegraph with Kiliman via Sombo, and 
with Salisbury, Cape Town, and Blantyre via Tete. 

Supplies of provisions are fairly abundant. 

Water. — The river water both in the Zambezi and Shire is per- 
fectly good ; the water, when the rivers are in flood, is turbid, and if 
left to stand throws down a certain amount of deposit, but it is always 
good when filtered. Water from wells should be avoided, but if used 
should be boiled. 

Trade. — Chinde is a transshipment port for goods to British 
Central Africa, and in 1913 the exports, consisting of salt, sugar, wax, 
raw cotton, live stock, rubber, ivory, and bark, were valued at 
$1,188,175, the imports, of textiles, liquors, foodstuffs, iron and steel. 



246 CAPE COEEIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIBE BIVERS. 

ironmongery, agricultural machinery, tobacco, soap, cement, and tea, 
amounting to $2,046,323. 

In the same year the port was entered by 193 steam and 77 sailing 
vessels, with aggregate tonnages of 75,555 and 36,392 tons, respec- 
tively. The transit trade on the Zambezi and Shire Rivers employs 
25 vessels and 140 barges. 

Repairs. — Small repairs to river steamers can be undertaken by 
two firms. 

Climate. — ^Chinde is comparatively healthy, and, mainly owing 
to the sea breezes, a shoii stay frequently benefits those, from the 
interior, who are suffering from malarial fever. 

Inland navigation — Oeneral remarks. — The Zambezi is only 
navigable by steamers of very light draft, at all times of the year, 
and at low river, anything over 18 inches draft, may ground in places. 
It is navigable by vessels up to 5 feet draft during high river, or 
about February and March, but the navigation is blocked by Kebra- 
basa Eapids some 150 miles above Tete, or about 320 miles from the 
sea; above these rapids the river is again navigable beyond Zumbo, 
which is on the western frontier of Portuguese territory. 

The river is navigable to Massanangue at the foot of the Kebra- 
basa Bapids for steamers of the draft above mentioned, during eight 
months of the year, but for the other four months the shallows, where 
the river broadens to about 3 miles near Sena, make the navigation 
difficult. 

Pilots. — ^As already mentioned, the river pilots are numerous and 
skillful. 

Anchorage. — Vessels or boats seeking temporary anchorage are 
recommended to anchor usually well out in midstream in preference 
to near the banks ; but in early May a good lookout must be kept for 
the large masses of grass, resembling floating islands, which are 
brought down by the stream, especially in the lower part of the Shire, 
as not only are they liable to trip the anchor, should one foul the 
cable, but there are often snakes among the grass. At this time an- 
chorage should be sought well under the lee of a bend, and the an- 
chors should be sighted about every 10 days when the river is in 
flood, otherwise they may get buried. 

Tracking boats along the river banks is possible for short dis- 
tances in most places above the delta during low river. 

Natives. — The natives near the banks of the Zambezi are usuallv 
friendly and ready to trade, but opposite Tete the country away 
from the banks is, or was, in an insecure state. 

Supplies. — Fowls and game are fairly plentiful, goats may occa- 
sionally be obtained, but fruit and vegetables are scarce ; the stations 
of the African Lakes Corporation afford the best supplies. On the 



CAPE CORRIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERi?. 247 

Shire, goats and fowls are very scarce, but may sometimes be pro- 
cured. The river water, after being filtered, is always good for 
drinking; but it should be first boiled. 

Firewood is supplied by the Luabo, Madal, Zambezia, and Mozam- 
bique companies. 

On the Shire, wood can be supplied at Masanji, just below Port 
Herald, and at Chiromo. Above that, wood is cut and sent off as re- 
quired, when the river is navigable. 

The African Lakes Corporation have trading stations at the 
Concession in the Chinde, and at Chiromo and Katunga on the 
Shire, whence there is a road via Blantyre to Matope and Mpimbi on 
the Upper Shire. 

(General directions. — Owing to the* constant and rapid changes 
which occur in the navigable channel of the Zambezi, no permanent 
directions of any value can be given; islands form and wash away, 
and channels well known in one month may be found to have dis- 
appeared a month later; the navigable channel bears no proportion 
in the dry season to the width of the river, which varies, below 
Sena, from J mile to over 3 miles, and is in places studded with 
islands. 

The channel crosses and recrosses from bank to bank, rendering 
the distances traversed in many places q^uite double that shown by the 
chart. In these crossings the channel is always shallower than where 
it takes the direction of the banks, but the worst portions are usually 
pretty clearly defined. 

In calm weather there is a peculiar boiling up of its water, and 
when the wind is blowing up the river, as it usually does, the ripples 
on the shallows are more marked than in the deeper water, and simi- 
lar ripples or breakers mark the edge of the shallow bank above. 
These ripples are almost the sole guide of the pilot. 

As a general rule, by keeping on the outer side of the bends of the 
river, and away from the points, most of the shallow places will be 
avoided, as in all river navigation. At a crossing, keep well up 
toward the upper sand bank, more especially when descending the 
river, as if grounding on it the vessel will be washed off by the cur- 
rent, but grounding on the lower bank means hours lost in laying 
out anchors and heaving off, and in the latter case the vessel's head 
must be pointed upstream as soon as possible. 

Commander H. J. Keane, late of the Herald^ remarks : " The con- 
stant change is not confined to the river bed ; the banks are continu- 
ally being fretted away by the combined action of the wind and 
water, so that huge masses of earth are constantly falling into the 
stream, to be carried away and deposited in some position that will 
astonish the navigator, who, steaming with a certain amount of con- 



248 CAPE CORBIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE BIVEBS. 

fidence down a channel that he has found to be fairly permanent, 
suddenly discovers the vessel to be aground. On a fine calm day the 
experienced eye may detect it before too late, but such knowledge is 
only to be obtained by hard experience of a trying description." 

Snags are plentiful in the Chinde, Zambezi, and Shire, and are a 
constant source of anxiety, as each year's flood brings down fresh 
ones, and, to add to the difficulty, if they are 2 feet below the surface 
there is no sign of them. They are more numerous in the Shire above 
than below Chiromo. 

High river. — ^The first rise in the Zambezi, after low river, be- 
ginning with the lesser rains in November, attains its maximum 
about the end of December or the beginning of January, a maximum 
of 13i feet being registered at Tete. The river then falls a few feet, 
until succeeded by the great rise, which takes place after the river 
has inundated the interior, and is at its highest at Tete in March, 
amounting usually to about 20 feet above low water. 

The rise is sudden, and the water, at other times almost chemically 
pure, is highly discolored and impure, but still good for drinking 
purposes, while the current runs down at from 4 to 5 knots, but in a 
very few days after the first rush it resumes its usual rate at Tete 
of about 2 knots, although lower down the maximum is 3^ knots. In 
April the river is falling. The rise in the Shire generally occurs 
about the same time as in the Zambezi, but it differs at times, depend- 
ing on the rains in the districts from which the rivers flow. 

Low river. — ^The banks of the Zambezi being mainly composed 
of light, porous, sandy soil, offering little resistance to erosion, the 
banks in some parts are constantly falling away, thus widening the 
river and reducing its depth, and the general character of the water- 
way during the dry season after June is comparatively deep reaches 
separated by shallow bars, the position and depth of which vary from 
season to season, depending on the lowness of the river and the effect 
of the previous flood. Thus, while at some seasons a^essel of 3 feet 
may possibly pass, in another 18 inches is none too little. 

More or less permanent shallow places are found in the Zambezi, 
even nearly down to its junction with the Chinde, where there may 
not be more than 2^ feet, but more particularly between its junction 
with the Shire and Tete. From the month of August to early 
November, for about 15 miles above the junction, and again in a 
portion between Sena and Lupata Gorge, the river is hardly navi- 
gable for anything drawing over 1 foot. 

The flats in the Zambezi above the junction of the Shire are 
avoided by passing round Inhamgoma Island, ascending the Shire 
to the northern end of the island, and descending by the Ziu-Ziu, the 
western channel, reentering the Zambezi by it. 



GAPE OOKBIENTES TO KlUMAHy THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIBE BIVEBS. 24& 

In the dry season the stream in the Zambezi runs from 1^ to 2 
knots, and in the lower Shire from i to 1| knots. 

Winds. — ^In the daytime the wind blows from the southward, up 
river, nearly all the year round. 

Climate and rainfall. — ^The valley of the Zambezi is reached 
by the lesser rains late in October, when the sun is passing south- 
ward ; these diminish or cease altogether in December, when at times 
there is a partial drought. The heavy rains usually begin when the 
sun, returning northward, is in the zenith, about the middle of Janu- 
ary, and continue to the end of March or the beginning of April- 
There are light rains in the months of May and June, but the re- 
mainder of the year is dry. 

The rainfall near Tete is from S3 to 36 inches, though as little as- 
19 inches was registered in one year ; the rainfall over Lake Nyasa i& 
said to be from 50 to 60 inches. v 

April and May are probably the most unhealthy months in the 
Zambezi and Shire, when, the rain having ceased, the action of the 
sun on the decaying vegetation is most active. February and March, 
the height of the rains, and November, the period of the greatest 
heat, are also unhealthy. The delta of the Zambezi and the lower 
valley of the Shire, particularly in the neghborhood of the Moram- 
bala and Elephant Marshes, bear the worst character, and the 
mosquitoes are a terrible plague. The upper valley of the Shire, 
above the falls, and Lake Nyasa are less unrealthy, but the climate i& 
always trying to Europeans. 

The report from the British naval vessel Herald^ 1891, on the 
health of the several places is a follows : " Katunga, a very unhealthy 
locality. Chiromo, very fair. Vicenti, severe attacks of malarial 
fever at all seasons. Chinde Biver, no marked unhealthiness, but 
chills are dangerous ; it was healthy and free from fever in Septem- 
ber and October, the maximum temperature at that time being 75°, 
and the minimum 68°." 

Sir John ICirk remarks: "The best rule for health for men em- 
ployed afloat in the Zambesi is to go to bed early, avoid chills at 
night, have a cup of hot tea, coffee, or cocoa in the morning before 
exposing themselves on deck in the cold morning mists, which chill 
you to the bone, and on no account permit spirits to be drunk in the 
middle of the day. Sunset is the time for the men's allowance. 
Remember that mosquitoes are in millions on the Shire; I would 
always anchor in the stream clear of the shore." 

Temperature. — At Tete, on the Zambezi, the gi'eatest heat is in 
February, 103° being registered in the shade; it is coldest in July^ 
about 72°, and in November it is about 84°. Between Tete and the 
coast, in February, the temperature is about 98° at noon, and 80° at 



250 CAPE COBRIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 

night. On the Shire, below the Murchison Falls, in September, it is 
at times about 100° in the shade, but November is usually the hottest 
month. 

Upper River. — The banks of the various mouths of the Zambezi 
for the first 10 or 15 miles are generally low and thickly covered with 
trees, the greater portion being mangrove jungle. 

At about the junction of the Inhamissengo with the main stream, 
the pandanus or screw palm trees begin, many so tall as to resemble 
steeples. The soil is wonderfully fertile, well adapted to the growth 
of sugar cane; rice and many kinds of vegetable are grown; guava 
and lime trees are also abundant. 

Numerous huts peep out between the bananas and cocoa palms on 
the west bank, standing on piles a few feet above the ground, as con- 
siderable portions of the land in the rainy season, toward spring tides, 
are overflowed for three or four days at a time. 

Nearly all the eastern and northern banks of the river, from the 
delta to Lupata Gorge, is a concession to the Zambezi Co., while the 
Mozambique Co. have about 50,000 acres on the western and south- 
western banks. 

Old Chinde and Mchenga villages. — On the eastern bank, at 
the junction of the Chinde with the Zambezi, are the villages of Old 
Chinde aind Maruga, 1 mile apart, and 5 miles above the latter is 
Mchenga village. 

Above the junction of the Chinde with the Zambezi, the western 
bank abounds in coconut palms, and is somewhat higher than the 
eastern one, which is sandy ; the banks of the river continue mostly of 
sand, with but few trees, until within 20 miles of Maruro. and it is 
possible to track boats in most places. 

MarromeOy on the east bank, and usually the first stopping place 
for the river steamers, is an important French sugar plantation and 
manufactory, with a tall black chimney ; here the river narrows some- 
what with an increased current. About 1 mile above Marromeo is 
the Mozambique Co.'s customs station. 

Mazaro^ about 4 miles above Maruro, is situated at the mouth 
of a creek, which, during high river, about February or March, ad- 
mits of the passage of boats from the Zambezi to the Kwa Kwa, a 
branch of the Ealiman River; during the dry season the bottom of 
this creek or canal, about 30 yards wide, is about 16 or 17 feet above 
the level of the Zambezi. The Barabanda, about 5 miles below the 
mouth of the Shire, also connects the Kwa Kwa with the Zambezi 
during the same period. 

Abreast of Mazaro, the Zambezi is about \ mile wide and the view 
is magnificent; the river is studded with islands, their sides clothed 
with grass and shrubs, with many a creeper and convolvulus. On 
the opposite bank is the Shupanga country, well wooded, and the 



OAPB OOBBIBNTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIBE BIVEBS. 251 

home of the monster baobabs, many of enormous thickness. Vicenti 
is about 4 miles above Mazaro. 

Mopeia and Marendene. — Mopeia, nearly 3 miles from the left 
bank of the Zambezi, but said to be nearer owing to the erosion of 
the river bank, is on the Kwa Kwa, about 80 miles above Kiliman 
town, and 80 feet above the sea level. 

Communication. — Mopeia has telegraphic communication with a 
number of stations along the east bank of the river as far as Benga, 
opposite Tete, also with Kiliman and thus with Chinde, and with 
Blantyre. 

In the dry season, there is just enough water at Mopeia for the 
smallest canoes; at this time that portion of the Kiliman trade follow- 
ing this route in lighters and canoes has to be unloaded at Maren- 
dene, few miles below Mopeia, where there is deeper water in the 
river, and then conveyed overland to the banks of the Zambezi. 

Chupangali^ about 15 miles above Mazaro, on the opposite bank, 
is an old-established and beautifully situated Franciscan mission- 
ary station, having low stone whitewashed buildings, very extensive 
and commodious, containing a chapel, school, and workshops, with 
a large vegetable garden; the river here, still about 800 yards in 
width, is deeper, and no sand banks are visible. 

Above Chupangah the high river banks have increased luxuriance 
of tropical vegetation, and palms of various kinds become numerous, 
with immense baobabs and clumps of stiff euphorbias, while climbing 
plants cover bushes and lower trees in places. From this the outline 
of the Morambala Mountain, rising about 4,000 feet, shows glittering 
granite peaks, and rocky escarpments, with tree-covered foothills. 

Between Chupangah and Chimoara on the east side of the entrance 
to the Shire River, the Zambezi is somewhat wider, and studded with 
islands, dividing it into shallow channels; the western bank, for 2 
miles above Chupangah, is rocky and steep, with a few rocks a short 
distance from it, but above that the banks resume the same height 
as below. 

Communication. — A railway is projected between Chimoara and 
Kiliman, and from it land wires run to Blantyre, along the east bank 
of the Shire, and crossing Inhamgoma Island and along the east 
bank of the Zambezi to Benga ; it is also connected by telegraph with 
Mopeia. 

Flat. — From about 3 miles below Chimoara the channels in the 
river become more intricate, and from the entrance to the Shire, for 
a distance of about 20 miles above, the river widens, and is studded 
with islands, dividing it into shallow channels, while in the dry sea- 
son a flat across the river is so shallow as only to admit the passage of 
light boats, at which time the route round Inhamgoma Island should 
be taken. 



252 CAPE COBRIEKTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AKD SHIBE BIVERS. 

Caia (Kaia). — At Caia, on the southwest side of Inhamgoma 
Island, there is a large plantation and a sugar factory. 

Muterara, a station of the Zambezi Co., situated on the western 
side of the entrance to Zui Zui Biver, abreast of the west point of 
Inhamgoma Island, has a whitewashed stone house, built on an 
eminence about 100 feet above the river, with its eastern end descend- 
ing precipitously to it ; the surrounding land is poor and stony, and 
is experimentally planted with Sisal fiber, while farther up the oil 
palm is tried. 

Sena, a short distance above Muterara, on the opposite bank, 
and formerly a principal Portuguese station, dating back to 1531, 
stands on a low plain with some detached hills in the background ; it 
has. a dilapidated fort, has lost its importance, and can not be 
approached from the river except when it is high. 

Communicatioii. — The telegraph crosses the river to Sena from 
Muterara, and then recrosses it above Sena. 

Nyassereri, about 6 miles above Sena, and connected to it by a 
good road, except after heavy rain, when about IJ miles of it is 
swamp, is the best place to land if wishing to communicate with 
Sena. Inyakarenga is about 6 miles above Nyassereri. 

Between Sena and Sinjal, a distance of about 40 miles and sit- 
uated on the opposite bank, the western bank of the river is beauti- 
fully wooded, undulating country, while on the opposite bank the 
Massowa hills rise gradually from the river to an unbroken tree- 
covered ridge about 1,000 feet high, continuing for 10 or 15 miles 
after leaving Muterara, and then increasing to the dome-shaped peak 
of Massowa, about 3,000 feet, from which it gradually lowers. 

Inland the western bank is a flat country, consisting of wide 
stretches of open grassland, alternating with thick bush and forest, 
the borassus palm growing to an increased height to those on the 
banks below. The river about this part is fully 3 miles in width and 
shallow, while crocodiles become very numerous, resting on every 
exposed sand bank. The river here is only about 70 feet above sea 
level. 

Between Inyakarenga and Maria Pia, near the commencement of 
Lupata Gorge, the navigation is said to be difficult, the river being 
thickly studded with islands, and a good lookout is necessary for 
snags. Singal, on the east bank, is a small wooding station with a 
couple of huts and piles of telegraph poles; it has telegraphic com- 
munication both up and down this bank to the various stations. 

Wood may be obtained in small quantities by arrangement with 
the natives, but it should be remembered that there are concessions 
to companies on both sides of the river, so that it would be ad- 
visable to ask permission from the managers at the various places. 



CAPE OORBIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIEE BIVERS. 253 

Above Inyakarenga there are stockaded tax-collecting stations at 
Shimbwa, Shimiara, Nkuesa, and Maria Pia, and these, locally known 
as aringas, are said to be safe stopping places for boats should the 
country be in a disturbed state, which is now probably unlikely. 

Tambara Fort, a whitewashed stone structure, occupying a com- 
manding position on the extremity of a high ridge overlooking the 
river, and built as a defense against the natives, is near the com- 
mencement of Lupata Gorge, the banks of the river in its vicinity 
being thickly populated, with gardens of maize, millet, etc., extend- 
ing m places to the water's edge. 

Communicatioii. — Between Singal and Lupata Gorge are tele- 
graph stations at Anevaze, Sangara, and Bandar. 

Lupata Gorge. — ^The river having narrowed considerably enters 
Lupata Gorge, a natural cutting of great beauty through a system 
of high, undulating, sparsely wooded hills, which descend sheer into 
the water, with many roctjr bowlders of great size at their feet; 
about 1 mile within the entrance is Panzu'ngoma, a high, isolated, 
conical peak, and farther, on the opposite side, is Mwana-katsitsi 
(the hairy child), the densely wooded highest peak of a long ridge 
of hills. 

The steep stony banks here rise abruptly from the water's edge, 
with much thinner vegetation, but an increase in the number of 
baobab trees, and at several points, where the foothills recede a few 
hundred yards from the river, native villages are seen over their sur- 
rounding stockades; where the long ridg:e of Mwana-katsitsi comes 
down in a bowlder bluff to the water's edge the gorge sweeps round 
to the southwestward. 

The mountains, showing deep indentations, often after descending 
gently for a few hundred feet, suddenly fall sheer for several hun- 
dreds more, as through the effect of a gigantic landslide, and deep 
ravines on their faces are doubtless due to a similar cause. In the 
middle of the second curve the shore on the south side forms a vast 
semicircular amphitheater, with rocky peaks rising from the bottom 
and sides, showing the glittering granite through the foliage. 

On the opposite bank are also a number of peaks, extending back 
about 3 miles, and surrounded at their bases by tropical vegetation, 
with grass and reeds fronting them ; here the water is much clearer 
and freer from organic matter than lower down the river. 

The western extreme of the gorge, 17 miles from its eastern 
entrance, has huge cliffs of porphyritic formation, descending sheer 
to the water, which is of great depth, and in mid-channel is Mozam- 
bique Island, small, and formed of granite ; the cliffs are the nesting 
places of marabou storks, eagles, and other raptorial birds. 



254 CAPE CORRIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIBE BIVEB8. 

Current. — ^The current experienced by gun vessels passing through 
in the month of February exceeded 4^ knots in places, and they 
were scarcely able to make headway against it at full ^eed, but at 
that time the river had been in flood, and risen 4 feet during the 
previous night. 

Dr. Livingstone remarks: "A strong current sweeps round the 
little rocky promontories of Chifura and Kangomba, forming whirl- 
pools and eddies dangerous for the clumsy native craft, which are 
tracked past with long ropes; heavy-laden canoes take two days to 
track through the gorge. The current above the gorge is stronger 
than that below, probably running about 2 knots at this season, that 
below being assumed to be about 1^ knots. In the gorge the current 
ran about 3 knots and the launch steamed through with ease." 

Sungo. — ^Inmiediately above the Lupata Oorge, on the eastern 
bank is the Aringa of Sungo, having a small fort with a detachment 
of Goanese soldiers ; a small stock of coal is kept here for the use of 
the Portuguese gunboats. From Sungo to Tete the passage is easy 
and the channel deep, in some places 80 feet for 2 or 3 miles together. 

MaBangano has a fort constructed of stone, and about 200 feet 
length, on its river face. 

Luenya or Shirena Biver. — ^An attempt was made in the Brit- 
ish naval vessel Mosquito to proceed up this river, but about 2 miles 
above its confluence with the Zambezi it was blocked by large sand 
banks, with insufficient water for the gunboat to pass, though every 
portion was examined, but the natives stated that a few miles farther 
on the river narrowed and became deep, and from the point where 
the Moaqmto grounded the narrows could be seen. 

Muarese River. — On the eastern bank, and about 5 miles below 
Tete, is the Muarese or Mirarazi Stream. Coal has been found in 
the valley through which it discharges into the Zambezi. 

Tete. — From 45 to 50 miles above the western end of JLiupata 
Gorge, the river is about \ mile in width, with arid and stony banits 
and an absence of the tropical vegetation met with lower down, auu 
even the coarse grass is poor and thin. Amongst trees leafless 
baobabs predominate. 

The town of Tete, standing on a succession of sandstone ridges on 
the western bank and dominated by Mount Carrueira, which is 
table topped, covers a large area, and, although there are some good 
houses, they are so scattered that native huts have sprung up between 
them, while the older buildings, generally of solid stone, with tiled 
roofs and wide verandas, are fast falling into disrepair. 

The streets are rough, stony, and destitute of sidewalks, and the 
principal European houses stand on three almost equidistant ridges, 
rimning parallel to the river, the hollows between them forming the 
main roads. Two fortresses, the land fort at the back of the town 



CAPE CORRIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 255 

and the river fort commanding the river, are both strong and sub- 
stantial, and just below a white and blue washed church standing 
on a slight eminence is a well-built stone mole. 

The date of the town being founded is uncertain and is even dated 
back to 1531, but it was formerly a place of considerable importance 
and was the headquarters of the Jesuits in this part, its downfall 
commencing with their expulsion. • It is now regaining something of 
its former position as regards trade. 

Communication is maintained on the river by steamers, and 
from Tete telegraph lines branch to Ealiman and Chinde to Salisbury 
and Cape Town, and northward to Nimule on the Nile, via Blantyre. 

Wood and water. — Wood is procurable, but expensive, and the 
water for the town, coming from a well on an island, is neither 
clear nor good, while that of the river is very turbid during January 
and February and full of suspended matter, which filtration does not 
entirely remove. Mangoes are plentiful between November and 
March. 

Sevuke (Revugo) River, on the opposite side of the Zambezi 
River to Tete, was explored for 4 miles, as far as Inyamakaze or 
Diorite Eapids, where a reef of rocks and a cataract stopped further 
progress; it is very narrow, with a strong current, and the bottom 
being stony is dangerous to ground on. 

Coal, giving most unsatisfactory results when tried, is found at 
a large mine close to Inyamakaze, the river being navigable to it, but 
the mine is not worked. There are several villages on the east bank. 

Communication. — Benga, at the mouth of the river, has tele- 
graphic communication, both direct along the east bank of the Zam- 
bezi, and by another line to Zombo, via Blantyre. This is the 
terminus of the land wire along the east bank of the Zambezi. 

Broma. — ^Above Tete the country becomes more hilly, and the 
river narrows and deepens, in some places to 60 feet, but just below 
and above Broma, about 20 miles above Tete, are rocks in mid-chan- 
nel, which may be avoided by ordinary care. At Broma is the mis- 
sion of San Jose, with a very large stone house and a small church 
at the foot of a hill. 

Sandra, generally known as Panzo, has a fairly large aringa, 
and stands on the eastern bank of the Zambezi, and on the southern 
entrance to Mavusi River, which entrance is about 45 yards in width, 
with depths of from 7 to 10 feet in the month of February. 

Freshets — Caution. — ^The British naval vessels Herald and 
Mosquito^ when lying within the entrance to this river, its condition 
and the state of the weather being normal, experienced, without any 
previous warning except that rain had commenced about an hour 
before, a freshet with at least a 6-knot current, and a rise in the 



"256 CAPE COBBIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND 8HIBE RIVEBS. 

river of 6 feet, the water bringing with it large trunks of trees and 
masses of reeds. 

One vessel parted cable and was swept into the Zambezi, and the 
other gromided, being high and dry when the river fell, and was only 
floated by a second freshet occurring a few hours later, which was 
stated by the natives to be a rare occurrence. 

Karuge River, about 15 miles above Mavus River, but on the 
west bank, was explored for about 1 mile, when the water, shoaling 
to 2 feet, farther progress was stopped. Matakenya village is on 
this river, but between Sangura and its villages are few, and above it 
to Kebrabasa Rapids are only a few scattered huts. 

Eebrabasa (Caroabassa) Rapids. — ^The country between Tete 
and Panda Mokua, a hill 2 miles below Kebrabasa Rapids, 86 miles 
above Tete, where navigation ends at a place named Massanangue, is 
well wooded and hilly on both sides of the river. 

The lower rapid, seen at low river, had a fall of about 20 feet in 
a distance of 80 yards, the water rushing through a gorge from 4Q 
to 60 yards wide, but at high river these rapids are said to disap- 
pear, and^ the width of the river to be ^ mile, and the rapids ex- 
tending in succession nearly to Chiceva, a distance of 40 miles, are 
also said to be smoothed over at the same state of the river. 

The river, after being practically rendered impassable for a dis- 
tance of 40 miles by Kebrabasa Rapids, again becomes navigable at 
Chiceva, and continues so to beyond Zumbo, with only one rapid 
or two rapids that are not of a nature to stop navigation, until within 
30 or 40 miles of Victoria Falls, and this upper reach is even more 
navigable than the portion between Sena and Tete, as vessels of from 
2 to 2i feet draft can use it; two rapids require to be known, but 
otherwise the river is safe. 

In 1894, Lieut. Carr remarked as follows : 

At Kebrabasa Rapids the river suddenly narrows and runs between high 
rock walls about 6«) yards apart The current at this time of year (February) 
being exceedingly strong — ^so much so that the Mosquito going full speed 
could barely make headway — the water literally boils over, bursting into large 
bubbles over 1 foot high, and making It very difficult to distinguish between 
the rock and the deep water. 

Above the first reach the river narrows again and bends sharply to the 
south west ward, with rocks scattered about in every direction. Perhaps a 
very strongly built craft with powerful engines might advance above this point, 
but the chance of her coming down in safety would be very remote. The bottom 
and sides are rocky, and the least error or accident with helm or engine 
would mean disaster, especially to a vessel whose bottom is of very thin steel 
only. 

If the thing be possible, the best time to attempt it would be in May, 
when the river has commenced to fall; the diminished current would give a 
vessel a chance to steer and steam, but a sudden fall in the river, a matter 
of frequent occurrence, would condemn her to remain above the rapids for a 
year. 



CAPE CORRIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 257 

Victoria Falls are separated by an island into two portions, the 
whole measuring about 1 mile in width, and thus divided the river 
drops into a deep chasm from a height of 350 feet, causing a vapor 
to ascend which has caused it to be named by the natives the Mosi- 
ao-tanya, or smoke soimding. The streams rush toward one another 
in the chasm, producing a fearful boiling whirlpool, and then dash 
through a zigzag gorge, apparently not more than 20 or 30 yards 
wide, situated at right angles to the fissure of the falls, beyond which 
it expands into the upper reach of the Zambezi, but is not navigable 
for some 30 or 40 miles below, as before mentioned. The railway 
bridge crosses the river i mile below the falls. 

The distances from the sea to various points on the Zambezi are, 
approximately, as follows: 

Miles. 

Mazaro 75 

Shupanga 84 

The junction of the Shire 110 

Sena 140 

Lupata Gorge 235 

Tete 280 

Kebrabasa Rapids 325 

Zamba, mouth of the Loangwa 500 

Victoria Falls 950 

It is probable that in the actual navigation of the river the dis- 
tances here given are very considerably exceeded, and that, for 
instance, to reach the foot of the Kebrabasa Rapids a vessel will 
certainly have to pass over 400 miles of ground. 

Shire River, draining Lake Nyasa, and flowing through Nyasa- 
land Protectorate, receiving in its course the Ruo River, enters the 
Zambesi River, at about 110 miles above its mouth, by two chan- 
nels, passing on either side of Inhamgoma Island, which divides the 
mouth of the Shire River; Ziu Ziu, the western of these channels, 
is shallow. 

Of late years, for some reason unknown, the annual rainfall over 
Lake Nyasa, from 50 to 60 inches, which had considerable influence 
on the height of the Shire River, appears to have lost this to a great 
extent, although there is no diminution in the rainfall, with the re- 
sult that it has been sometimes with the utmost difficulty that com- 
munication was kept open with Chiromo, the port of entry of the 
Nyasaland Protectorate. 

Height. — ^It is stated that the greatest rise of Lake Nyasa seldom 
adds more than 2 feet to the dry season height of the river, so that 
only small steam vessels of the lightest draft can navigate it, and 
these do not now proceed above Port Herald, which is below 
Chiromo. 

39511—16 n 



258 CAPE CORBIENTES TO KILIMAX, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 

Entrance. — The mouth of the Shire River is rocky and somewhat 
dangerous, but, for about nine months of the year, the main or east- 
ern channel can be avoided by using a channel about 30 yards wide, 
almost free from danger, between an islet in the mouth and the 
western bank. During very low river the main channel must be 
used, avoiding its eastern side and giving also the eastern point, on 
which are the whaleback trees, a good berth before turning up for 
the entrance. 

Monunbala Mountain, meaning the lofty watchtower, is about 
4,000 feet in height, 7 miles in length, and near the eastern bank of 
the Shire River, about 20 miles within its mouth ; it is visible down 
the Zambezi at Mazaro, and is a striking object. The summit of 
Morumbala, though nearly always enveloped in mist, is far more 
healthy than the lower Shire Valley, and on the plateau near the 
mountain there is a large coffee plantation. 

Dangers. — The Leak and Pinda Rapids present difficulties to the 
navigator, the former being about 35 miles above the mouth and 1 
mile above the Ziu-Ziu, or channel westward of Inyangoma Island, 
with which it connects. The Leak is about 80 feet wide, and at right 
angles to the Shire, and as in the dry season the water runs through 
it with considerable velocity, and the channel of the Shire is very 
narrow, and running close to the Leak, there is considerable danger 
of being sucked down this narrow rapid, and both anchors should 
be ready. 

Pinda Rapid, about ^ mile above the Leak, constitutes a danger 
from a sharp turn, and an accelerated current caused by the channel 
being narrowed by a rocky islet; the western channel is the navigable 
one, keeping near the river bank, but both the Leak and Pinda 
Rapids can only be considered as dangers when descending the 
river. 

Communication. — A telegraph wire between Pinda and Mute- 
rara, continued along the northeast bank of the Zambezi, crosses 
the river at Pinda Rapids,^ the wire being fairly low. 

S Bends. — Above Pinda there is a clear run through the Morum- 
bala Marsh to Shuonga, the river being tortuous, particularly at the 
S Bends, which are at the head of the Morumbala Marsh, and are so 
called from the succession of very sharp and narrow turns in the 
river ; the water is deep, but when the river is in flood the stream is 
strong, rendering extra care necessary when descending. 

Above S Bends the river widens, the curves are less sharp, and 
signs of cultivation, which are absent in the marsh, again appear; 
the country on the right bank is wooded. 

Two flats, with very little water over them in the dry season, have 
to be passed before reaching Port Herald. 



CAPE CORRIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 259 

Port Herald, or Juan Makanga, the first British settlement on the 
west bank of the Shire, and a fairly large village, can be reached 
from Morumbala in about 12 hours, avoiding anchoring in the 
Morumbala Marsh, an unhealthy district. 

Communication. — Port Herald has railway communication ^vith 
Blantyre via Chiromo. 

Wood may be obtained at Port Herald. 

Above Port Herald, the river loses much of its previous mo- 
notonous character, numerous islets being dotted about, and trees 
with heavy creepers overhanging the water ; on either hand are ranges 
of hills, Mount Clarendon (Chipirone), 6,000 feet in height, being 
about 20 miles ;from the east bank. 

Ruo River, a tributary of the Shire, and the boundary between 
British and Portuguese territory, is 100 yards wide and navigable for 
canoes for about 12 miles, where rapids begin. 

CMromo, a settlement on the northern side of the mouth of the 
Kuo Kiver, is about 25 miles in a direct line above Port Herald. 

Coast. — From West Luabo Eiver to the mouth of the Chinde 
River, a distance of about 40 miles, the projection of the coast line 
forming the delta of the Zambezi River, is due entirely to the alluvial 
deposits of ages from that river. 

From the mouth of the Chinde River the coast, trending northeast- 
ward for about 40 miles to Kiliman River, contains the mouth of 
several streams, and is so low that it is seldom seen from the deck of 
a vessel from a distance of 7 miles, although between the Malindo 
River and Linde River it becomes somewhat higher, and near the 
latter are some clumps of trees, while a short distance to the south- 
westward of the river some sandy cliffs, separated from the beach 
by a long lagoon, are conspicuous with the morning sun. 

Inhamhona River mouth is close northeastward of the Chinde 
Entrance, and within it branches off in many directions, one to the 
southwestward, passing inside Mitaone Island, and throwing out a 
branch to the westward, which bifurcates and forms the Inhama- 
catiua and the Inhaombe Rivers, while the Inhamiara or Maria River 
branches out at the northwest point of Mitaone Island, and to the 
northward are the Inhamgona and Zunde Rivers. All of these are 
little known. 

The general depths along this coast are 4 fathoms at about 3 miles, 
and from 6 to 9 fathoms at from 5 to 6 miles, but shoaler water may 
be expected off the entrances to rivers, and, as the soundings are few, 
it is not advisable to close the coast too much when navigating it. 

Linde (Indian River). — The entrance to Linde River, about 
26 miles northeastward of the Chinde Mouth, the Malindo River 
being about midway, is nearly 2 miles in width between Dehea and 
Linde Points, the former having low vegetation, with sand to the 



260 CAPE CORRIENTES TO KILIMAX, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE BIVEBS. 

southward of it, and the latter marked by coconut palms ; within the 
bar is a large estuary with several islands. 

The river was ascended in 1822 for about 16 miles, the least depth 
being 2 fathoms, while in the Mondene or Chica River, on the north- 
em side of the estuary, the depths were found to be from 5 to 10 
fathoms when it was ascended by boats for a distance of 12 miles. 
Besides these other streams connect the Ldnde with the Kiliman 
River. 

Beacon* — A white triangular-shaped beacon stands on Linde 
Point. 

Bar — Depths. — Shoal water extends from each point of entrance, 
and, connecting about 4 miles outside, forms the bar, which is very 
short. The depth on the bar is about 6 feet at low water, but it is 
subject to change. The river for a distance of .about 50 miles has 
from 2 to 10 fathoms. 

Pilots. — ^A pilot for the river may be obtained at the anchorage. 

Anchorage. — The anchorage, southeastward of Dehea Point, is 
in a depth of about 4 fathoms, and the 1:)eacon in line with an isolated 
palm to the southward of those on Linde Point, bearing about 838°, 
was said to lead over the bar in the best water. 

Coast. — From Linde River to Kiliman River the coast is covered 
with vegetation, with several low sand hills and reddishrcolored 
patches, and about 2^ miles northeastward of the former river is a 
low but remarkable bluff. The depths appear to decrease gradually 
to the shore, but the locality has not been closely examined. 

Kiliman (Quilimane) Biver, entered about 3 miles north- 
northeastward of Vilhena Lighthouse and between Ponta Olinda 
(Hippopotamus) and Tangalane Point, which are nearly 2 miles 
apart, has low, sandy land covered with trees or jungle on both 
sides of its entrance, the southwest side being somewhat the higher 
of the two. 

The entrance is conspicuous on a bearing about 328° and when 
abreast of it the river, being wide and having a straight course for 
10 or 12 miles, no land will be seen from the deck between the 
entrance points, although Ilha Cavallos Marinhos, 4 miles within 
the entrance, may be seen from aloft. 

Light. — Vilhena Lighthouse, situated about 4^ miles southwest- 
ward of the entrance to the river, is a red latticework pyramidal 
tower 78 feet in height, with a white cupola. It exhibits at an ele- 
vation of 103 feet above high water a fixed white light, which 
should be visible in clear weather from a distance of 12 miles. 

Leading lights. — ^Two pairs of leading lights are exhibited for 
the purpose of leading into the river. 

The first pair, situated nearly 1 mile southward of Ponta Olinda, 
are shown from beacons, both lights being fixed white; they are in 



CAPE OORBIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVERS. 261 

line bearing 313° and visible 7 miles, but they have been reported to 
be irregular. 

The second pair of lights, shown from Tangalane Point, are each 
fixed white, and visible in clear weather from a distance of 7 miles, 
the rear light being situated 22°, distant 200 yards, from the front 
light. 

Signals. — ^There is a semaphore near the light structures on Tan- 
galane Point, and a copy of the International Code of signals is kept 
thei-e; but as it is doubtful if they are properly understood by the 
light keeper, it would be advisable, if wishing to communicate, to 
land and investigate. 

Bar. — A bank named Cavallos Marinhos extends about 3 milea 
southeastward to the 3-f athoms contour line, from the coast south- 
westward of Ponta Olinda, and from Tangalane Point, a bank of the 
same name stretches 3f miles to the southward, and is said to be 
extending; between the points of these banks is the bar, the outer 
edge of which is 4 miles southeastward of Ponta Olinda light 
beacons. 

The bar, which is from 800 to 1,000 yards in width, varies in differ- 
ent seasons, and especially after southwesterly gales; it is generally 
smooth at high water. 

Islands and banks. — ^Ilha Militao, about 1 mile northwestward 
of Ponta Olinda, is formed of mangroves, and has a conspicuous 
casuarina tree on its ^southeast side ; Banco Militao, extending about 
1^ miles eastward of the island, its east side forming the west side 
of the channel, is separated from Ponta Olinda by Olinda Channel, 
which passes between the west side of Ilha Militao and the western 
shore. 

Ilha Cavallos Marinhos (Pequena), 1^ miles northward of Ilha 
Militao, with Militao Channel and Banco Simplicio between, is low 
and covered with dense jungle, and has banks with islets on them 
extending IJ miles southward and northward nearly to the town, the 
channel being between them and the western shore. 

Channels. — Within the bar the channel trends north-northeast- 
<vard, passing close westward of the east bank of the river, and be- 
tween it and Banco Militao, and at 1^ miles within Tansralane Point 
^t turns west-southwestward, forming Militao Channel between the 
north side of Banco Militao and Banco Simplicio; from this the 
channel follows the west bank of the river close-to. 

Buoys. — A black and white horizontally striped fairway buoy, 
surmounted by a white triangle, is moored in a position approxi- 
mately 4f miles southeastward of Ponta Olinda beacons. 

Tangalane 1, a black spar buoy, having a cylindrical topmark, is 
situated on the edge of the bar, on the southwest side of the leading 
line over it. 



262 CAPE COBRIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE RIVER^. 

Cavallos Marinhos, a similar buoy, is moored about 1 mile north- 
westward of the preceding buoy, and on the southwest side of the 
leading line across the bar. 

Tangalane 2, a red spar buoy surmounted by a triangle, pointing 
downwards, is moored on the western edge of Tangalane Bank. 

Olinda, a black spar buoy, with a cylindrical topmark, is situated 
1^ miles southeastward of Ponta Olinda. 

Within Tangalane Point the channel is marked on the port hand 
by black spar buoys, surmounted by cylindrical topmarks, and on the 
starboard hand by red spar buoys with triangular topmarks. 

Outer anchorage. — Good temporary anchorage may be obtained 
in a depth of about 5 fathoms, with the rear-light structure on 
Tangalane Point bearing 338°, or from ^ mile to 1 mile eastward of 
the fairway buoy; but if remaining any time it would be better to 
anchor farther northeastward, off the edge of Tangalane Bank, as in 
thid position there is said to be less sea, tidal stream, and current. 

Beacons. — On the east bank of the river, about 1^ miles north- 
northwestward of Tangalane Point, are two beacons, about 1 cable 
apart which, in line bearing 63°, lead through Militao Channel. 

Another pair of beacons, situated on the west bank of the river, 
and li miles north-northwestward of Ilha Militao when in line bear- 
ing 314°, lead between a bank extending from the western shore and 
the southwest side of Banco Simplicio. 

The beacons and buoys are moved when necessary to meet the con- 
stant changes in the bar and in the channels. 

Depths. — The bar had depths of from 12 to 13 feet over it in 
1910, at low water, spring tides, between the first two buoys, and 
about 24 feet at high water, but these depths can not always be de- 
pended on; within the bar the depths increase, and at the entrance 
westward of Tangalane Point they are from 22 to 56 feet at low 
water, continuing thus until nearing the line of the first pair of 
beacons, but decreasing to 24 feet in Militao Channel. In the chan- 
nel along the west bank of the river they are from 20 to 40 feet, de- 
creasing to 8 and 10 feet when nearing the town. 

Pilots. — A pilot is obtainable for the river between Tangalane 
Point and the town, but not for the bar, and pilotage is compulsory 
on merchant vessels. 

Tug. — ^A small steam vessel is sometimes available for towing 

vessels. 

Directions. — Approaching Kiliman a vessel may proceed along 
the coast at a distance of from 5 to 6 miles from it, and the light 
structures and beacons, with the appearance of the river, already 
mentioned, will point it out, but unless having local knowledge the 
bar should not be attempted until it has been examined. 

Having arrived at the fairway buoy, the beacons southward of 
Ponta Olinda should be brought in line, bearing 313®, which will 



CAPE CORRIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIEE RIVERS. 268 

lead across the bar, passing northeastward of Tangalane 1 and Ca- 
vallos Marinhos buoys, and when the light structures on Tangalane 
Point come in line, bearing 22°, alter course for them, passing west- 
ward of Tangalane 2 and eastward of Olinda buoys. 

When about 1 mile from Tangalane Point a course 339° should be 
steered to pass nearly ^ mile westward of it, and this course, passing 
eastward of two black spar buoys, will lead to the line of the beacons 
on the east bank, which should be used as a stem mark, bearing 63°, 
and steering 243°, through Militao Channel, leaving the red buoys on 
the starboard and black buoys on the port hand. 

When turning on to this leading mark, the black spar buoy mark- 
ing the northeast extreme of Banco Militao should be rounded closely, 
if the in-going stream is running, to avoid being set by it to the 
northward, and, having passed to the southward of the red buoy 
marking the south extreme of Banco Simplicio, bring the beacons on 
the west bank in line bearing 314°, which will lead between the west 
side of that bank and the western shore. 

Above this the channel is about 300 yards off the western bank of 
the river, but it would be prudent for a stranger to employ a pilot, 
who could be taken on board at Tangalane Point. 

Caution. — ^The above directions and the bearings of the leading 
marks given are only in agreement with the latest information avail- 
able, and considerable changes may have taken place since that was 
received, therefore caution is necessary. It is stated that the breakers 
are a better guide to the position of the channel than the plan. 

Great caution is required if crossing the bar in a boat, as the 
breakers are treacherous, and sometimes a solitary wave coming in 
may break heavily on the bar where the water appeared to be smooth 
immediately before; this has been the cause of the loss of several 
lives. 

Anchorage. — ^There is anchorage, in a depth of 42 feet, to the 
northward of the entrance to Militao Channel and westward of the 
leading beacons on the east bank, also off the town in from 19 to 25 
feet; vessels can also anchor in almost any part of the channel. 

Landing. — ^A landing jetty, close to the customhouse and Gov- 
ernment offices, is available at all stages of the river. 

Tides. — ^It is high water, full and change, at the bar at 4 h. 37 m. ; 
springs rise 12 feet, neaps rise 7J feet. The tides are said to be 
irregular and felt for a distance of 50 miles up the river. 

Tidal streams. — The in-going stream, after running over the bar, 
when nearing Tangalane Point, sets directly on to the banks on the 
west side, rendering great caution necessary ; in the river the streams 
attain a velocity of about 3 knots. 

Current. — Outside the bar and along the coast the current gen- 
erally sets to the southwestward, at rates of from 1 knot to 2 knots^ 



264 CAPE CORBIENTES TO KILIMAN, THE ZAMBEZI AND SHIRE BIVERS. 

causing vessels at anchor off the bar to lie broadside to the swell 
and to roll considerably. 

Winds. — ^The prevailing wind off the river is from southeast to 
south during the greater part of the year, being sometimes to the 
westward of south between January and March. In October, winds 
from south-southeast to east-southeast have been found to blow 
throughout the night, lulling in the morning, but this is unusual, as 
a land wind generally springs up at night. Off the town in July 
the sea breeze from south-southeast sets in about noon, with a force 
of from 1 to 3, but during the night it is usually calm with the land 
wind in the morning. • 

Town. — The town of Kiliman, standing on the east bank of the 
river at about 10 miles above Tangalane Point, is surrounded by 
coconut palms, the church and barracks being conspicuous buildings ; 
the population of the district in 1910 was 530,482, of which number 
about 527,000 were natives. 

Communication. — ^The Union Castle and Messrs. Rennie Lines 
of steamers have regular services to Kiliman, and it is connected 
with Maquival, on the Macuse River, by a short railway about 18 
miles in length, while a railway to be constructed to the western 
frontier was commenced in 1913 ; there is a submarine cable to Mo- 
zambique, and telegraphic communication by land wires via Tete 
and Salisbury, with Fort Johnston and the general South African 
system. 

Supplies of fresh meat, bread, and vegetables are very limited, 
and no supply of water for shipping exists, while that obtained from 
wells is both scarce and bad. 

Repairs. — Slight repairs to small vessels, such as carpenters', 
blacksmiths', and calkers' work, can be effected at reasonable rates. 

Hospitals. — ^In addition to a general hospital, one for infectious 
diseases is maintained outside the town, and is attended by a Gov- 
ernment medical officer with a staff of European and native assistants. 

Trade. — ^The exports consist of oil seed, groundnuts, sesame, 
copra, rubber, beeswax, ivor}', gold dust, sugar, and native tobacco, 
and the imports of cotton and printed goods, beads, brass wire, imple- 
ments, provisions, wines, sugar, etc., while owing to the construc- 
tion of the railway a large amoxmt of material for it will be im- 
ported. A factory is capable of turning out a considerable amount 
of coconut fiber annually. 

Climate. — ^The climate is unhealthy for Europeans, although 
sometimes the temperature is not exceedingly high, as 62° F. has 
been registered in an early morning in the month of July. The rain- 
fall averages from 30 to 40 inches, being heaviest in January and 
February when rain is sometimes accompanied by a considerable 
amount of lightning; light rains occur in May, June, and November. 



CHAPTER VII. 



MOZAMBIQUE CHANNEL— KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

Coast. — ^The whole of the coast described in this chapter is Portu- 
guese territory, and the native inhabitants from Kiliman to Cape 
Delgado are chiefly of the Makua Tribe. About 14 miles northeast- 
ward of Kiliman Kiver is the first patch of casuarina trees seen on 
this coast in proceeding northeastward, the lofty trees on the inter- 
vening space being all pahns or coconut. As far as Cape Fitzwilliam, 
nearly 90 miles from Kiliman, the coast is low and sandy, with jimgle 
in the background. 

Brisk Bank. — ^The depths along this coast as a rule decrease 
regularly and very gradually on approaching the land, but there are 
several off-lying banks, as presently described, the first of these being 
a rocky bank of 7 fathoms and perhaps less water about 12 miles 
south-southeastward of Macuse Eiver. 

Bivers. — ^There are nine rivei's between Kiliman and Cape Fitz- 
william, viz, the Macuse, Mariangoma, Mmnwodo, Likugu, Mwabala, 
Baraka, Mazemba or Mriazi, and Monuga or Kizungu. The Macuse 
and Monuga are accessible to light draft vessels. 

Macuse Biver, about 22 miles north-northeastward of Kiliman, 
has a patch of casuarina trees standing on its western point of 
entrance, the eastern point being somewhat bluff. It is navigable for 
vessels of 12 feet draft for about 25 miles from the entrance, and 
at 40 miles from its mouth it communicates with Kiliman by the 
Liquare (Likwah) River and a canal. Chico Village is about 9 miles, 
and Muxixine, a small fort about 35 miles up the river, and near the 
latter Villa Candida Village is up a small creek. 

Bar — ^Depths. — The bar, about 1 mile in breadth and nearly 5 
miles offshore, connects the banks, which sometimes break heavilyj 
at about the same distance off both points of entrance; the bar is 
subject to change. 

In 1913 the bar had a depth of 8 feet at low water and 22 feet at 
high water, springs, on the leading mark; within the bar the water 
deepens to 5 and 9 fathoms. 

Beacons and buoys. — ^Two beacons stood on the eastern bank of 
the river in 1913, and the channel across the bar was marked on the 

2fi5 



266 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

northeast side by a red buoy and on the southwest side by a black 
buoy. 

Directions. — In 1913 the leading mark for the bar was the palm 
trees inland of and projecting over the other trees on the same side 
as Namerrumo, in line with the northernmost casuarina tree on the 
western bank ; then steering a course midway between the two buoys 
on the bar until the leading beacons on the east bank come in line, 
alter course for them and continue until close to the eastern bank of 
the river, which should be followed as far as Port Macmahon. 

Anchorage in a depth of about 3^ fathoms may be obtained off 
Port Macmahon Village. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Macuse River at 
4 h. 30 m. ; springs rise 14 feet, neaps rise 12 feet. 

Tidal streams. — The in-going stream sets westward and the other 
stream in an opposite direction, and caution is necessary to guard 
against these streams when crossing the bar. 

Communication. — Maquival Fort, about 16 miles from the en- 
trance, is connected by rail with Kiliman, and there is telegraphic 
communication. 

Supplies. — Only fruit and fresh water may be procured. 

Mariangoma River, 6 miles northeastward of Macuse River, 
appears to be of no consequence, and nothing is known as to its 
entrance and bar, but about 2 miles inland it branches off eastward 
and westward, the western branch entering the Macuse at Port 
Macmahon and the eastern branch joining the Mumwodo River about 
6 miles from its entrance. This latter river, 11 miles northeastward 
of Macuse River, has a broad shallow entrance, but is also of no 
importance. 

Likug^ (Licungo) River, rising in the hills southeastward of 
Kilwa Lake, is one of the largest of the nine rivers mentioned on 
the preceding page, but its bar is stated not to be passage, and there 
is no late information concerning it; within the bar the river is said 
to be navigable for boats for 8 or 10 days' journey. 

Mazemba (Mriazi) River, about 36 miles east-northeastward 
of Likugu River, had such a shallow bar in 1899 that it could be 
waded at low water, and seemed sometimes to be unsafe for boats to 
enter, but there are depths of from 20 to 30 feet in the river as far as 
where it is joined by the Nababi ; hippopotami abound in the river. 

Several other streams run into the Mazemba, with entrances so 
wide that they are not easily distinguished from it. 

Supplies may be obtained by barter from the natives at the en- 
trance of the river. 

Port Pebane — ^Monuga (Eizungu) River. — Kizungu Island, 
which is somewhat higher than the adjacent coast, and is of a hum- 
mocky appearance, separates the entrances to Mazemba and Monuga 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 267 

Rivers, 6 miles apart, but these rivers are connected by a 2-fathom 
channel passing northward of the island; the increased height of 
Kizungu Island, and the bold appearance of Cape Fitzwilliam, render 
the entrance to Monuga Elver more easily distinguished than that 
of Mazemba River. The estuary of Monuga River is known as Port 
Pebane. 

The entrance to the river is bordered by mangroves, but on the 
east point of Kizungu Island is a clump of trees, with two tall iso- 
lated trees 400 yards from the clump, and close southward of these 
two trees is a bare-topped sand hill. Inland there is soon a change to 
fine open country, with numerous indications of the existence of 
large game. 

Shoal water extends a considerable distance oflf the river, and at 
5 miles off there is a depth of 5 fathoms; above the anchorage within 
the bar, the river soon becomes shallow, but is navigable for dhows 
and boats for about 20 miles from its mouth. 

Bar — Depths. — The bar is said to extend about 3 miles off, and 
from the last information it had a depth of 13 feet at low water, 
spring tides, but its direction and depth are continually altering. 

Beax;ons. — Two white beacons lead over the bar, the front, trian- 
gular in shape, with a diamond topmark, being situated on Ma- 
verani Point. 

The rear beacon, the lower part of which is square, and upper part 
triangular, is near the flagstaff of Pebane military station. 

Buoys. — A black and white horizontally striped conical fairway 
buoy, moored in a depth of 6 fathoms, on the line of the leading 
beacons. 

The jjar is marked on its eastern side by a red buoy, and on its 
western side by a black buoy. 

Within the river the channel of the river is marked by three 
buoys. 

Directions. — The beacons in line do not appear to lead across the 
bar, owing to the impossibility of placing them in the requisite posi- 
tions, so that when entering, the rear beacon should be kept open west- 
ward of the front beacon, passing between the red buoy on the stiir- 
board and the black buoy on the port hand ; it is stated that, as sh(jal 
water extends from the southwest side of the entrance, Maverani 
Point should be rounded at from 40 to 50 yards distant, the ihree 
buoys pointing out the channel. 

Anchorage. — Within the entrance is a fine landlocked anchorage 
in depths of from 8 to 9 fathoms, which is said to be the only port of 
any consequence between Kiliman and Angoche Rivers, and perhaps 
superior to either. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Monuga River at 
4 h. 30 m. ; springs rise 13i feet. 



268 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

Cape Fitzwillianiy about 5 miles eastward of Monuga River, 
is a remarkable bluff, composed of yellow earth cliffs, with a few 
rocks around them on the beach. This cape and Cape Edward are 
the most remarkable points along this part of the coast. 

Light. — On Cape Fitzwilliam is a square iron tower, 30 feet in 
height, which exhibits, at an elevation of 165 feet above high water, a 
white flashing light, visible in clear weather from a distance of 19 
miles. 

Cape Edward, a bluff formed of red earth cliffs, with a sandy 
beach and a few rocks at the base of the cliffs, is 6 miles northeast- 
ward of Cape Fitzwilliam, the land between being very low, -with 
Mlai River about midway. 

Coast. — From Cape Edward to Macalonga Point (Ras Nelide), 
about 46 miles eastward, the coast is nearly straight, and between 
these points are the Namanue and Mlela streams entering the sea on 
either side of Yusi Island, while 9 miles farther eastward the Laura 
and the Mumbazi or Maravoni have one mouth ; in the remaining 32 
miles are the Molugwi, Mwalaka, Blanche, and Eredni. 

Between Eredni River and Macalonga Point, the coast consists 
of low sand hills with scattered trees, and on the northern side of the 
Eredni, within its mouth, is a red cliff which may serve to distin- 
guish it. Little is known of the above-mentioned streams, and this 
stretch of coast has been but sparsely sounded. 

Namanue (Yusi) River, the western mouth of the Mlela, is 
fronted by a bar over which there are apparently two channels, 
divided by a breaker, the eastern channel being that used; within, 
the river widens considerably, with room and sufficient water for 
small vessels. 

The depth on the bar at low water is 6^ feet, so that vessels of 13 
feet can cross it, and the anchorage in the river is used by small 
coasting steamers, as there are depths within of from 9 to 29 feet. 

Beacon. — A triangular beacon stands on the eastern side of the 
entrance to the river. 

Directions.:— A vessel intending to enter the river should anchor 
outside the bar to ascertain the exact position of the center breaker, 
also, if possible, to buoy the channel. When entering the river a 
dead tree eastward of the beacon should be steered for 20®, passing 
the breakers in the middle from 50 to 100 yards off, leaving them 
on the port hand, and then altering course to 346° for the beacon, 
continuing until a little more than 200 yards from the shore, when 
steer 334° for the anchorage. 

Anchorage off the bar may be obtained in a depth of 8 fathoms, 
with Cape Edward bearing 262°, distant nearly 14 miles. Off Yusi 
village there is anchorage space for one vessel in a depth of 14 feet, 
over a muddy bottom. 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 269 

Tides. — Springs rise llj feet. The tidal streams have velocities 
of from 4 to 5 knots, and it is said that the bar is smoother with the 
in-going stream. 

Village. — Yusi village, situated about f mile northward of the 
mouth of the river, may be known by a white house ; there is a small 
garrison, and mangrove bark is exported. 

Mlela River has a bar extending about 900 yards off its mouth, 
the channel over it being somewhat narrow and winding; little is 
known of the navigation of the river, except that it is connected with 
the Mumbazi River by Icaloane Canal, and that a network of water- 
ways exists between it and Moma River, about 60 miles northeast- 
ward, and are navigable by boats. Anchorage off the river is not 
recommended. The depth on the bar at low water is 5 feet. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at 4 h. 15 m. ; springs 
rise 9f feet ; neaps rise 7 J feet. 
• Village. — Yudi village, with a small garrison, is in a small creek 
on the west bank of the river, about 1 mile from the mouth. 

Mumbazi River, about 18 miles east-northeastward of Mlela 
River, is fronted by a bar, and has an island lying in its mouth, with 
a sandbank extending from it to the entrance, which is thus divided 
into two. The northwest bank of the river is high, and has luxuriant 
vegetation, the whole surrounding land being fertile; the southeast 
bank is low, marshy land, intersected by mangrove-fringed creeks. 

The depth on the bar at low water in 1913 was 12 feet, and the 
river has been entered by fairly large vessels. 

Beacons. — Two beacons, when in line, lead over the bar, the 
front beacon, white triangular, 16J feet high, and surmounted by a 
ball, being on Ponta Almadia, the eastern point of entrance. 

The rear beacon, white rectangular, and 16J feet high, is situated 
in Cacoane village near the mouth of the river. 

Buoys. — A black and white horizontally striped conical buoy is 
moored in a depth of 6 fathoms as a fairway buoy. 

The southern side of the bar is marked by a black cylindrical buoy. 

Directions. — From the fairway buoy the entrance should be 
steered for, and when the black buoy is passed, keep to the westward, 
entering by the channel between the breakers and the shore. 

Frimeira Islands — Shoals. — The Primeira and Angoche Islands 
and shoals are on the outer edge of a coral bank fronting the shore 
at a distance varying from 5 to 25 miles. The channels between 
them and the mainland have depths of from 7 to 11 fathoms, the 
deepest water being near the islands. 

Pantaloon Shoals, the southwestemmost of these groups, are 
about 2 miles in extent, and, besides the shoalest spot of 3^ fathoms, 
situated about 180°, distant 23 miles from the entrance to Mazemba 



270 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

River, have two patches of 6 fathoms. A 6-fathom patch lies 5 
miles eastward of the 3^-fathom shoal; these shoals are steep-to. 

Acorn Patch, on which the British naval vessel Acorn touched 
lightly in 1840, is situated about 21J miles 180° from Cape Fitz- 
william ; it has depths of from 9 to 13 fathoms about 1 mile to the 
southward, and a sounding of 5^ fathoms was obtained near it by the 
British naval vessel Dart in 1852, but the sea was breaking a short 
distance from this. It has not been closely examined, and should be 
avoided. 

David Shoals consist of two rocky patches, the northeastern, of 
3^ fathoms, being nearly 21 miles east-northeastward of Acorn 
Patch and 23 miles 150° from Yusi Island ; the southwestern patch, 
of 8 fathoms, lies about 3J miles in a southwest direction from the 
northeastern one. 

Silva (Mahiazo) Island, a bare sandy islet about 10 feet high, 
is the southwesternmost of the Primeira Islands; it is surrounded by 
reefs extending about 1,600 yards from it. The depth between Silva 
and Fogo Islands is about 14 or 15 fathoms. 

Fogo (Malibono) Island, 5 miles northeastward of Silva 
Island, the channel between having 14 or 15 fathoms, is 30 feet high, 
with a few trees about 65 feet high on its northern end, the other 
parts being covered with shrub; it is surrounded by a reef which 
extends about 1 mile, except on the northern side, where it is bolder. 

Anchorage may be obtained, in depths of from 5 to 6 fathoms, at 
i mile from the beach on the west side, or a vessel may anchor in 
10 fathoms, at 600 or 800 yards from the beach, with the center of the 
island bearing from 156° to 178°. When standing from the main- 
land toward the anchorage, the soundings suddenly deepen from 10 
to 20 fathoms, and again quickly shoal to 10 fathoms at about i mile 
from the island. 

Crown Island, 20 feet high, and composed of sand with a little 
grass on it, is about 4 miles northeastward of Fogo, and is surrounded 
by reefs i mile wide. The channel between Fogo and Crown Island, 
and also between the latter and Casuarina Island, is clear, with from 
10 to 12 fathoms water. 

Shoal. — About 7 miles east-southeastward of Fogo Island the 
British steamer Sokotra, in 1880, passed over the edge of shoal 
groimd in a depth of 8 fathoms, breakers at the time being observed 
about i mile distant to the westward. 

Casuarina (Tanibi) Island, lying nearly 10 miles northeast- 
ward of Crown Island, was formerly covered with casuarina trees, 
which were high, the tops being about 80 feet above the sea, partic- 
ularly near its northeastern end; the few trees remaining are not 
allowed to be cut for fear of destroying a useful landmark. The reef 
surrounding the island extends from 2 to 3 miles northeastward, 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 271 

southward, and southwestward, with a clear passage about 1 mile 
wide between it and the reefs of Epidendron Island. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Casuarina Island at 
4 h. 15 m. ; springs rise 10 feet. 

Current. — The current or stream "generally runs southwestward, 
but occasionally there is a set northeastward. 

Epidendron (Maloa) Island^ the northeasternmost of the Pri- 
meira group, lying about 6 miles southward of Macalonga Point, 
has on its northern part a few casuarina trees about 80 feet high, 
but the southern part is covered with short shrubs only; it may be 
seen from a distance of about 15 miles. Like Casuarina Island, it is 
surrounded by an extensive reef except on its northwestern side. 

Anchorage may be obtained in from 4 to 11 fathoms on the north- 
west side of the island about 600 yards from it; at about 400 yards 
the depth is 2f fathoms or less water. 

Barraco Reef lies about 3 miles northeastward of Epidendron 
Island, and another i^ocky patch, on which the sea breaks, is 2 miles 
farther in the same direction, but these dangers do not appear to 
have been examined. 

Macalonga Point (Bas Nelide), low and sandy, has a reef 
extending eastward as well as south-southeastward from it. 

Casuarina Boad^ between the island and the mainland, is the 
best anchorage along the coast, but shoal water, with depths under 
3 fathoms, extends 4i miles south-southeastward of Macalonga Point 
on the east side of the anchorage. 

Directions. — If entering from the northward, Casuarina Island 
should be kept open westward of Epidendron Island, bearing 220®, 
to pass northwestward of Barraco Keef and the reef eastward of it ; 
the depths are regular. 

Anchorage, protected from southeast winds, may be obtained in 
a depth of 11 fathoms, about 1,600 yards from the west side of 
Casuarina Island, or at about ^ mile from it in 3^ fathoms, with the 
middle of the island bearing 135°. 

Coast — ^Rivers. — Between Macalonga Point and Angoche, a dis- 
tance of nearly 70 miles northeastward, the coast is somewhat low, 
covered with grass and detached clumps of casuarina trees, and bor- 
dered by sandy beaches; inland, between Moma and Laridi Rivers, 
is the Serra Matadene, a chain reaching a height of about 1,100 feet. 

Besides some minor openings on this coast are the Ligonya, Moma, 
Mwaladi, Laridi, Namakuti, and Natiti Rivers, the last mentioned 
being the southern mouth of the Angoche. 

Mount Cockburn (Mlunguji)^ about 27 miles northwestward 
of the entrance to Moma River and the only mountain seen on this 
part of the coast, is a remarkable cone of considerable height. 



272 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELQADO. 

Moma Biver^ about 18 miles northeastward of Macalonga Point, 
may be known by Mount Cockburn, and the Serra Matadane, Moma 
Island, and Ponta Caldeira being also guides to its entrance. It is 
the most important river on this part of the coast and has a wide 
mouth, expanding within, and having several tributaries rimning 
into it, the eastern of these being the Cocola River, which is navigable 
for 6 miles. 

Bar — Depths. — ^The bar at the entrance of the Moma River is a 
long and heavy one, the channel, about i mile in width, lying be- 
tween two banks extending from the two entrance points. The bar 
connecting the outer part of the banks has a least depth of 6 feet at 
low water, spring tides, of 15 feet at within one hour of and 17 feet 
%t high water, increasing to 5 and 6 fathoms within the river, where 
a tortuous channel, amongst drying sand banks, leads to the Por- 
tuguese military station of Moma, about 3 miles from the entrance 
points, to which a vessel of 13 feet draft can ascend and anchor in 4 
fathoms. 

Directions. — If the tide suits, the early morning is the best time 
to cross the bar, but there are no navigational aids; the following 
directions may be of assistance : The eastern side of the channel should 
be kept, when entering, and having brought the mouth of the river 
well open, steer 270° for a white fence that will be seen about mid- 
way between the breakers on the reefs extending from each side. 

Edge over toward the south side of the entrance, and then follow 
the east bank of the river until abreast a white triangular patch, and 
from this cross to the opposite bank, steering for a conspicuous tree 
until up to Moma military station. A vessel intending to enter the 
Cocola should keep toward the western bank before coming abreast 
of the white fence. 

Anchorages. — ^In 1875 the British naval vessel Thetis anchored 
off this river, with Mount Cochburn bearing 308°, and Ponta Caldeira 
47°, in 9 fathoms, sand and mud, good holding ground. The ship 
rolled heavily, being kept broadside to the swell by the prevailing 
current which at this season (August) always sets along the coast 
to the southwestward, with more or less strength. The heavy rolling 
sea from the southward, at times, had more the character of rollers 
on a bar than that which might be expected in an open roadstead. 

The anchorage off Moma is about 200 yards in extent, with depths 
at low water of from 11 to 12 feet ; there is also anchorage near the 
east bank, a little above the white triangular mark. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Moma River en- 
trance, at 4 h. 80 m. ; springs rise 10 feet. 

Villages. — Moma, the military station, situated on the east bank 
of the river, is surrounded by plantations and villages. 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 273 

. Trade. — ^There is a little trade with Parapat, in Angoche River, 
two small Portuguese colonial steamers calling at more or less regular 
intervals. 

Fonta Caldeira, about 15 miles east-northeastward of Moma 
River, is rather higher than the adjoining coast, and is fronted by a 
ledge of flat rocks, dry at low water, with a large black rock lying 
about i mile northeastward of the point. On the coast about 7 miles 
northeastward of Ponta Caldeira is a conspicuous hill nearly 250 
feet high, which may be seen from about 20 miles seaward. 

Laridi River^ 14 miles northeastward of Ponta Caldeira, has a 
depth of 3 feet on its bar at low water, and small vessels enter and 
anchor off Talanane village within its mouth ; the river is connected 
by two waterways, with the Namakuti River, about 3 miles north- 
eastward. 

Ponta Angoche, about 25 miles northeastward of Ponta Caldeira, 
is a low projecting white sandy point, on which are a number or 
small sand hillocks, conspicuous from a considerable distance; it is 
bordered by a dry sand bank in the form of a crescent at a distance 
of about 1 mile. 

Westward of the point is Natiti (Kwilua) River, much frequented 
by coasting vessels which find good sheltered anchorage off Munuca 
village within the mouth, the entrance channel being between two 
sand banks, the limits of which are well defined at low water, when 
there is no difficulty in entering. 

Ilhas Angoche — ^Moma Island (Fungu Koru) , lying 8 miles 
southward of Ponta Caldeira, is a sandy island about 20 feet high, 
surrounded by reef extending more than i mile southward from it. 

A 5-fathom bank was reported in 1843 to lie 9 miles southwest- 
ward of Moma Island, and another small bank is charted 2^ miles 
from the island in the same direction. 

Caution. — The soundings between Moma and Caldeira Islands 
are irregular, and with Caldeira and Hurd Islands in line, the water 
shoals in one place to 7 fathoms, the bottom being plainly visible; 
it is possible that less water may exist. 

Ilha Caldeira (Eirubi)^ lying nearly 12 miles eastward of 
Ponta Caldeira, is small, sandy, and has a few casuarina trees; it is 
surrounded by reefs extending off about 1 mile, except on its northern 
side. There is tolerable anchorage northwestward of the island, 
about f mile from the shore, in a depth of about 8 fathoms, over 
coral, sand, and mud. 

Hurd Island (Njovu), lying nearly 6 miles northeastward of 
Ilha Caldeira, is low, sandy, and covered with trees; reefs extend 
about li miles from all sides except the north. There is anchorage 
39511—16 ^18 



274 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

sheltered from south and southeast winds, in depths of from 6 J to 
8 fathoms, about 400 yards from the northwest side of the island. 

Michael Beef (Fungu Namakuti), lying 5 miles northeast- 
ward of Hurd Island, and about the same distance from the main- 
land, is a dangerous reef of rocks uncovered at low water, and IJ 
miles in extent, which should be given a wide berth. 

Walker Island (Puge-Puge), lying 2 J miles south-southeast- 
ward of Ponta Angoche, at high water shows only as a small sandy 
cay, 6 or 8 feet above the sea ; except on the north it is surrounded 
by reefs which, in some places, extend If miles. 

Mafamede Island (Eisiwa Sultani Hassan)^ lying about 8^ 
miles northeastward of Walker Island, and nearly abreast of the 
mouth of the Rio Angoche, is a low sandy island, about 700 yards 
in length, with a group of casuarina trees about 80 feet high, and 
may be seen from 12 to 15 miles distant ; a coral reef extends from 
li to 2 miles except on the west side, and on its northwestern side 
the shore is fairly steep and the landing good. 

The British naval vessel Brisk found good, safe, but not very 
smooth anchorage, in a depth of 10 fathoms, with the center of the 
island bearing 134°, distant 1,800 yards, and the extremes of reef, dry 
at low water, bearing 89° and 168° but a berth nearer the island may 
be chosen if desired. 

Caution. — It is very desirable that the trees on this and similar 
islands should not be cut down for firewood, as they are extremely 
useful in showing their position. 

A sand patch, 100 yards in extent, with a least depth of 3 fath- 
oms, lies li miles northwestward of the center of Mafamede Island^ 
and another patch with 5 fathoms lies 600 yards eastward of it. 

Bio Angoche (Mluli), the entrance to which, about 3 miles in 
width, is situated to the northward of Ilha Angoche, has some large 
trees on its southern point of entrance, 3 miles southward of which 
is another clump of trees, with a large village between ; the land on 
the north side is a low, sandy cliff, surmounted by trees, but is some- 
what higher than the south side. 

Janga and Busio Islands, lying off the northeast side of Ilha 
Angoche, on the south side of the entrance, have an extensive sandy 
bank, more than 2 miles in width, extending for about 3 miles 
eastward of them, and from the northern point of entrance, on which 
is a single casuarina tree, a sandy bank extends fully 3 miles east- 
southeastward, the bar and entrance channel being between the 
edges of these banks. 

Bar — Depths. — ^The bar of the river, which extends nearly 4 
miles east-southeastward of the northern entrance point, is about 
600 yards in width, and in 1907 was reported to be shoaling, there be- 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 275 

ing then only a depth of 6 feet on it at low water, spring tides, on 
the line of the leading marks. 

Within the river the depths increase to 9 fathoms at the anchorage 
northward of Busio Island, and at 4^ miles from the bar the river 
bifurcates, both branches being wide and deep ; the southern of these, 
maintaining a depth of 4 fathoms for about 20 miles, is said to be 
navigable for small craft for a distance of 150 miles. 

Beacons. — Two white pyramidal-shaped beacons 40 feet high are 
situated on the north side of the entrance, the inner beacon standing 
on a hill northeastward of Parapato, while the outer beacon is near 
the beach; they are about 2.3 miles apart and in line 302°. 

Buoys. — ^In 1907' the bar was marked by two buoys, the outer a 
small red can buoy with a red topmark, and the inner, on the northern 
edge of the south bank, was a black cylindrical buoy. 

Sexnapliore. — A semaphore is situated near Parapato, about 1 
mile southwestward of the inner beacon. 

Pilots. — The services of two pilots are available, and no stranger 
should attempt to cross the bar without one. 

Outer anchorage. — ^The outer anchorage is close outside the bar, 
in depths of from 4 to 5 fathoms, with the northern side of Busio 
Island bearing 275°, or farther to the southward, but not far from 
the edge of the bank ; large vessels anchor farther out in a depth of 
about 7 fathoms. 

Directions. — ^Mafamede Island, bearing 161° will lead to a posi- 
tion off the bar, keeping a good lookout for any appearance of break- 
ers, as nearly 1 mile outside it ^are patches of comparatively shoal 
water, which sometimes break, but as they can usually be seen they 
may be avoided ; breakers mark the bar on each side, but only with 
a moderate swell, and near high water the bar is generally smooth 
all over. 

The leading beacons in line bearing 302° should lead across the 
bar, between the red and black buoys, and then bring the single casu- 
arina tree on the northern point of entrance in line with a large red 
patch on the semaphore hill, about 294° ; after crossing the bar keep 
toward the northern shore of the river and pass into the nothern 
branch, keeping eastward of a rocky patch on the extreme of shoal 
water extending from the western side, and nearly in mid-channel 
of its entrance, sometimes marked by a buoy. 

A winding boat channel westward of Busio Island, marked by 
breakers on each side, may be used advantageously when leaving the 
river in moderate weather, and at the west of that island is a sheltered 
place, with smooth water, where boats can lie alongside a steep sandy 
beach in a depth of 3 fathoms. 

Caution is required if it should be considered necessary to sound 
the bar, as it is sometimes dangerous to do so. 



276 KILIMAX TO CAPE DELGADO. 

Anchorage. — The anchorage for vessels of war at Parapato is 
northward of the landing pier, and that for merchant vessels to the 
southward <.f the same. Vessels in quarantine anchor northward of 
the pier, clear of the anchorage for vessels of war, as directed by the 
port authorities. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in the entrance to 
Angoche River, at 4 h. m. ; springs rise 11 feet. 

Settlement. — Parapato (Antonio-Ennes), on the eastern bank 
of the river just within the northern branch, is the chief Portuguese 
settlement on the river and the residence of the military commandant, 
there being barracks. Angoche, the former capital, is in a creek 
inaccessible for boats before half tide, unhealthily situated on the 
southern bank, about 20 miles up the river. 

Communication. — Coasting steamers touch irregularly, and 
there is telegraphic communication. 

Supplies. — Cattle, goats, fowls, eggs, and fruits can be procured 
from the natives of the various villages on the banks at reasonable 
prices. 

Trade. — Rubber, ivory, ebony, seeds, gum copal, coconut oil, coir, 
and groundnuts are the products, and in the year 1910 the port was 
visited by 139 vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 78,081 tons. 

Winds. — ^The usual sea breeze varies in direction from east-north- 
east to southwest, according to the monsoon, and in November it 
blows freshly from east-northeast, falling light at night, and chang- 
ing to north-northeast in the early morning; at this season of the 
year strong southwest winds with a heavy swell, and rainy weather, 
occasionally opcur, this being the commencement of the rainy season. 

Coast. — From Rio Angoche the coast, trending northeastward for 
nearly 20 miles to the south pouit of Rio Antonio, consists of sand 
hills, increasing in height to the latter river, where attaining from 
300 to 400 feet in height, they have several patches of red sand. The 
land in the vicinity of Rio Antonio is remarkable, as these sand hills, 
partly covered with vegetation, and the north point of the river 
which is low and sandy, form a striking contrast to two rocky points 
4 or 5 miles southward of the river. 

Namduma Hills, from 2,000 to 3,000 feet high, are about 17 
miles north-northwestward of the entrance to Rio Antonio, and 
should be conspicuous objects from seaward. 

San Antonio (Veve, or Jamuguva) Bank is a coral bank, 
about 2J miles in length, in a noilheast and opposite direction, by 
IJ miles in width; it has some sand patches, dry at low water, on its 
southwestern end, which -are steep-to. The drying portion is charted 
12 miles, 176°, from the south point of Rio Antonio, but it is reported 
to lie 4J miles, 264°, from that position. 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 277 

About midway between San Antonio Bank and the shore is a 
shoal of 3 fathoms or less water, and about 5 or 6 miles off the coast, 
abreast of Rio Antonio, are several patches of 5 fathoms, where the 
bottom is distinctly visible. 

Caution. — At night it is advisable not to stand into a less depth 
than 20 fathoms between Angoche and Mozambique, as the banks 
are mostly steep-to and the coast is but imperfectly known. 

Rio Antonio (Sangage), about 20 miles northeastward of Rio 
Angoche, may be known by the characteristics of the land near its 
mouth, already described, and by Namduma Hills. Its entrance is 
fronted by a bar apparently about 1 mile in breadth, vwith from 1 
foot to 3 feet only at low water, and probably subject to change. 
Within the bar the river turns sharply to the southward, with depths 
of from 2 to 4 fathoms. 

Directions. — ^The tamarisk trees on the northern point of en- 
trance bearing 277°, are said to lead in the best water over the bar, 
and when the north side of the entrance bears 270°, the course should 
be gradually altered to the southwestward, but the channel is only 
about J mile in width, not buoyed and there is no late information. 
A pilot may be obtained at the Rio Angoche for this port, but 
though his local knowledge may be useful, his pilotage should not 
be relied on. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Rio Antonio En- 
trance at 4 h. 15 m. ; springs rise 13 feet, neaps 10 feet. 

Settlement. — ^About 3 miles within the entrance, on the southern 
shore, is the settlement of Shangaji, which carries on some trade with 
Mozambique, similar to that from the Rio Angoche, but of less 
extent. 

Water of excellent quality may be procured here from springs 
close to the river banks. 

Meige (Kinga) Biver, about 6 miles northeastward of Antonio 
River, has such a narrow entrance that it can scarcely be dis- 
tinguished even at low water, but the flagstaff at the military station, 
and a small steep declivity on the south bank, point out its position ; 
it is connected by telegraph and by road with Angoche and Mozam- 
bique. 

Coast. — Huddart Shoal is 20 miles northeastward of Rio An- 
tonio, and nearly 6 miles offshore; Capt. Vidal obtained a depth of 
3J fathoms over it, but there appeared to be every probability of less 
water, as the sea sometimes broke on the shoal. 

Namalungo Point, 26 miles northeastward of Rio Antonio, is 
a well-wooded sandy bluff, with a reef of rocks and sand fringing it 
to a distance of about ^ mile. From abreast of the point, the distant 
land behind appears rather high, and that close to the beach low and 
sandy, with a growth of casuarina trees. 



278 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

Moginkwale (Mug^nquale) Biver^ about 5 miles northward 
of Namalungo Point, is entered between Funco and Murano Points, i 
mile apart ; a clump of casuarina trees is situated about i mile north- 
ward of the latter point. 

Bax — Depths. — Sand banks front both points of entrance, reduc- 
ing the width of the navigable channel to about 200 yards. In 1887, 
a least depth of only 2 or 3 feet was found on its bar at law water, 
and of 2^ fathoms at high water, springs, but there were often heavy 
rollers on the bar without any apparent cause. 

Directions. — According to the plan the western side of the clump 
of casuarina trees bearing 345° leads across the bar, but the direction 
of the bar and channel probably changes, so that caution is necessary. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Moginkwale River 
at 4 h. m. ; springs rise 13 feet. 

Settlement. — The Portuguese have a military station here. 

Chatapoota (Moginkwale) Shoal, lying off the entrance to 
Moginkwale River, and about 5 miles from the line of coast, consists 
of several rocky patches, on which the sea generally breaks; Macupe 
Shoal also belongs to this cluster, the extent of which is not accu- 
rately known, but there is a channel with depths of from 6 to 10 
fathoms between them and the shore, passing outside the Barracouta 
Point Shoal but inside the Naquil and Bajona Shoals. 

Barracouta Point, about 6J miles eastward of Moginkwale 
Entrance, is low, overgrown with casuarina trees, one of which ap- 
pears like a vessel, but the point is not easily distinguished except in 
the early part of the day, as there are other casuarina trees to the 
westward of it. 

The point forms the northern point of Barawa or Manamitya 
River, which appears barred, and is of no importance; a horseshoe 
reef, extending nearly 2 miles from Barracouta Point, has 7 or 8 feet 
on some parts of it, but within the horseshoe, which opens north- 
westward, there are 5 fathoms. 

Naquil Shoal, of unknown extent, lies about 6^ miles eastward 
of Barracouta Point ; in 1875 the British naval vessel Thetis anchored 
in 15 fathoms over hard sandy bottom, about 1 mile eastward of 
Naquil Shoal, and found the bottom in the locality to be generally 
foul. 

Tidal streams. — ^The south-going stream is that of the rising 
tide, the other stream setting in an opposite direction; the streams 
turned regularly. 

Bajona Shoal, lying about 8 miles northeastward of Barracouta 
Point, and about 5 miles offshore, is a patch of rocks of unknown ex- 
tent having 5 fathoms water or less, with 14 fathoms close-to. 

Muite Biver — ^Infusse Bar. — ^Muite River is entered about 3^ 
miles north-northeastward of Barracouta Point, over Infusse Bar, 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 279 

which, being the most important entrance, sometimes gives its name 
to the lagoon system within ; the entrance is between Tete Point, the 
northwest point of the island of the same name, and Sena Point, the 
southwest extreme of Timone Island, nearly 600 yards apart. 

The Muite and other streams within the bar are usually navigable 
for dhows at high water, though crossing the bar is attended with 
some danger at all times. These streams are intersected by creeks 
lined with mangrove bushes, and divided by large tracts of low land, 
partly inundated, on which are several villages surrounded by culti- 
vated land. Mokolivolane, on one of the southern streams, is appa- 
rently the principal village. 

Beacon. — ^A beacon stands on Tete Island. 

Bar — ^Deptlis. — The bar, which, from its breakers, is considered 
to be exceedingly dangerous, has about 4 or 5 feet water in a very 
tortuous channel at low water, and about 16 feet at high water 
springs. The beacon on Tete Island bearing 215° aparently leads 
over the outer part of the bar. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Infusse Bar, at 11 h. 
55 m. ; springs rise 12 feet. 

Nakibu Shoal. — From about 4 miles northward of Infusse Bar, 
the coast is fronted by foul ground, with patches of 1 fathom or 
less for a distance of 9 miles, at which distance it extends about 5 
miles offshore, having at its northeast extreme Nakibu Shoal, a cluster 
of rocks 300 yards in extent, in parts uncovered at low water, and 
generally breaking heavily; its eastern extreme is 6J miles eastward 
of Mamarrema River. Ponta Bajone bearing 315° apparently leads 
well northeastward of it. 

Ponta Bajone (Ras Mtende), low, sandy, and covered with 
trees to the beach, should be given a wide berth, and the coast north- 
westward from Ponta Bajone to Ras Kisarahondo (Mudge Point) 
is foul and apparently shallow. 

Mokambo Bay is contained between Bajone and Sancoul Points, 
nearly 9 miles apart, the coast on both sides being foul for probably 
1^ miles from the shore, and the reefs are steep-to; there is no bottom 
with 50 fathoms within ^ mile of the northern reefs and a depth of 
450 fathoms in the entrance of the bay, so that it is unfit for anchor- 
ing, but the spacious basin of Port Mokambo, presently described, is 
at its head. 

Mudge Beef^ steep-to, extends about IJ miles northeastward of 
Ras Kisarahondo, and, being in the fairway of the entrance, should 
be passed with caution. 

Feel Bank^ on the north side, extending about IJ miles south- 
ward of some remarkable-looking rocks on the beach westward of 
Sancoul Point, is steep-to. 



280 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

Port Mokambo (Kivolani Bay) , an almost circular basin about 
4 miles in diameter, is entered between Eas Kisarahondo and Bas 
Fugu (Mokambo Point), the entrance channel being about IJ miles 
in width; it affords anchorage for large vessels, with ample room. 
Bas Fugu, the south extreme of an island formed by Monabo River, 
consists of low sand hills. 

The south shore, from Ras Kisarahondo, trends south westward for 
about IJ miles to Pangage Point, and between the latter and Mutaboa 
Point, 4 miles westward, a bay is formed, receding 2 miles to the 
southward; the land appears to be low, with numerous villages and 
extensive coconut plantations. 

On the north side, between Ras Fugu and Point Lopo, a bay, 4^ 
miles in width and receding 2 miles to the northivard, is formed, the 
shores, which are fairly high, being fringed with mangroves, with, 
near the middle of its head, Mokambo Hills, 135 feet high, the most 
conspicuous marks in the vicinity. The Mundomonho, Mualhala, 
and Mitique Rivers flow into the head of the port through a common 
entrance about 600 yards in width, between Mutaboa and Lopo 
Points; the Mundomonho River has a depth of about 3 feet in its 
entrance at low water. 

Dangers. — Shore Bank, imder 3 fathoms, extends about J mile 
off between Ras Kisarahando and Pangage Point, with a reef ex- 
tending J mile westward of the latter, the extreme being Calajulo or 
William Point, a small coral bank drying at low water; shore bank 
also extends about f mile off, in places, in the bay on the south 
side, while from the head of the port it stretches 1| miles into the 
port, but it is only ^ mile off in the northern bay. 

Three detached shoals are situated in the middle of the port, the 
outer, in mid-channel of the inner part of the entrance, with a least 
depth of 3 feet, being about 1,1 miles northwestward of Pangage 
Point ; the other shoals west-southwestward and west-northwestward 
from the preceding, having 4 J fathoms and 1 fathom, respectively. 
The depths in the entrance channel are from 19 to 44 fathoms and 
in the port from 13 to 25 fathoms, but in some parts they are irreg- 
ular. 

Directions. — Mokambo Hills bearing 270°, lead about i mile 
southward of Peel Bank and the same distance northward of Mudge 
Reef, and when St. George Island Lighthouse comes in line with 
Sancoul Point, bearing 62°, steer about 235° to pass 400 yards off 
Ras Fugu. 

If proceeding to the northern part steer midway between Ras Fugu 
and the 3-foot shoal in mid-channel not bringing Ras Fugu to bear 
to the southward of 107°, to avoid the shore bank at the head of 
the northern bay ; if entering the southern part steer midway between 
Calajulo Point and the 3-foot shoal to an anchorage. 



KIUMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 281 

Anchorage may be taken up in depths of from 10 to 29 fathoms, 
clear of the 3-foot shoal, or off Mokambo Point in from 5 to 8 
fathoms ; in the northern part anchorage may be obtained with Lungo 
Kiver bearing 0°, and Ras Fugu, 107°. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Port Mokambo at 
4 h. 20 HL ; springs rise 14 feet. 

Villages. — Muchelia (Mochila) is the most important village 
near the Lunga River, on the north, and Kivolani and Lunga on the 
south, shore, the latter, near Mutaboa Point, has a garrison. 

Supplies of cattle, poultry, fish, vegetables, and water can be 
obtained at most of the villages. 

Mozambique Harbor^ formed in the outer part of Mossoril Bay, 
which inlet extends about 8 miles northwestward of Mozambique 
Island, is immediately within a line joining Sancoul Point and Ponta 
Cabecinha, the two points of entrance to the bay. 

Sancoul Ppint has a few huts on it, and between it and Point 
Quisumbo, 34 miles north-northwestward, the land is low, with man- 
groves and sand hills, from 14 to 17 feet high; inland are palms 
and mango trees. 

Northeast side. — Between Cabo Cabeceira and Conducia, the 
latter about 5 miles to the northward, and to which the coast grad- 
ually rises, a coral flat extends from 1 mile to 2J miles off, surround- 
ing at its greatest distance from the shore, Tree Island. 

Tree Island (Sete Paus) , the northernmost and largest of three 
islands lying on a sand bank, fully 2 miles in length in a north and 
south direction, and just covered at high water, has a few trees grow- 
ing on its northeast end; the south extreme of the bank on which 
these islands stand, is about 1^ miles eastward of Cabo Cabeceira, 
and about 600 yards within the edge of the coral flat. 

Cabo Cabeceira, about | mile northeastward of Ponta Cabecinha, 
is a low, bluff cliff with trees on it, and the northeast shore, between 
Ponta Cabecinha and Sao Joao, If miles west-northwestward, forms 
Cabeceira Pequena, a small bay dry at low water, while northwest- 
ward of Sao Joao is Cabeceira Grande, a somewhat similar bay; 
from this the northeast shore trends westward for 2J miles to Mapete 
village. 

Dangers — ^West side. — Sancoul Sands, covering near high water, 
extend IJ miles eastward from the west shore, between Sancoul Point 
and Point Quisumbo, and eastward of the sands is Mozambique 
Flat, an extensive coral bank, with depths under 3 fathoms, its 
southern edge stretching eastward for 4^ miles from Sancoul Point 
to San Jago Island ; and its eastern edge, trending north-northwest- 
ward, for 4 miles to the northeast extreme of Mozambique Island, 
from which the northern edge takes a westerly direction to Point 
Quisumbo. 



282 EILIMAK TO GAPE DELOADO. 

Mozambique Flat has in most places from 7 to 8 feet at low water, 
spring tides, but the sea generally breaks heavily on its southern edge 
between Sancoul Point and San Jago Island. 

San Jago (Sena) Island, about i mile in extent, and wooded, 
is surrounded by a reef which extends 600 yards from it in places. 

Mozambique Island, nearly If miles in length in a northwest 
and opposite direction, with a general width of about 400 yards, is 
low, formed of coral, and occupies the northeast end of Mozam- 
bique Bank Flat. Lorenzo Fort is on a rock of the southwest end 
of Mozambique Island, and is joined to it at low water by a coral 
flat. 

Northeast side. — Harpshell Sands, covering near high water, 
extend nearly 1 mile south-southwestward of Ponta Cabecinha, and 
If miles in the same direction from Cabeceira Pequena, in Harpshell 
Spits, two pointed tongues of the sands, which show plainly at low 
water, and may sometimes be traced by the eye at high water; it is 
stated that with southerly winds these spits extend farther seaward 
than usual. 

Harpshell Sands extend about If miles south-southwestward of 
Cabeceira Grande, and from the western side of that bay join Mapete 
Sands, which stretch IJ miles south-southwestward of Mapete vil- 
lage; these sands, with shore bank under 3 fathoms beyond them, 
form the northeast side of the entrance to and of Mozambique Har- 
bor, and also the north side of Mossoril Bay. 

St. Gteorge (Goa) Island, dividing the entrance to Mozambique 
Harbor into two channels, is about i mile in extent, flat, composed 
of coral and without trees ; it is surrounded by a reef except on the 
northwest side, extending generally from 200 to 400 yards from it, 
but on the w^st side, where it is continued by bank with depths under 
3 fathoms, it stretches nearly ^ mile off. 

Light. — The light structure on St. George Island, somewhat 
resembling a church with a square, yellow tower, exhibits, at an 
elevation of 72 feet above high water a white fixed light, visible in 
clear weather from a distance of 15 miles. 

Channels. — The harbor is approached through two channels, of 
which South Channel is about 1 mile in width, between the dangers 
extending from San Jago and St. George Islands on either side, while 
North Channel, between the north side of St. George Island and the 
coral flat extending If miles southeastward of Cabo Cabeceira, is 
about a similar width. 

Leading lights. — On Sebastian Fort, at the northeast extreme of 
Mozambique Island, two fixed green leading lights are exhibited, at 
elevations of 69 and 49 feet above high water, respectively, from iron 
framework derricks, the rear framework being surmounted by a black 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 283 

triangle ; the lights should be visible in clear weather from a distance 
of 4 miles, and are in line bearing 283^ and 200 yards apart. 

Two fixed red leading lights, 3,600 yards apart, and in line bearing 
334°, are also shown, the rear from a tower on the south corner of 
the Government buildings in Cabeceira Grande, at an elevation of 
35 feet above high water, should be visible in clear weather from a 
distance of 5 miles. 

The front light, from a red and white turret on Harpshell Sands, 
is shown at an elevation of 11 feet above high water, and in clear 
weather should be seen from 4 miles. 

A fixed green light is shown from a stone beacon with red and 
white bands, situated on a small islet one cable southward of Ponta 
Cabecinha, at an elevation of 19 feet above high water. (For bear- 
ings visible, see Light List.) , 

Signal station. — Vessels can communicate by the International 
Code with a signal station at Sebastian Fort, and storm signals are 
made. 

Beacon. — A triangular beacon, -with white parallel lines, stands 
on Sebastian Fort, and under it is a broad white stripe on the fort. 

Depths. — The depths in the entrance to the South Channel are 
from 6 to 8 fathoms, but westward of St. George Island a narrow 
shoal with a least depth of 4 fathoms crosses the channel, forming a 
bar, within which the water again deepens to 6 and 9 fathoms, and 
to from 6 to 20 fathoms at the anchorage, eastward of Sebastian 
Fort. 

The depths in the entrance to the north are about the same as those 
in the South Channel, and a continuation of the same narrow shoal 
forms a bar within with a depth of 4J fathoms, after which the 
depths increase. 

Channel dangers. — ^Three coral knolls, known as A, B, and C, 
lie in a northeast and opposite direction in the channel westward 
and northwestward of St. George Island, A with 2^ fathoms 
and B with 2J fathoms being one on each side of the fairway of the 
South Channel ; C, with a least depth of 2| fathoms, is on the south 
side of the fairway of the North Channel. The positions of these 
knolls are doubtful. 

Sebastian Spit nearly surrounds the northeast extreme of Mozam- 
bique Island, extending 400 yards from the east end ; at low water it 
is often dry, and is then clearly visible. 

Leven Bank, on the northwest side of Mozambique Island, the 
harbor being formed between the shore bank of the island and the 
southern edge of the bank, is nearly 1| miles in length in an east and 
west direction, with a least depth of 1^ fathoms. 



284 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

Buoyage. — In the South Channel a red spar buoy (A), sur- 
mounted by a triangle, is moored in 5 fathoms about 1,000 yards 
southwestward of the south end of St. George Island. 

In the North Channel a red conical buoy (No. 2), surmounted by 
a triangle, is moored in 4^ fathoms, nearly 1^ miles southward of 
Ponta Cabecinha, off the extreme of the shore bank under 3 fathoms. 

Two similar buoys to the preceding, Nos. 3 and 5, mark the south- 
west edge of the bank off Harpshell Spits; they are moored in 4 and 
3^ fathoms, respectively. 

A black buoy (No. 1) with a cylindrical topmark, marks the ex- 
treme of the slioal water extending northeastward of St. George 
Island, and a similar buoy is moored on the north edge of C knoll. 

Sebastian Spit is marked on its east side by a buoy similar to the 
preceding (No. 4). 

In the harbor, the southern side of Leven Bank is marked at its 
east end by a red conical buoy (No. 6) in 16 feet water, and farther 
westward by a red can buoy. 

The north side of Leven Bank is marked by a black can buoy 
(No. 7), with a cylindrical topmark. 

Caution. — No reliance should be placed on the position or the 
extent of any shoal, as both are uncertain, while the buoyage is ap- 
proximate. 

Tug. — A Government tug is available. 

Directions. — ^The land for a distance of 10 miles to the south- 
ward, as well as about the same distance to the north\yard and in the 
vicinity of the harbor, is low, but St. George Island with its light- 
house, Mozambique Island with Sebastian Fort, flagstaff, and beacon, 
also the tall white spire of a church westward of it, are conspicuous 
objects from seaward. 

Vessels from the northward should make the land well to the 
northward of Mozambique, to allow for the current, especially dur- 
ing the northeast monsoon, and a sailing vessel, swept to the south- 
ward of that port by it, should immediately stand to the eastward for 
a distance of 80 miles or perhaps more, to regain the northing outside 
the influence of the current; frequent observations to obtain the lati- 
tude should also be taken. 

Pao Mountain, 23 miles northwestward, and Mount Meza (Table 
Mountain), 19 miles to the northward of Sebastian Fort, are remark- 
able in clear weather, the former resembling a small round-topped 
hill surmounting a larger one, but this mountain is not often visible. 
Mount Meza, 1,095 feet high, appears as a long flat hill, rising from 
a longer flat-topped ridge, but from a distance only its upper part 
is seen, when it appears as a flat island. 

South Channel. — Coming from the southward it is necessary to 
guard against the indraft into Mokambo Bay, and Tree Island should 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 285 

be kept open eastward of St. George Island, bearing 0° until the 
white stripe or the triangular beacon on Sebastian Fort bears 312°, 
which will lead between A and B shoal patches; when the light 
tower at Cabeceira Grande is in line with Harpshell Sands Light- 
beacon 334°, it may be steered for, which will lead to the anchorage 
eastward of Sebastian Spit. 

From the entrance vessels may also use the channel between B and 
C patches by steering to pass eastward of the black buoy marking 
the east side of B patch, after passing the red buoy westward of 
St. George Island, and when between the patches altering course to 
the leading marks just mentioned. 

If intending to enter the harbor, continue on the leading mark, 
steering 334°, passing between the buoy marking the east end of 
Sebastian Spit and the red buoy on the edge of Harpshell Spits, and 
when the customhouse pier, on the north side ot Mozambique Island, 
opens northward of Sebastian Fort bearing about 247°, alter course 
gradually to the westward and steer about 250° along the south side 
of Leven Bank to a convenient anchorage. 

When between Sebastian Fort and the black and white spar buoy 
on theeast end of Leven Bank, attention is necessary to the helm 
to make due allowance for the tidal stream, which runs strongly and, 
with a. losing tide, sets toward Leven Bank. 

North. Cliannel. — The North Channel should always be used by 
large vessels, and they should- lie at the outer anchorage. 

If approaching from the northward, San Jago Island open east- 
ward of St. George Island, bearing 218°, leads eastward of the 
coral flat extending from Tree Island and Cabo Cabeceira, and if 
the iron derricks, the rear one surmounted by a black triangle, from 
which the lights on Sebastian Fort are exhibited, can be distinguished, 
steer for them in line, bearing 283°, which will lead southward of the 
red buoy marking the extreme of the shore bank extending south- 
ward of Ponta Cabecinha, and between it and the buoy marking C 
patch, to the anchorage eastward of Sebastian Spit. 

By night. — If entering by the South Channel, the rear light 
{green fixed) on Sebastian Fort should be steered for 312°, passing 
between A and B patches, and when the leading lights (red fixed) 
at Cabeceira Grande and on the Harpshell Sands come in line 334°, 
alter course for them, anchoring eastward of Sebastian Fort, or if 
proceeding into the harbor, when the customhouse pier lights (green 
fixed) open, bearing about 247°, keep gradually to the westward, 
steering about 250° along the south side of Leven Bank. 

The fixed green lights on Sebastian Fort in line bearing 283° 
lead through the North Channel and to the anchorage eastward of 
Sebastian Spit. 



286 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

Outer anchorage. — The outer anchorage, which should be used 
by vessels of deep draft, is in depths of from 7 to 8 fathoms, with 
flagstaff on Sebastian Fort bearing between 55° and 87°, distant 
f mile, and a vessel anchored on the former bearing will be out of 
the strength of the tidal stream, which runs with considerable force 
through the North Channel and northward of Sebastian Fort. At 
this anchorage, which has not been closely sounded, several deep 
holes exist, and care is necessary when anchoring. 

Port. — The Port of Mozambique, formed between the northwest 
side of the northeast end of Mozambique Island and the southeast 
and south sides of Leven Bank, is about J mile in length and from 
800 to 400 yards in width ; the customhouse pier extends nearly 200 
yards north-northwestward from the island on the south side. 

The depths are from 3^ to 5 fathoms in the eastern entrance and 
from &i to 4J fathoms at the anchorage. 

Lights. — Two fixed green lights are shown, at an elevation of 19 
feet, from the end of the customhouse pier, and an additional fixed 
red light on the pier, and a white and a red fixed light on the mast 
of the harbor office, mark the anchorage. 

Inner anchorage. — The eastern limit of the anchorage for ves- 
sels of war is a line joining the buoy marking the southeastern end 
of Leven Bank to the gate of Sebastian Fort ; the western limit is a 
line passing through the eastern light structure on the customhouse 
pier and the western corner of the tower of S. Paulo Church. Ves- 
sels should anchor so as to leave a clear channel for merchant vessels 
between them and Leven Bank. 

By night the last-named limit is indicated by the eastern green 
light on the pier in line with a red light on the same pier. 

Foreign vessels of war anchor eastward of the Portuguese Gov- 
ernment vessels, or should there not be space in this anchorage, they 
should anchor northward of a line joining the eastern buoy of Leven 
Bank with the inner buoy of Cabeceira Bank. 

Merchant vessels anchor westward of the anchorage for vessels of 
war, the eastern limit being the western limit of that anchorage, and 
the western limit a line passing through the flagstaff of the harbor 
office and the flagstaff of the post office. 

By night this line is indicated by a light on the staff of the harbor 
office, showing red to the eastward of the above line, and white to 
the westward. 

Vessels in quarantine anchor westward of a line passing through 
the eastern corner of the School of Arts and Mount Pao. 

Vessels laden with explosives or combustibles and hulks also 
anchor westward of this line, as directed by the port authorities. 

There is also ancliorage, for vessels of moderate draft, between the 
northeast side of Leven Bank and Harpshell Sands. 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 287 

Tides. — ^It is high water, full and change, in Mozambique Harbor 
at 4 h. 16 m. ; springs rise 12 feet. 

Tidal streams. — ^The stream of the rising tide sets to the west- 
ward and the other stream in an opposite direction; they are so 
strong at springs as to enable a sailing vessel taking advantage of 
them to work out against a strong sea breeze. 

Town. — ^Mozambique is the headquarters of the northern Province 
of Portuguese East Africa, and the island is covered with the stone 
buildings of the town, which has fairly wide and well-kept streets; 
the palace of the Governor General is a large building fronted by 
a wharf; in 1910 the population of the district was 362,634, of which 
473 were Europeans, and a British vice consul is resident. 

Communication. — Steamers of the British India Co. call 
monthly when proceeding from Bombay to Durban but not when 
returning; the vessels of the Empreza Nacionale running monthly 
from Lisbon, via the cape, usually terminate the voyage at Mozam- 
bique, and the Union Castle Line have also a monthly service, out- 
ward and homeward bound, via Suez Canal. 

The construction of a railway about 342 miles in length, of which 
280 miles will be in Mozambique and 62 miles in Portuguese Nyasa- 
land, has been commenced. 

Submarine cables connect Mozambique with South Africa, Zan- 
zibar, Beira, and Madagascar, and there are land wires along the 
coast to the southward to Kiliman and to the northward to Kirondo. 

Coal and supplies. — Between 1,000 and 2,000 tons of coal are 
kept in stock, and about 200 tons could be put on board in 24 hours, 
unless coaling was impeded by northeast or southwest winds; coaling 
is carried on by bags, and six lighters, holding each 30 tons, could 
be hired. 

Fresh meat, vegetables, and bread may be procured, but in very 
limited quantities unless notice is given, and vegetables are very 
scarce. Fowls, oranges, and some other fruit are plentiful. 

A water tank, holding about 6,000 tons, can be obtained from the 
port captain, and there is also a Government floating tank. 

Repairs. — Only small coasting craft are built, and wooden vessels 
may be repaired chiefly by native workmen. 

Hospital. — ^A good general hospital is maintained in the town, 
but the medical attendance is said to be insufficient. 

Storm signals. — The storm signals, made at Sebastian fort, on 
information being received by cable from Mojanda in Madagascar, 
consist of warning signals which are as follows : 

By day. — A black cone, pointing upward, at the northern yard- 
arm. 

By night. — ^Three white lights, placed triangularly, on the same 
mast. 



288 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

Landing, except at low water, spring tides, can be effected at 
the wharf fronting the Governor General's palace or at the cus- 
tomhouse pier. 

Trade. — The principal exports are mangrove bark, mealies, beans, 
groundnuts, rubber, and black wood, and the imports are rice, but- 
ter, metal goods, lime, cement, provisions, codfish, petroleum, and 
cotton goods of all descriptions. In 1911 the port was entered by 
156 steam vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 585,076 tons. 

Climate. — The climate of Mozambique is unhealthful, fevers, 
malarious and bilious, being prevalent, against which the best pre- 
cautions are temperate living and abstinence from alcoholic stimu- 
lants ; malaria proceeds from the mosquitoes, which frequent the rain- 
water tanks. The rainy season is from November to March, inclusive. 

Current. — A south-going curi-ent is usually experienced off Mo- 
zambique, its limits extending from near the outer reefs of that place 
to from 50 to 80 miles from the land, the velocity, which is at its 
maximum during the strength of the northeast monsoon, and vice 
versa, varying from 2 to 4 knots. In July and August, during the 
southern monsoon, the current is inappreciable or close inshore a 
counter current may be experienced; therefore the prevailing mon- 
soon should always be considered when making an allowance for the 
current. 

Winds. — ^The prevailing winds on the coast about Mozambique 
are northerly from October to April and southerly during the rest 
of the year. Land and sea breezes prevail, the former blowing di- 
rectly out of the harbor at daylight and the latter coming in about • 
10 or 11 a. m. from southeast to south, shifting toward east in the 
afternoon. 

Cyclones are experienced occasionally, and at long intervals, but 
recently they have occurred in three consecutive years, during the 
month of January, doing considerable damage to vessels, owing to the 
loosening of the sand by the heave of the sea preventing the anchors 
from holding; previous to this none had been experienced for 40 
years. 

Other cyclones happening since have damaged the surrounding 
country as well as shipping, and lights, leading marks, etc., have been 
temporarily destroyed. They frequently pass through the Mozam- 
bique Channel, within a few miles of the harbor. 

Mossoril Bay^ a large harbor, within and northwestward of 
Mozambique Island, is about 2^ miles in length by 1^ miles in width, 
with depths of from 4 to 8 fathoms, and capable of containing a 
large number of vessels ; it has only been partially sounded. 

The northwestern part of Mossoril Bay branches off into three 
creeks, of which the Lombu and Calombo Creeks are the two south- 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 289 

ernmost, while Mossoril Creek, the northernmost, is only separated 
from Bahia Conducia by Empassa Isthmus, ^ mile wide; Calombo 
Creek is the only one of these which is not dry at low water. The 
shores of all these creeks are covered with mangroves, but there is 
communication by road between Cabo Cabeceira and Empassa 
Isthmus. 

Buoys. — The following buoys were moored in Mossoril Bay in 
1914 : Two buoys about i mile and 1^^ miles in a west-northwest di- 
rection from the northern of the two western prongs of Leven Bank, 
the nearer buoy being conical red with a spherical topmark and num- 
bered 8, and the other black can, with a similar topmark, and num- 
bered 9. No. 8 Buoy is in 5, and No. 9 Buoy in 4J fathoms. 

Nearly i mile southward of the former buoy is a white can buoy, 
C, and near the extreme of the narrow prong of Mapete Sands, which 
extends southeastward, is a red conical buoy, surmounted by a tri- 
angle, and numbered 10, but the existence of the extremity of the 
prong is doubtful. C Buoy is in 3J and No. 10 Buoy in 4 fathoms. 

Bahia Conducia, and the port at its head, are separated from 
Mozambique Harbor by Cabeceira Peninsula, the entrance to the bay 
being 6 miles wide between Tree and IGtangonia Islands, with deep 
water between. The navigable channel to the inner part of the bay 
is about 1^ miles wide, between Cabo Conducia and Kissangula (Som- 
brero) Islet, 3 miles apart, from whence it trends about 6 miles west- 
ward to Euia or Bar Point. 

Coral flats extend about 1 mile off the southern side of the bay 
and off Kissangula Islet on the northern side, and about half that 
distance off the shore within the islet. A 3J-f athoms patch lies nearly 
in mid-channel, and about 2 miles northward of and from 4J to 
9 fathoms at the anchorages within Cabo Conducia. 

There are irregular depths in the entrance of from 20 to 4^ fath- 
oms, but becoming more regular toward the head of the bay and de- 
creasing from 11 to 5 fathoms within | mile of the northern shore; 
at the entrance to the port they are from 4J to 6 J fathoms. 

Cabo Conducia is cliffy and about 200 feet high, the coast on 
either side being low and sandy. 

. Eitangonia Island, on the northern side of the entrance to 
Bahia Conducia, is about If miles in length in a north-northeast and 
opposite direction, and 1 mile in width, and apparently has no 
dangers on its seaward side beyond a short distance. 

Kissangula, or Sombrero, is a rocky islet with trees 3 J miles west- 
ward of Kitangonia Island. 

Port. — Rio Conducia (Sinyudi) stretching northward of Euia 
Point, at the head of the bay, forms at its mouth a landlocked harbor 
1 mile long by ^ mile wide ; Euia Point is a dry narrow spit of sand 

39511—16 19 



290 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

with some shrubs on it. Rio Conducia has its source in Mount Meiza, 
and is navigable for boats almost to the foot of the mountain. 

Directions. — Approaching from the southward, and having 
rounded Trees Island at about i mile distant, steer for Mount Meza^ 
just open westward of two rocky points, nearly midway between 
Chicoma and Nifuku, on the northern shore, bearing about 325*^, and 
when Cabo Conducia bears 250° alter course to 300° for the outer 
anchorage. 

If intending to use one of the inner anchorages, and being unable 
to obtain a pilot, it will be necessary to proceed carefully along the 
northern shore, and as far as the anchorage about 2 miles eastward 
of Euia Point, a good stern mark would seem to be the south extreme 
of Kitangonia Island and Kissangula Islet in line, bearing 72°, steer- 
ing 253°, but under such conditions it would be prudent to send a 
boat ahead to sound. 

Above the anchorage, just mentioned, the channel is said to be 
tortuous, but nothing less than 4J fathoms is charted in the fairway ; 
a shoal is shown close northward of Euia Point. 

Coming from the northward, and having made the land in that 
direction to allow for a probable south-going current, steer along the 
land at a convenient distance, rounding the south extreme of Kitan- 
gonia Island at about f mile distant, and steer for Cabo Conducia 
until Mount Meza is open westward of the two rocky points, when 
proceed as before directed. 

Anchorage. — ^There is anchorage in the entrance, in from 6 to 9 
fathoms water, over irregular bottom, with Cabo Conducia bearing 
165°, and Kissangula Islet 63°, and also farther up the bay, in a 
depth of 5 fathoms over mud, with the same islet bearing 72°, and 
Cabo Conducia 108°. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Porto Conducia, at 
4 h. 15 m. ; springs rise 12 feet. 

Supplies. — Fowls, egirs, and oysters may be obtained from the 
natives. Xear Euia Point there are salt works from whence salt is 
shipped to various places. 

Porto Velhaco, within the point of that name, is protected to the 
southward by Kitangonia Island and, for coasting craft, appears 
to afford better shelter than Bahia Conducia from the strong north- 
west winds so common toward the latter end of the northeast 
monscon. 

The port has not been surveyed, but depths of 3 or 4 fathoms are 
shown in the entrance and from 1 to 2 fathoms inside ; it is reported 
to be full of sunken rocks and unsuitable as an anchorage. The sea 
almost always breaks very heavily near Ponta Velhaco. 

Coast. — ^Eroosi Peninsula is 3f miles northward of Ponta Vel- 
haco, and on its north side is a bay in which coasting vessels find 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 291 

perfect shelter lying aground on the sand within the outlying reef, 
which must be crossed at high water abreast of Kroosi village on the 
west side of the bay. From the north point of Kroosi Bay the coast 
takes a northerly direction for about 13 miles to Gwazi Point, on the 
south side of the entrance to Kisima-julu Harbor, and is backed by 
ranges of hills about 2 miles inland. Janga village, on the point of 
the same name, lies about midway. 

Eisima-julu Harbor extends about 2 miles west-northwestward 
and then turns southwestward for a somewhat similar distance, its 
entrance channel between the reefs being about 200 yards in width, 
with depths of from 3 to 4 fathoms. 

In the harbor, which is about 1 mile wide, the depths are from 
4 to 8 fathoms but it has not been surveyed, so caution is necessary 
when entering; it is used by coasting vessels engaged in the timber 
trade. A reef is charted as extending nearly 1 mile southward of 
the northern point of entrance. 

Coast. — From Kisima-julu Harbor the coast trending north- 
northwestward for about 5 miles to Cabo Melamo, the southern point 
of entrance to Bahia de Fernando Veloso, is about 300 feet high and 
fronted by a high, sandy beach as far as Ponta Eelambazo, a con- 
spicuous white sandy projection, marked by casuarina trees. Cabo 
Melamo (Ras Kulumlomu), low and rocky, is 2 miles from this point 
but is reported to lie 1^ miles farther westward than charted. 

Bahia de Fernando Veloso (Mazazinia)^ from its entrance, 
about 6 miles in width, between Capes Melamo and Mocuo, extends 
about 8 miles southwestward, having in its southwest comer Port 
Nakala, extending about 5J miles to the southward, and in the north- 
east corner Belmore Harbor, stretching about the same distance to 
the northward. Nifiku Nikulu Point, 2J miles westward of Cabo 
Melamo, has a projecting rock, with two or three casuarina trees on 
either side of it, rendering it conspicuous. 

From the south shore, trending about 8 miles west-southwestward 
to Nahareni Point, a ledge, drying in places at low water, extends 
about i mile, with depths of from 7 to 8 fathoms outside it a short 
distance. 

On the north side the shore trends southwestward for about 4 miles 
between Cape Mocuo and Tugo Point, and within the former cape is 
a hill about 300 feet high, rising abruptly from the level land around, 
and having a somewhat flat top which seen from the northward from 
a distance of about 15 miles, resembles a vessel under sail, but loses 
that appearance when closed or on a different bearing. 

The land at the head is moderately high, with some hummocky 
hills, while northwestward are some remarkable saddle-shaped hills 
and a sugar-loaf peak. The depths in mid-channel of the bay are 
over 100 fathoms. 



292 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

Anchorage in a depth of about 8 fathoms may be obtained at 
from 4 to 6 miles westward of Cabo ilelamo, and 1 mile or less oflP 
the southern shore, also near Xahareni Point, on a bank of coral and 
sand, with depths of from 8 to 12 fathoms, but this bank deepens sud- 
denly to 80 fathoms from its northern edge. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Bahia de Fernando 
Veloso at 4 h. 15 m. ; springs rise 18 feet. 

Supplies.— Fowlsj ducks, goats, and vegetables can be procured, 
also guinea fowls, venison, and a species of hare. Water can be 
obtained from a small stream on the southern shore, about 1 mile 
eastward of Nahareni Point, but watering. with a vessel's boats is 
difficult. 

Port Nakala, in the southwest corner of the bay, and entered 
between Xahareni and Sakamata Points, i mile apart in a northeast 
and opposite direction, extends for nearly 6 miles in a south-south- 
west direction. Xahareni Point, the northeast point of entrance, has 
on it the remains" of a fortress, and on the summit of a low hill 
southeastward of it, is a military post, which is a two-storied house 
with a red roof and a flagstaff. 

The eastern shore rises in steep but well-wooded slopes to 100 or 
150 feet, with bold promontories open to the prevailing sea breezes, 
and having on mangrove swamps near, so that they would be suitable 
for settlements. 

Within Sakamata Point, on the west side, is Xamelala Bay, extend- 
ing If miles westward, with a width of about 1 mile, and having an 
entrance little more than 200 yards in width. Between Kera Point, on 
the south side of the entrance, and Xamuhashi Point, 2J miles south- 
southwest ward, is Mwanamkulo Bay, the north shore of which, from 
Kera Point, having a drying bank with some rocks on it, extending 
from 200 to 400 yards off; a similar, but broader bank borders the 
southern shore of the bay, and surrounds Xamuhashi Point, and two 
detached patches lie nearly in the center of the bay. 

Beacons. — Two white triangular beacons are situated on the 
shore about ^ mile southeastward of Xahareni Point. 

Dangers. — Except at one or two points, where shoals extend for 
loss than 200 yards, the eastern side is clear of dangei-s, but on the 
west side a shoal extends about 300 yards from Sakamata Point, and 
one cable from Kera Point, while off Xamuhashi Point are Gaivotas 
(Shihubidi) Eocks, awash at high water, neap tides, and lying on a 
shoal extending about i mile east-northeastward of that point. 

In Bengo Bay, southward of Xamuhashi Point, shoal water extends 
nearly f mile from the head of the port, which terminates in two 
creeks. 

The depths in the entrance are from 14 to 58 fathoms, shoaling to 
15 fathoms abreast of Xamuhashi Point, and to from 5 to 9 fathoms 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 293 

in the southern portion of Bengo Bay; in Namelala Bay there are 
from 3i to 10 fathoms, and 20 fathoms in the entrance. 

Anchorage. — Good anchorage may be obtained everywhere within 
the port, but the best anchorage is said to be in the small bay to the 
southward of Nahareni Point, abreast the landing place for the 
military station. A good berth is said to be in about 12 fathoms, over 
sand and mud, with the outermost tree on Nahareni Point in line 
with a group of black rocks on the beach, just within the point, and 
with the broad slope of Mount Luguno bearing 320°, and with the 
two white triangular beacons in line 50°. 

Tidal strean^s. — The tidal streams run strongly in the entrance 
to and at the anchorage off the military station, but not at the an- 
chorage within the port. 

Telegraph cable. — A cable crosses Ihe entrance from -J mile 
southward of Nahareni Point to Sakamata Point, communicating 
with the military post. 

Belmore (Nihegehe) Harbor, in the northwest corner of Bahia 
de Fernando Veloso, is about 4 miles in length in a north-north- 
west direction, and 1 mile in width throughout, the entrance, about 
J mile in width, being reduced to 600 yards by reefs extending from 
each entrance point. 

The eastern shore is mostly rocky, with sandy patches for about 
2i miles, and then becomes a mangrove swamp to the head, while the 
western shore, is also a mangrove swamp, with the exception of a 
sandy bight, just within the entrance. 

The entrance has no bottom at 20 fathoms, and within there are 
from 8 to 10 fathoms on each side near the shore, and 13 to 20 fathoms 
off Utuku, a cove on the east side, from which the depths decrease 
gradually to 7 and 8 fathoms off West Cove. 

Beacons. — Two triangular marks affixed to two bare trees on the 
sands near Utiiku, lead to the anchorage off that place. 

Anchorage may be obtained in about 15 fathoms off the military 
post at Utuku, with the beacons in line, or in 7 fathoms off West 
Cove, nearly | mile from the western shore. The tidal streams run 
strongly in the entrance, and in the rainy season the reefs are difficult 
to distinguish on account of the discoloration of the w^ater. 

Supplies of fowls and vegetables might be obtained at a village 
on the eastern shore, and the sandy bight on the western shore is a 
good place for seining. 

Coast. — The coast between Cape Mocuo and Cabo Loguno is little 
known, owing to Baixo de Pinda fronting it. The coast has some 
headlands, and on the beach are trees of apparently equal height, 
while there are a few sand patches and some red soil; the peaks of 
the Loguno Eange are visible for about 20 miles. 



294 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

From Cape Mocuo, which has Gomen Islet about 100 yards in 
length and 13 feet in height, connected to it by shallow water, the 
coast trends to the eastward of north for about 4 miles, to Ponta 
Pinda, and then turns north-northwestward for 6 miles to Cabo 
Loguno ; there are the remains of an old fort on Gomen Islet. 

Baixo de Finda, fronting the coast and extending 5 miles from 
it, dries at low water, spring tides, at which time it exposes wreckage, 
some having the appearance of large rocks; the shoal commences to 
the northward of Gomen Islet, outside which there is a depth of 12 
fathoms at | mile distance, and gradually increases its distance from 
the shore. The water is emerald green, and the outer edge of the 
shoal being generally rocky and steep-to, renders it dangerous ; there 
are breakers off the edge in places. 

Cabo Loguno (Bas Mwamba-koma) , the southern point of 
entrance to Memba Bay, is abput 80 feet high near the sea, level 
topped, and has perpendicular cliffs; it appears to be steep-to on its 
northern side, and on its east side is Baixo de Pinda. 

Beacon. — A white beacon, consisting of a triangular pyramid, 
surmounted by a mast carrying two triangles, is erected on the cape 
for surveying purposes. 

Current. — The south-going current in this vicinity is very strong, 
attaining a velocity of 5 knots, and setting toward Baixo de Pinda, so 
that vessels bound up or down the coast should not go to the west- 
ward of the meridian of Ponta Relambazo. 

Memba Bay (Mwendazi) , about 6 miles in width at its entrance 
between Capes Loguno and Tapamanda (Ras Umlulu), recedes about 
15 miles westward from the former, its south coast being indented 
by Bocage Harbor and Porto Duarte Pedroso; the north coast is 
moderately high, with mangroves growing along the beach, which 
is fringed by sand and coral banks, one of the latter extending 1^ 
miles southward from a position about 1 mile southwestward of 
Cape Tapamanda. 

Bocage Harbor, an inlet extending about 3 miles in a southerly 
direction, although said to be a convenient anchorage, no bottom at 
60 fathoms could be obtained near its entrance. 

Porto Duarte Pedroso, about 8 miles westward of Bocage Har- 
bor, is about 1,800 yards in width between the points of entrance, but 
the navigable channel is reduced to 800 yards by reefs with rocks 
above water on them extending J mile from each side; immediately 
within the entrance, a point projecting to the northward, divides the 
port into two bays, the eastern having sand banks extending from 
either shore, and particularly from the western side. 

The eastern bay has depths of from 12 to 14 fathoms at its entrance, 
and a considerable anchorage space with from 4 to 6 fathoms, while 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 295 

the western bay, with from 11 to 12 fathoms at the entrance, has from 
4 to 7 fathoms within. 

Directions. — The port is easy of access, as the reefs on either 
side can usually be seen, and a mid-channel course between them 
should be kept, until about 400 yards from the point separating the 
bays, when course may be altered into the one selected. A conspicu- 
ous tree, standing on the dividing point, kept midway between two 
sharp hills inland, in a southerly direction, forms a good mark for 
the entrance to the port. 

Mto Kkubure (Tembo), discharging into the northwest corner 
of Memba Bay, has such a considerable volume of water during the 
rainy season, as to discolor the bay and sea for some distance, but 
in the other season its mouth is almost dry at low water; only very 
small craft can enter the river. A Bezirk military station stands on 
slightly rising ground on the right bank, in the center of a large vil- 
lage, the straw huts of which being distinguishable from the entrance 
to Memba Bay, affords a good mark for vessels intending to anchor 
off the river. 

Beacons. — Two white beacons, each consisting of a post with a 
triangular shape, stand on the west shore of the bay as a guide for 
anchoring. 

Anchorage may be obtained in a depth of 22 fathoms, with the 
beacons in line, bearing 290°, but in the rainy season care must be 
taken to guard against the strong out-going stream from the Mto 
Mkubure. 

Communication. — ^There is telegraphic communication with the 
coast ports. Corn and linseed are exported, and the country abounds 
with big game. 

Beef. — A reef, the extent of which has not been determined, ex- 
tends for about 1^ miles in a southerly direction from the northern 
shore and 1 mile south westward of Cape Tapamanda; it is said to 
rise suddenly from a depth of 60 fathoms to that of 2^ fathoms, and 
when coming from the northward it may be distinguished by dis- 
coloration and surf, extending for some distance from the shore when 
there is any swell. The reef is apparently awash at low water. 

Coast. — From Cape Tapamanda, which is flat and low, to Sorisa 
Point, a distance of about 37 miles, the aspect of the land is more 
striking than on other parts of the coast, being low near the sea and 
increasing to mostly level land about 200 feet high a short distance 
within. 

The Sorisa Kange, several craggy peaks, having the appearance of 
the ruins of some great city, rise abruptly from this level land to 
heights of from 2,000 to 3,000 feet, the peaks assuming every variety 
of form of sugar-loaf, cone, and round or square-topped pillars, in 



296 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

some cases seeming to overhang their bases. Mount Pillar, the high- 
est and most remarkable of these, is a cone with a pyramidal-formed 
point, always appearing the same from all bearings. 

Cape Marenji, 108 feet high, and situated about 3 miles north- 
ward of Cape Tapamanda, is steep and formed of reddish-colored 
rock, with some detached clumps of trees on its summit forming a 
good mark; the bay formed between the two capes, has Marenji vil- 
lage, which has a good coasting trade, near its head, but it is stated 
that no river flows into the bay, as shown. 

Tembo (Tego) Island, lying about i mile off the coast to the 
northward of Cape Marenji, is a small coral island, overgrown with 
grass, shrub, and mangroves, rising to a height of about 23 feet. 

Sangone (Samuko) Bay, 7 miles northward of Tembo Island, is 
entered between Samuko and Sangone Points, where it has a clear 
navigable width of about i mile; it extends westward for about 1 
mile, and is sufficiently deep to afford anchorage for several large 
vessels. 

Samuko Point may be known by a conspicuous cluster of baobab 
trees on it, and a Bezirk military station on rising ground, while San- 
gone Point is a rock appearing as a vessel's stern, standing out con- 
spicuously from the low land ; the point is surrounded by a reef. 

Directions. — The bay should be entered on a course about 260°, 
passing about 200 yards from the rocks extending from Sangone 
Point, and either anchoring rather close to the north shore of the bay 
or in its center ; dhows anchor near the head. 

Village. — Samuko village, extending for about 2 miles along the 
north shore of the bay, is the center for Bezirk commerce ; rivers flow 
into the northwest and southwest comers of the bay. 

Coast. — Chionda Point (Cabo Maria Luiza) is about 16 miles to 
the northward of Sangone Point, and for the first 5 miles the coast is 
fringed by a reef extending off 1 mile in places. 

Bahia Almeida, entered between Chiondi and Sorisa Points, 9 
miles apart, affords anchorage in its northern part, protected, at low 
water, by reefs extending southward from the latter point. Chionda 
Point (Cabo Maria Luiza), the southern point of entrance, has a reef 
of stones and bowlders which dries at low water and shows by break- 
ers; it is reported to extend about 1 mile farther to the northward 
than charted. 

About 2 miles northwestward of Chionda Point is the mouth of the 
Mto Minsangegy, with a small channel over its bar at high water; 
southward of the river is a conspicuous bluff, forming a good mark, 
and northward of it is a military station with a large village. 

Dangers. — ^Indujo Reef, about f mile in extent, and awash at low 
water, lies 3^ miles north-northeastward of Chionda Point. 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 297 

Mancabale Reef, extending fully 5 miles southward of Sorisa Point, 
dries at low water, spring tides, and at this time, from about January 
to July, numbers of turtle may be caught on it ; there is a depth of 
14 fathoms about i mile eastward of the reef. 

Depths. — ^There are depths of from 9 to 12 fathoms in the channel 
southward of Indujo Reef gradually decreasing to the 3-fathom 
contour line, which is about f mile from the head; the channel be- 
tween Indujo and Mancabale Reefs has 11 fathoms water. 

Directions. — The main entrance to Bahia Almeida is southward 
of Indujo Reef, and anchorage can be taken up in a depth of 5 
fathoms off the mouth of the Mto Minsangegy, with the flagstaff of 
the military station bearing 270° and Mount Pillar in line with the 
mouth of that river, 243°. 

If intending to anchor at the head of the bay, steer to the north- 
ward, keeping about 1 mile off its west shore, and anchor as con- 
venient, at the head, over a bottom of sand and coral. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Bahia Almeida at 
4 h. 10 m. ; springs rise 15 feet ; neaps rise 12 feet. 

Lurio Bay, between Sorisa and Pando Points, a distance of about 
8 miles, affords sheltered anchorage during the southern, but none 
during the northern monsoon; the land is all low near the sea, with 
thick jungle, but there are high craggy peaks in the interior. 

Sorisa Point has a conspicuous group of trees behind it, which, 
showing against the higher background, appears like an island, and 
on slightly rising ground on the north bank of the Lurio River are 
some whitewashed houses that may be seen from a distance of 15 
miles; at the back of Pando Point a hill with conspicuous white sandy 
patches also forms a good mark. Lurio River is fronted by a bar 
which only small craft can cross. 

The depths in the bay are from 5 to 15 fathoms. 

Anchorage may be obtained in a depth of 5 fathoms, over sand 
and clay, 1 mile off the mouth of the Lurio River, which flows into 
the southwestern part of the bay, sometimes discoloring the sea by 
its waters for some miles. When entering the bay Sorisa Point 
should be given a berth of at least 1 mile, and the southern portion 
of the bay should be avoided. 

Settlement. — Lurio, a settlement and military station, is said to 
be the principal place between Mozambique and Ibo ; it is connected 
with Bahia Almeida by a good road. 

Coast. — Northward of Lurio Bay the land is of moderate height 
and continues so from Badgely Point to Maunhane Point, a distance 
of about 25 miles. This coast is fronted in places by a quicksand 
beach, and a reef, mostly steep-to, which extends off the nortliern por- 
tion about 1^ miles. 



298 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

Mkufi. — The bar of the river and port of Mkufi, 5 miles north- 
ward of Pando Point, may be crossed at half tide by craft drawing 
from 5 to 6 feet of water. Close under the southern shore there is 
anchorage for such craft in from 2 to 3 fathoms. The village is 
clean and healthily situated on high ground on the right bank; pro- 
visions and good water are obtainable. 

Ushanga village, about 15 miles farther north, has low land near 
it, with trees almost to the water's edge; abreast of it is Xanga 
Mrebwi, a gap in the reef with a deep-water channel. 

Northward of Ushanga there is temporary anchorage in about 11 
fathoms of water, the holding ground, sand over coral, not being 
good. 

Maunhane Point is rather bluff, but terminates in a low rocky 
point, with a reef extending 1,600 yards eastward, on which the sea 
breaks, and showing from disclored water. 

Light. — From a white masonry column 48 feet high, attached to 
a wooden house, is exhibited, 48 feet above high water, a fixed white 
light visible 12 miles over an arc of 230° from 125° to 355°. 

Imbo Bank, with 9 or 10 fathoms water, lies about 2^ miles 
north-northeastward of Maunhane Point, and westward of it and 
from f to i mile northward of Maunhane Point and the coast west- 
ward of it are patches of from 7 to 8 fathoms, with perhaps less 
water. 

Pomba (Mwambi or Pemba) Bay, entered about 4 miles west- 
ward of Maunhane Point between Herbert and North Points, nearly 
IJ miles apart, expands within to a basin, forming one of the 
finest harbors on this coast, being about 9 miles in length in a north 
and south direction and 5 miles in width, with sufficient water in 
most parts for deep-draft vessels and shelter from all winds. The 
country around consists of fertile plain and woods. 

Herbert (Miranembo) Point, the southern point of entrance, is 
low, but has a high hill within it ; the point may be approached to a 
distance of \ mile. Discolored water extends about 400 yards of 
the coast between Herbert Point and Mpira Point, which latter is IJ 
miles southwestward, and steep-to, there being about 5 fathoms at a 
few yards from the shore all around it, but the coast reef appears 
to extend farther seaward than charted between the two points. 

North (Sid-Ali) Point, a moderately high bluff, is covered with 
trees and jungle and has a conspicuous white lighthouse with a red 
roof on it ; the point is steep-to, there being a depth of 18 fathoms 
within 100 yards. Mwambi Peak, northward of the point, is low 
and inconspicuous. 

Light. — From a red iron tower, 45 feet in height, on a white 
masonry base is exhibited, at an elevation of 51 feet above water, a 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 299 

fixed white light, visible in clear weather from a distance of 10 
miles, but is shown only when vessels are expected. 

Outer anchorage.— Good anchorage may be obtained on Imbo 
Bank, with North Point bearing 272°, distant 5 J miles. 

Dangers. — The shores of Pomba Bay have several rocky ledges, 
especially on the west and southwest sides, which extend 1^ miles in 
places, and also a number of shoal coral patches and reefs, chiefly in 
the western half of the bay, only the principal being mentioned here, 
as the others will be best seen on the plan. The bay being very 
imperfectly surveyed, the correct positions of known and named 
shoals are extremely doubtful, while others may and do exist, so 
that great caution is therefore necessary in selecting an anchorage, 
except in the southern arm of the bay. 

Mutine Patch, about 2 miles within the middle of the entrance, 
has less than 1 fathom, and Penguin Shoal, with a depth of 4 
fathoms, is situated about ^ mile southward of it. 

Pantaloon Shoal, with a depth of 5 fathoms, is situated in the 
middle of the northern bight of the bay, while in the southern bight 
a rocky patch, about J ipile in extent, lies about 2 miles west-south- 
westward of Mpira Point. 

Buoy. — Mutine Patch is marked on its north side by a white 
conical buoy. 

Porto Amelia, about i mile southeastward of Mpira Point and 
on the north side of the southern portion of Pomba Bay, which 
is fully 3 miles in extent, has a small stone pier with a T head. 

Lights. — A red light is shown from the southeast and a fixed 
green light from the northwest end of the pier. A red fixed light 
is shown from Mpira Point. 

Lightbuoy. — A black lightbuoy, exhibiting a red fixed light, is 
moored on the outer edge of a shoal extending off a point midway 
between Mpira Point and the pier. 

Depths. — ^The depths in the entrance to the bay are from 25 to 
35 fathoms and from 7 to 15 fathoms in the northern bight, while in 
the southern bight they are from 11 to 16 fathoms. 

Directions. — If intending to anchor off Porto Amelia the coast 
between Herbert and Mpira Point should have a berth of 600 or 800 
yards to avoid the shore reef said to extend farther off than charted, 
and having given Mpira Point a berth of 400 yards when rounding 
it, anchor in about 14 fathoms 500 yards from the pier, or closer 
in if required. There is also anchorage in the southern bight of the 
bay, in from 11 to 16 fathoms water, about 1^ miles southwestward 
of Mpira Point. 

If proceeding to the anchorage in the northern bight of the bay, 
the chart, lead, and lookout must be the guides, bearing in mind the 
unreliability of the chart. 



300 KILIMAX TO CAPE DELGADO. 

Tides. — ^It is high water, full and change, in Pomba Bay at 4 h. 
16 m. ; springs rise 15 feet ; neaps rise 11 feet. 

Winds, etc. — ^The land wind generally blows out of the bay until 
7 or 8 a. m., and the climate is said to be good in comparison to other 
places on this coast. 

Town. — ^The town, situated on an eminence about 295 feet high, 
southeastward of Mpira Point, is the headquarters of the district, 
and contains the Government house and official buildings, as well as 
a barracks. A British vice consul is resident. Nyamazezi and 
Mwambi are villages on the west shore of the bay. 

Communication. — Steam vessels of the Empreza National de 
Navegagao call fortnightly, and those of tlie Union Castle Line 
monthly, the former outward and homeward bound via the Suez 
Canal. Porto Amelia is connected w4th Mozambique by a land wire 
and also with Palma and Kirondo to tlie northward. 

Supplies. — Small bullocks, poultry, and vegetables may be pro- 
cured ; deer and other game is found in the neighborhood, and there 
is good fishing with the seine. Water is very scarce and either ob- 
tained by distillation or from rainfall; tw^o inconsiderable streams 
are situated in the northeast part of the bay, and in the Nihegi, a 
larger stream in the southern part of tlie bay, it is possible ships' 
boats might obtain a supply. Wood is obtainable. 

Hospital. — A hospital is maintained in the town, but the building 
is said to be quite unsuitable for the purpose. 

Trade. — The exports, chiefly consisting of groundnuts, calumba, 
sesamum, mandioca, millet, and mealies, in 1912 were valued at 
$440,703, and the imports of manufactured goods, provisions, etc., 
at $584,596. In 1913 the port was entered by 108 vessels of an aggre- 
gate tonnage of 386,134 tons. 

Climate. — During the northern monsoon, from the middle of 
October to the middle of March, the weather is hot, damp, and some- 
what oppressive, but the temperature is seldom over 95'' F., and gen- 
erally ranges between 82° and 92° ; rain falls intermittently through- 
out this monsoon, the average rainfall on the coast for the season 
being about 35 inches. In the opposite monsoon, from April to 
September, the weather is cool and pleasant, and practically no rain 
falls. 

Coast. — The moderately high coast from North Point trends 
northeastward for 14 miles to Lurio Point, and nearlv mid-distance 
are Taro and Sanecane Rivers, both small; Lurio Point is on the 
south side of the entrance to Dedema Bay, which has only a depth of 
3 feet, and is scattered over with rocks within, Mto Mugarumo run- 
ning into its northeast corner. 

The coast turning to the northward from Lurio Point becomes low 
and thickly wooded, for 8 miles as far as Kizeeva Island, two inden- 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 301 

tations being formed between, of which Bahia Kipao, the southern, 
extending 2^ miles northwestward, is nearly filled with drying reef 
and shoal water. 

Kipao Island lies on the extreme of the reef on the north side of 
the entrance, and a drying reef extends from Sito Point, on the south 
side of the entrance, with a 3-f athom shoal nearly 1 mile eastward of 
the point, the channel to the anchorage, in from 3 to 5 fathoms, being 
nearer the island. 

Kizeeva Island is low, uninhabited, and has the iniins of a settle- 
ment on its west, and two conspicuous trees on its south end. 

Porto Arimba^ on the northern side of Arimba Head, and pro- 
tected by Kizeeva Island and reef, has depths of from 5 to 3 fathoms 
in the channel, between Arimba Head and the island, leading to the 
anchorage ; Porto Arimba, with a depth of 4 fathoms, appears to be 
a secure harbor for small vessels. It is a Portuguese settlement, with 
about 400 inhabitants, who rear cattle, and export grain, vegetables, 
fruit, and timber. 

Eerimba Islands — General remarks. — ^The Kerimba chain of 
islands, of which Kizeeva, just mentioned, is the southernmost, form 
an archipelago extending from Arimba Head to Cape Delgado, a dis- 
tance of 117 miles. In this space, the outer reefs and islands ex- 
tend in some places as much as 13 miles from the mainland, and in 
most parts more than 10 miles ; but southward of Mahato Island they 
nowhere extend beyond 8 miles. 

The islands, generally low, well wooded and easily seen from sea- 
ward, have, in some cases, a diversified surface of hill and dale, whilst 
many are mere coral islets, and the 18 or 19 openings, between the 
outer islands and reefs, lead into a still greater number of secure 
ports or convenient anchorages for small craft. 

The mainland abreast of the Kerimba Islands is also generally low, 
and rarely to be seen when coasting outside the reefs, and this, with 
the fact that the sea faces of the reefs are steep-to, necessitates cau- 
tion in approaching this part of the coast, even in the daytime. 

Fumo Island, about G miles northward of Arimba Head, is con- 
nected with Kizeeva by a coral reef; the passage between it and the 
mainland is only a boat channel. Fumo has a Portuguese settlement, 
and a population of about 100. 

Penguin (Kilaluia) Island, nearly 2 miles northward of Fumo, 
is a small, wooded, and fronted by a reef i mile wide, with a tem- 
porary anchorage off Penguin Eeef, in a depth of 13 fathoms, over 
coral, about 1,600 yards southeastward of the south point of the 
island. Samukan Island Eeef, a short distance to the northeastward, 
is steep-to. 

Montepes Bay, contained between Fumo Island and Kisanga 
Point, 7^ miles to the northward, has only been partially examined. 



302 KILIMAN OX) CAPE DELGADO. 

but there is apparently a deep-water channel between the reefs of 
Fumo and Penguin Islands, although a rock lies nearly midway with 
a depth of 33 fathoms close to it. At the head of the bay, and at the 
mouth of the Montepes River, which is said to have a course of about 
250 miles, is the settlement of Montepes, consisting of miserable huts, 
with a population of about 600. 

Eerimba Island, about 3 miles long in a north and south direc- 
tion, and li miles wide, is low, wooded, has a sandy beach, and is 
the most fertile island of the archipelago ; ruins of a Portuguese town 
are on the island, which now has a nomadic population of about 200. 
The well water is good. 

Eisanga Feint, the outer extreme of a fertile peninsula, 4 miles 
in length in an easterly direction, and bordered by mangroves, has a 
drying sand bank extending i mile from it into the channel between 
it and Ibo Island, which is scarcely navigable for canoes at low 
water ; Kisanga, a settlement and the capital of the district, has about 
2,000 inhabitants and is westward of the point. 

Ibo Harbor. — Ibo Island, about 4 miles in extent and nearly 
divided into two by an inlet cutting into its northwest side, may be 
distinguished from other islands of this chain by a white fort, which, 
when bearing about 215°, shows a long frontage; Ibo Bluff, the 
northeast extreme of the island, of moderate height, with its light- 
house and dark green mangroves, also coconut palms in the town, may 
be seen from some distance. 

Light. — ^On Ibo Bluff is a white square tower, 20 feet in height, 
with a flagstaff, and from the former is exhibited, at an elevation of 
59 feet above high water, a fixed white light, which in clear weather 
should be visible from a distance of 13 miles. For bearings of arc 
of visibility, see Light List. 

Mujaca Shoal. — The island, except on its southwest side, is sur- 
rounded by a drying bank with rocks on it, and that part of it pro- 
jecting in two points, and extending If miles northward of the north 
side of the northeast portion of the island, is named Mujaca Shoal. 

Corea de Sao Gonsalo. — Matemo Island is nearly 5^ miles to 
the northward of Ibo Island, and in the channel between the drying 
banks extending from each is Corea de Sao Gonsalo, a sand bank 
2J miles in length in a northeast and opposite direction, drying at 
low water and showing by breakers or discoloration when covered. 

Depths. — The channel between Mujaca Shoal and Corea de Sao 
Gonsalo has depths of from 6 to 8 fathoms and that northward of 
the latter danger from 7 to 25 fathoms; at the anchorage there is 
from 5 to 11 fathoms. 

Buoys. — The north extreme of the eastern of the two points of 
Mujaca Shoal is marked by a black and red truncated-conical buoy 
surmoimted by a sphere. 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 303 

A red truncated-conical buoy surmounted by a sphere marks the 
south edge of Corea de Sao Gonsalo. 

No dependence should be placed on finding the buoys in position. 

Discolored water has been reported to extend from abreast 
Manoel da Silva Island for 3 miles in an easterly direction. 

Pilots. — Pilotage is compulsory for merchant vessels. 

Directions. — ^The channel between Mujaca Shoal and Corea de 
Sao Gonsalo is that usually taken, and when entering it a lookout 
should be kept for the discolored water on the north side of the 
approach, which should be avoided. 

The channel between the buoys being 1 mile in width, if they are 
in position no difficulty should be experienced, otherwise it is as well 
to be guided by the eye, as the dangers, and particularly Corea de 
Sao Gonsalo, show distinctly after half tide, and borrowing on this 
latter danger will avoid Mujaca Shoal. 

Anchorage in from 5 to 6 fathoms water may be obtained with 
Sao Joao Fort bearing between 165° and 176°, distant 2^ miles, but 
the holding ground is not good ; it is exposed to easterly winds and 
the tidal streams run strongly, and these are stronger farther to the 
northward, where deeper water will be found. 

Inner harbor. — ^The inlet cutting into the northwest side of the 
island for a distance of nearly 3^ miles forms a harbor for small 
craft, its eastern side being for the first 1^ miles Mujaca Shoal, the 
western side being formed by another tongue of drying bank ; it is 
fronted by a bar. 

Beacons and buoy. — ^A beacon, surmounted by a ball, marks the 
extreme of the tongue of drying bank on the west side of the entrance. 

A small beacon, surmounted by a triangle, is on the southwest edge 
of Mujaca Shoal abreast the town. 

A small black can buoy is moored on the edge of the western bank, 
nearly 1 mile within the outer beacon. 

Depths. — ^The bar has depths of from 4 to 5 feet, and the channel 
within it from IJ to 2 fathoms, these latter depths continuing for 
about ^ mile beyond the town, but the head of the inlet is very shal- 
low ; vessels of 7 or 8 feet draft can cross the bar at any time after 
half tide and lie afloat at low water off the town. 

Tides. — ^It is high water, full and change, at Ibo Harbor at 4h. 
15m. ; springs rise 11 feet. 

Tidal streams. — ^The tidal streams run strongly in the channel 
between Mujaca Shoal and Corea de Sao Gonsalo, the stream of the 
rising tide inclining toward the latter and that of the falling tide 
toward the former. 

Town. — ^The town, with Fort Sao Joao, is situated on the western 
side of the northeast portion of the island; the former, consisting 
of some stone houses and huts, has a population of between 3,000 and 



304 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

4,000, composed of Portuguese, Arabs, Banians, and natives; the 
stone fort of Sao Joao is in the form of a star, and there are two 
other forts. 

Communication. — Portuguese coasting steamers call fortnightly. 

Supplies of fresh provisions can be obtained in small quantities, 
but water is indifferent in quality and difficult to procure. 

Trade. — ^The chief exports are oil seeds, rubber, ivory, and wax, 
and the imports guns, powder, beads, cloth, etc. 

Climate. — The unhealthful season is from the middle of January 
to the middle of March, during which period there is a considerable 
rainfall, accompanied by thunder and lightning, and at this time 
fevers are often fatal, Negroes not being exempt from them. 

Coast. — From abreast Ibo Island, the coast for 10 miles to Kdri- 
nuzi Point, is moderately high, with a range of hills inland which 
may be seen from a distance of 20 miles, its southern end being bluff, 
with a conical hill just to the southward. Mto Cramacoma, abreast 
of Ibo outer anchorage, has a Portuguese settlement with a popu- 
lation of about 600 at its mouth. 

From Kirinuzi Point to Pangane Point the coast is higher, but 
northward of that, to Cape Delgado, the mainland is seldom seen 
from outside the islands. 

Matemo Island^ abreast of Kirinuzi Point, is 4^ miles long and 
2^ miles broad, and surroujided by a reef that dries at low water ; it 
has Manoel da Silva Islet lying on its southeast part. The island, 
which is not fertile, is low, with straggling trees along its whole 
length, and has a sandy beach on its southeast side; the population is 
about 100, and water is scare. 

Das Kolas, a small uninhabited island, about 2^ miles to the north- 
ward of Matemo Island, is low, covered with brushwood, and has a 
reef extending 1 mile northeastward and i mile southeastward of it ; 
the northwest point is sandy and affords the best landing. 

Anchorages. — Matemo Island affords convenient anchorage near 
it, sheltered from either monsoon and easy of access, but the tidal 
streams are strong. Between Envie Shoal, which fronts the coast of 
the mainland to a distance of 4 miles, and Matemo Island, there is a 
channel i mile wide with depths of from 3 to 5 fathoms. There is 
also sheltered anchorage ^ mile southwestward of Das Eolas, in from 
7 to 9 fathoms water ; a land breeze generally blows in the morning. 

In running for the anchorage of Das Rolas steer 272° for the south 
point of that islet, until about 1 mile from it, when alter course to 
216°, and the water will gradually shoal to about 4 fathoms when in 
line between the northeastern points of Das Rolas and Matemo, after 
passing which line the water gradually deepens again to 8 and 9 
fathoms. 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 305 

A distant peak bearing 242° leads betwe* the reefs extending from 
Matemo Island and Das Solas, and when Sangane Point is well open 
westward of Das Eolas, anchorage may be taken up in 7 or 8 fathoms, 
with the south extreme of Das Rolas bearing 21° and the northeast 
extreme of Matemo 118°. 

Supplies. — Cattle might be procured from Kirinuzi River, and 
wood can be obtained from Das Rolas. 

Sangane Point, low, white, and sandy, has a reef extending 
nearly 2 miles off it, and between 4 and 6J miles eastward is Sangane 
Reef, 3^ miles in length in a northeast and opposite direction, drying 
at low water. 

Pangane Point, nearly 6 miles northward of Sangane Point, 
with Molandulo and Kif ula Islets, lying off the coast between, is low, 
sandy, and has a reef, in the middle of which is the small island of 
Inhate, extending 1^ miles from it and nearly joining the southwest- 
ern end of Mahato Island Reef, the channel between, only suitable 
for dmall craft, having a depth of 1 fathom. A Portuguese settle- 
ment at Pangane Point has a population of about 300. 

Mahato Island, about 2 miles eastward of Pangane Point, is sur- 
rounded by an extensive reef, except on its western side, where there 
is smooth anchorage for small craft. 

Pantaloon Beef, a coral bank about 4 miles northward of Ma- 
hato Island, is 1 mile in extent in an east and west direction, with a 
least depth of 2f fathoms. There is good anchorage on its northern 
side. 

A sand bank awash at high water, springs, but generally visible, 
lies about IJ miles west-southwestward of Pantaloon Reef, and is 
steep-to on its western side, but a coral reef, with from 6 to 8 feet 
water, extends 1,400 to 1,600 yards from the bank in all other direc- 
tions. 

A 1-fathom patch lies about 3^ miles west-northwestward of Pan- 
taloon Reef. 

Ras Pekawi. — The coast between Pangane Point and Ras Pekawi 
forms a bight receding about 2^ miles, with low, sandy shores, bor- 
dered by mangroves ; Ras Pekawi is a low sandy point with a clump 
of casuarina trees, 70 feet high, on its extreme, and i mile off it, and 
lying on the reef extending fully 2 miles from the point is a bushy 
islet 17 feet high. 

St. Lazarus Bank, 10^ miles in length in a north and south di- 
rection, with 6 miles in greatest width, within the 100-fathom con- 
tour line, has general depths of from 8 to 15 fathoms, but at its 
northern end is an area about 3^ miles in length and If miles in 
breadth within the 10-fathom contour, which has spots on it of 3^, 

39511—16 20 



306 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

41, and 5 fathoms; the southern extreme of the bank lies 87*^, distant 
44J miles, from Ibo Bluff. 

Caution. — As there is no trade on this part of the coast, nothing 
is gained by approaching the shore by the passages between the inner 
reefs northward of Ras Pekawi, but if obliged to do so, the most 
favorable time is at low water with the sun astern of the vessel; 
the lead should be kept constantly going. No fresh water can be 
obtained from any of the islands between Ras Pekawi and Cape Del- 
gado ; and from this cause the islands remain uninhabited. 

Coast. — From Ras Pekawi to Ras Nenumba, 7 miles to the north- 
northwestward, the coast for the first 4 miles consists of a sandy 
beach, with numerous villages, where a few fowls may be obtained, 
but the remainder is mangrove bush intersected by creeks. A wooded 
range of hills, from 250 to 280 feet high, lies parallel with the coast, 
from 2 to 3 miles inland, and shore reef, or shore bank under 3 
fathoms, extends about 2 miles off the coast. 

Kisanga Islet^ 20 feet high, and on the western edge of a reef 
about 2 miles in extent, is sandy, covered with brushwood, and lies 
3^ miles east-northeastward of Ras Pekawi. 

Hjumbi (Hattos) Island, 2 miles eastward of Easanga Islet, 
is low, thickly wooded, and has two trees rising to a height of 77 feet 
on its southern side; it is surrounded by a reef extending 3 miles 
northeastward, 1^ miles eastward, and 1 mile in a southerly direction, 
with patches of sand which dry in places. 

Anchorage. — The anchorage westward of Kisanga Islet may be 
approached with safety either from the northward or southward, 
care being taken to avoid Gray Rock if entering by Mjumbi Pass. 
Good anchorage may be obtained in a depth of 8 fathoms, over sand 
and shells, i mile from the reef, with Mjumbi tall trees in line with 
Kisanga Islet bearing about 79^. 

Coast. — From Ras Nenumba to Ras Yamkumbi, a distance of 7i 
miles to the northward, the coast is low and swampy, fringed with 
mangrove, with numerous creeks ; the sudden break in the hills at the 
back forms the most conspicuous feature of this coast. 

Mto Marari, 6 miles northward of Ras Nenumba, can be entered by 
boats drawing 2 feet at low water, and there is deeper water inside; 
mud and sand flats extend from ^ mile to IJ miles offshore, with 
bowlders scattered over* them. There is reason to believe that a large 
village exists on the banks of this river. 

Seli-Seli Rocks^ near the extreme of a reef extending about &J 
miles eastward of Ras Yamkumbi, are three flat-topped coral rocks, 
10 feet high. 

Mwamba Wadiazi, a square-shaped reef, about 5 miles in extent, 
lies on the extreme of shore bank, with depths under 3 fathoms, 
which extends about 12 miles east-southeastward of Ras Yamkumbi. 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 307 

Mwamba Wadiazi is composed of coral with several sand banks on it, 
the rocks uncovering in parts at low water, and the sandbanks at 
half ebb; its northern, eastern, and southern faces are steep-to, but 
its western side is broken into a series of gullies with detached masses 
of coral and shallow water between them. Kero Nyuni (Zanga 
Island), 20 feet high, and covered with bushes, lies on the northwest 
extreme of the reef. 

Mjumbi Pass^ the opening between Mjumbi Reef and Mwamba 
Wadiazi, is 4 miles wide and perfectly clear of dangers, with central 
depths of upward of 400 fathoms, the heavy surf on the edges of 
the reefs marking the channel. In approaching, the mainland shows 
very indistinctly, but the high trees on Mjumbi Island are clearly 
visible. 

Dangers. — Gray Rock, having 1^ feet at low water, springs, is 
steep-to, and lies in the fairway to the anchorage oflf Kisanga Islet, 
about 2i miles north-northwestward of the western end of Mjumbi 
Islet. 

Mwamba Mcholi, a coral reef, dry at low water, and about 400 
yards in extent, is 5^ miles southwestward of Kero Nyuni. 

Anchorage. — The sheet of water inclosed between Mjumbi and 
Kero Nyuni Islands and the mainland, with the exception of the 
dangers mentioned, has anchorage all over it in depths of from 5 to 
15 fathoms, over sand and coral, the water shoaling in the northern 
part, where a bar, with from IJ to 3 fathoms over it, connects Seli- 
Seli Rocks with Mwamba Wadiazi. 

Mwamba Wanuni, drying 9 feet at low water, is 3 miles long 
in an east and west direction, and 1 mile wide; a small shoal lies 
oflf its western edge ; it is mostly steep-to. 

Kero Nyuni Pass^ 3^ miles wide between Mwamba Wadiazi and 
Mwamba Wanuni, is deepand clear, with the exception of Mwamba 
Kizingiti, near the inner end of the pass; a channel exists both 
northward and southward of this danger. 

The outer part of the pass has depths over 200 fathoms, but the 
100-fathoms contour line is about 1:^ miles eastward of Mwamba 
Kizingiti and the depths rapidly decrease tow^ard that danger. 

Dangers. — Mwamba Kizingiti, a patch of coral dry at low water, 
springs, near the center at the inner end of the pass, may be gener- 
ally seen even when covered, by the sea breaking on it. From it, 
Kero Nyuni and Seli-Seli Rocks, distant from 3 to 3 J miles, are 
plainly visible. 

Anchorage. — A good anchorage during the southern monsoon is 
in 6 fathoms, over sand and coral, 1 mile northwestward of Kero 
Nyuni, and, for a small vessel during the northeast monsoon, i mile 
southwestward from the same islet; there is also anchorage close to 
the southward of Mwamba Wanuni. 



808 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Kero Nyuni, at 4 h. 
15 m. ; springs rise 13 feet, neaps 8 feet. 

Tidal streams. — ^The tidal streams within the islands are weak 
and irregular, being greatly influenced by the winds; the west-going 
stream is usually stronger than the east-going, and enters by the 
various openings between the reefs. The usual south-going current 
will be found running about 10 miles outside the reefs. 

Fungu Nameguo, a coral reef 4 miles long in a north-northeast 
and opposite direction, and 2 miles wide, with several drying sand 
banks on it, is situated about 2 miles northeastward of Mwamba 
Wanuni; the northernmost sand bank dries 12 feet, but covers at 
high water, springs, when the sea breaks heavily on it. The seaward 
edges of this reef are steep-to, and when there is any wind a cross 
sea is generally experienced off it. There is good anchorage off the 
inner or western side in from 7 to 10 fathoms. 

Nameguo Fass^ between Mwamba Wanum and Fungu Nameguo, 
is If miles wide between the reefs, and clear of danger. It is the best 
pass by which a stranger can enter, as the reefs show plainly, and the 
bottom is even, with fair anchoring ground over the whole of it. 

The depths in the pass are from 8 to 9 fathoms. 

Dangers. — Mwamba Majiwe Kubwa, lying 1^ miles northwest- 
ward* of Mwamba Wanuni, with a 5-fathom channel between them, 
has a sand bank, which dries 11 feet on its northwest portion. Fungu 
Lamkunama, about 1 mile northward of Mwamba Majiwe Kubwa, 
separated by a clear channel with from 4| to 9 fathoms water, is 
another coral reef, with a sand bank on its western end ; it uncovers 
at low water, springs, and a 2-f athom patch lies ^ mile westward of 
the sand bank. 

Chapman Reef, 1^ miles northward of Fungu Lamkunama, is a 
coral reef 1,000 yards long, drying at low water, springs, and has 
deep water all around. 

Anchorages. — Good anchorage, in depths of from 7 to 9 fathoms, 
may be obtained off the western side of Fungu Nameguo, and there 
is also anchorage in a somewhat similar depth, eastward of the south- 
east end of Mwamba Majiwe Kubwa. 

Coast. — The coast from Ras Yamkumbi trends north-northeast- 
ward for about 13 miles to Ras Ulu, and at 5 miles near the mouth 
of Mto Luseti is Mpandaji, the only village on this coast, while 
about li miles northeastward, is Ras Mpandaji, 63 feet high, the 
south point of Naquero Bay. 

This coast is all low, bordered by mangroves, and is seldom seen 
from outside the islands ; along it are the mouths of several streams, 
which dry at low water. The coast reef here extends from the shore 
from 3 of a mile to 2^ miles : the mouths of the creeks in this part are 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 309 

dry at low water, and the bottom off the entrances consists of mud, 
over coral. 

Crawford Beefs are several patches of coral 3 miles off this 
coast, which dry at half -ebb, with from 1 fathom to 2 fathoms be- 
tween them and the coast reef. 

Has XTlu, the southern extreme of Mazimbwa Bay, is a mangrove 
point about 80 feet high, making as a series of flat ridges, and having 
a reef extending fully 5 miles southeastward of it, with Myonji 
Islet, 66 feet high, thickly wooded near its outer end, and mangrove 
bushes situated on the reef 1 mile southeastward of the islet, and 
about 2^ miles from the point; several detached patches lie off the 
southern side of the reef, while from its northeast side rocks and 
shoal water extend 1 mile into Myonji Pass. 

Water may be obtained from some wells a short distance within 
Eas XJlu. 

Anchorage. — ^Within the outer reefs there is excellent shelter in 
from 5 to 12 fathoms, over sand and coral. The best berth depends 
on the monsoon, the prevailing strong winds being from northeast 
and southeast. 

Tambuzi Island^ nearly 2 miles long in an east and west direc- 
tion, 82 feet high, and lying 5 miles northward of Fungu Nameguo, 
may be distinguished by being higher than the surrounding islands, 
and by groups of tall casuarina trees near its extremes ; the reef on 
which this island stands extends for 2 miles on all but the western 
side, and on its eastern side is a sand bank drying 4 feet at low water. 

Tambuzi Fass^ between the reefs of Fungu Nameguo and Tam- 
buzi Island, is 3 miles wide, but is divided into two by Bower Shoal, 
lying in mid-channel and consisting of coral patches, the least water, 
1^ fathoms, being near its eastern edge; it may be avoided by not 
bringing the south extreme of Myonji Islet between the bearings of 
261° and 278°. 

The outer part of Tambuzi Pass has depths over 100 fathoms, but 
in the channel southward of Bower Shoal there are from 5 J to 27 
fathoms, and in that to the northward from 5^ to 9 fathoms. 

Anchorage. — ^There is good anchorage about f mile westward of 
Tambuzi Island, in a depth of 9 fathoms, over sand and coral, with 
Myonji Islet summit bearing about 234°. 

Masasari Rock; 3 miles northeastward of Myonji Islet, on the 
northern side of the entrance to the Myonji Pass, is 3 feet high, with 
a sand bank, which uncovers at a quarter ebb, 200 yards northwest- 
ward of it. 

Mwamba Kisanga Mungu embraces the whole of the numerous 
coral patches and rocks including Mshanga Island near the southern, 
and Congo Island near the northern, end, and consists of extensive 



810 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

coral reefs, with several sand banks and detached rocks, having from 
1 fathom to 2 fathoms water between them. 

These coral patches and the shallow w^ater extend in a north and 
south direction, convex on the east side, over a space of 9 or 10 miles, 
affording perfect shelter to Mazimbwa Bay within. 

Mshanga Island, 54 feet high, and composed of coral, is wooded, 
and has a reef extending 1 mile eastward and southward from it. 
Luwinza Eock, 6 feet high, stands on Mwamba Kisanga Mungu Flat 
at about IJ miles northeastward of Mshanga. Congo Island, nearly 
6 miles northward of Mshanga and 35 feet high, is on the north- 
western part of these reefs ; from it coral flats extend in all directions. 

Myonji Pass, between Myonji and Mshanga Reefs, is If miles 
wide, but narrowed to 1 mile by the rocks and shallot water extend- 
ing northward from the reefs surrounding Myonji and Ras Ulu; it 
is the only ship channel leading into Mazimbwa Bay. 

The depths in Myonji Pass are from 12 to 31 fathoms. 

Mazimbwa Bay, northward of Ras TTlu, is a capacious and well- 
sheltered anchorage; its southern shore, covered with mangroves, has 
mul flats extending 1 mile off, and is backed by a wooded range 200 
feet high. From Ras Niguro, at the entrance to Mto Mazimbwa, on 
the northern side at the head of the bay, a range of wooded hills 
extends northward to Cape Ddgado. 

Ras Niguro is a bold cliffy point, and the highest on this part of 
the coast, and from it the cliffs continue along the northern shore of 
the bay for 2 miles; from thence to Ras Msangi the coast is low and 
sandy, occasionally fringed with mangroves. 

Dangers. — At 1 mile off the mud flats in the southern part of 
the bay is Mwamba Msaro, a narrow coral reef 2 miles in length, 
drying at low water, springs, lying parallel with the shore, with 
shallow water between it and the shore reef. 

A patch of 4f fathoms lies in the bay about 1^ miles westward of 
Mshanga Island. 

Mwamba Kisocha, on the northern side of the anchorage in 
Mazimbwa Bay, projects 2| miles from the mainland, with several 
detached shoals to the southward, and shallow water reaching 3| 
miles from the shore. Ras Niguro bearing 273°, leads clear of the 
southern limit of the shallow water ; and Ras Msangi tall trees bear- 
ing 14"^, leads eastward of it. 

Directions. — To enter Mazimbwa Bay by Tambuzi Pass, having 
cleared Bower Shoal as already described, vessels should pass about 
1,200 yards southward of Masasari Rock, and then bring it to bear 
94°, astern, steering 274°, through Myonji Pass. When the western 
extreme of Mshanga bears 36°, steer 312°, avoiding the spit extending 
from Mwamba Msaro, until Ras Niguro bears 278°, when it may be 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELQADO. 311 

steered for on that bearing, anchoring as convenient in Mazimbwa 
Bay. 

There is also an intricate and almost impracticable channel to this 
bay from the northward along the edge of the coast shoals. 

Anchorage. — In Myonji Pass, the water is too deep for conven- 
ient anchorage, but before entering it, or when once through it, a 
vessel can always anchor, the depths varying from 5 to 10 fathoms, 
over muddy bottom. A good berth is in 8 fathoms, with Ras Niguro 
bearing 278°, and Ras Ulu 146°, or a small vessel may anchor nearer 
the river in about 4 fttthoms. 

Tidal streams. — ^The west-going stream is scarcely appreciable, 
but, at springs, the east-going stream sets at rates of from 2 to 3 
knots. 

Mto Mazimbwa entered between Ras Levura and Ras Niguro, 
1^ miles apart, trends in a northwesterly direction for about 4 miles, 
and is then lost in a mangrove swamp ; boats can only ascend it on 
a rising tide, and extenside mud flats and sand banks reduce the 
channel to a few yards in width. A narrow, tortuous 9-foot channel 
leads in southward of Tulupulu Islet lying in the entrance, and, 
when within, for some distance there is a general depth of about 9 
feet, but holes with depths of from 3 to 6 fathoms, and mostly sur- 
rounded by shallows, exist. 

Villages. — Mazimbwa village, on the northern side of the creek 
entrance, has a population of about 400, including several Banians, 
and on the southern side is Mtamba village; a ruined fort, near 
Mazimbwa village, is overgrown with weeds and not visible from 
seaward. The principal export is rubber in a raw state, and the 
imports American cloth, arms, &c. ; a dhow runs monthly to Ibo. 

Supplies. — Fowls, goats, sweet potatoes, etc., are obtainable. 

Hwamba Tambula, 2 2 miles northward of Tambuzi Reef, is a 
reef 4 miles in length, with sand banks and bowlders drying from 
5 to 9 feet, and is steep-to on the northern and eastern sides, the 
surf plainly marking its edge. Nyuni Islet, 17 feet high, at the 
northwestern extreme of the reef, is small, flat, and covered with 
short grass. Gray patches, extending 2J miles north-northwestward 
of Nyuni Islet, are patches of from 2 J to 3 fathoms, with 4 and 5 
fathoms water between them. 

Suna PasS; between Tambuzi Island Reef and Mwamba Tam- 
bula, is 2J miles wide and clear of danger, and may be used by vessels, 
from the northward, bound to Mazimbwa Bay, afterwards proceed- 
ing on either side of Masasari Rock, and from thence as before 
directed. 

Suna Island, from which the pass takes its name, is small and of 
coral formation, its summit crowned with trees 58 feet above the sea; 



3] 2 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

it is free from danger on its western side, but a reef extends about 1 
mile eastward and southward from it. There is a narrow but ap- 
parently clear passage between it and Mwamba Kisanga Mungu 
Reef to the westward. 

As with all these passes, the water is very deep in the entrance, 
often shoaling from 100 to 200 fathoms to less than 20 fathoms 
within a distance of 1 mile, but when on the coral formation the bot- 
tom becomes very even and the shoaling gradual until close to the 
reefs. The shoalest water known in this pass is 5^ fathoms nearly in 
mid-channel. 

Has Msang^y the northern extreme of Mazimbwa Bay, is a well- 
marked point, 47 feet high; it may: be recognized by a clump of 
casuarina trees, 94 feet high, on its northern side, the most conspicu- 
ous object on this part of the mainland. The coast reef extends 1^ 
miles eastward of Ras Msangi, and shallow water borders the point 
to a distance of 2| miles, and also the coast southwestward as far as 
Mwamba Kisocha, described on the preceding page. 

Kifuki and Mtundo Islands^ on one reef extending about 7^ 
miles, in a curve, in a northeast and opposite direction, are 79 and 80 
feet high, respectively, and thickly wooded ; the reef extends in places 
li miles northward, eastward, and southward of these islands, and 
on it at the northeastern end of Mtundo Island, are Sandcay and 
Makunga Islet, 23 feet and 8 feet high, respectively. 

Nyuni Pass, between Mwamba Tambula and the reefs extending 
southward from Kifuki and Mtundo Islands, is 3| miles wide at the 
entrance, but toward the inner end is narrowed to 1,600 yards, be- 
tween the 5-fathom contour lines, by Gray Patches on the southern 
side, and on the northern side by a 3-fathom shoal detached from 
the Kifuki Island Reefs. 

The depths are about 100 fathoms in the outer part of the pass, 
shoaling to from 9 to 18 fathoms in its narrowest part. 

Directions. — To enter Xyuni Pass, steer for Nyuni Islet, bearing 
between 228° and 239°, until the clump of trees on Ras Msangi 
(probably the only portion of the mainland visible) bears 290°, 
when the trees can be steered for; this course loads through it in mid- 
channel to Kifuki Pass, in not less than 10 fathoms. 

Eifuki Pass, between Ras Msangi and the northwest end of Ki- 
fuki Island, has in mid-channel a coral shoal of 4J fathoms. 600 yards 
in extent. The western point of Kifuki may be roimded at a dis- 
tance of 800 yards, but a flat with If fathoms, and perhaps less water, 
extends 2 miles eastward of Ras Msangi. 

Anchorage. — Good anchorage will be found in depths of 5 or 6 
fathoms, over sand and coral, about 5 niile northward or southward 
of the western point of Kifuki, according to the monsoon. 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 313 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Kifuki Pass at 4h. 
10 m. ; springs rise 14 feet, neaps 9 feet. 

Tidal streams. — ^The northwest-going stream attains a velocity 
of from 2 to 3 knots at springs, but is scarcely perceptible at neaps. 

Coast — Ras Nondo. — The coast from Eas Msangi has a general 
north-northeast trend for about lOJ miles to Ras Nondo, the land 
being low and wooded with some small villages situated in coconut 
groves; drying sand banks, with shoal water under 3 fathoms, ex- 
tend as much as 4 miles off, so that landing is impracticable except 
at high water. 

Bas Nondo may be easily recognized from the southward by a 
group of casuarina trees about 80 feet high. 

Islets and dangers. — Northward of Kifuki and Mtundo Islands 
are the following islets and dangers: 

Fungu Makunga are detached patches of 2J and 3 fathoms, the 
latter depth being 3^ miles northeastward of Mtundo Island ; there 
is generally a swell in* Mtundo Pass, causing the sea to break heavily 
on these patches at low water.. 

Mwamba Mtundo, coral and sand patches drying at near low 
water, extend If miles northward of Mtundo. 

Gulnare Reef, 1 mile west-northwestward of Mwamba Mtundo, 
has passages on either side of it, which should not be used by small 
vessels except at low water, when the reefs show plainly. 

Penguin Shoal, 1^ miles in extent and 1 mile northward of Gul- 
nare Reef, has a least depth of 1 fathom. 

Kisungura and Vumba, wooded islets, 44 and 64 feet high, respec- 
tively, are northeastward of the west end of Kifuki Island, and 1^ 
miles northeastward of the latter islet is a coral flat with a mush- 
room-shaped islet, 4 feet high, in its center. 

Wamizi Island^ 92 feet high at its eastern, and 63 feet at its 
western end, and the highest island in the vicinity, being visible from 
a distance of about 15 miles, is nearly 8 miles in length in an east 
and west direction; its western extreme, 2 miles eastward of Ras 
Nondo, is separated by a boat passage. 

The reef on which the island stands, extending in places for 1^ 
miles to the southward, will be seen on a near approach from that 
direction to break heavily and to have a Tvhite sandy beach behind it. 
Mkunga, a small wooded islet, 30 feet high, is on the reef at the 
northeast end of Wamizi Island. 

Mtundo Pass, tlie opening between the dangers northward of 
Mtundo Island and the south side of Wamizi Island, is 3J miles wide 
between Fungu Makunga and Wamizi Reef ; there is generally a swell 
in the pass, causing a break on the former patches. The best channel 
to the inner anchorage, leading northward of Penguin Shoal, is 
1,600 yards in width. 



314 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

The 100-fathom contour line passes about i mile northward of 
Fungu Makunga and 1^ miles eastward of Penguin Shoal, the outer 
part of the pass having depths over 300 fathoms ; the depths north- 
ward of Penguin Shoal, in the channel leading to the inner anchorage, 
are from 7 to 10 fathoms. 

Directions — ^Anchorage. — To enter Mtundo Pass, keep Vumba 
Island bearing between 234° and 251°, to avoid the ds^ngers on either 
side, and when Mkunga Islet, northeastward of Mtundo Island, bears 
about 180° steer for Has Nondo, bearing 300°, until the western 
extreme of Vumba bears 222°, when alter course to 262°, continuing 
until Vumba west extreme bears 208°, which course should lead to 
the anchorage in 7 fathoms water, over sand, with Has Nondo bear- 
ing 318°. 

The 4-fathom passage westward of Vumba is 600 yards wide and 
practicable for vessels of light draft only. The channel southward 
of Penguin Shoal has from 4 to 6 fathoms between the various reefs, 
but the water shoals to 3J fathoms between Vumba and Easungura, 
with several patches of from 2 to 3 fathoms. 

Maiyapa Bay. — The shores of Maiyapa Bay, between Kas Nondo 
and Has Afunji, 12 miles apart, are bordered by extensive sand flats, 
which, with Mwamba Mpanga-panga, Keramimbi and its surround- 
ing reefs, together with numerous deep holes of 30 and 20 fathoms, 
limit the anchoring ground to a comparatively small area. 

The western shore of the bay near Mto Mluri is mangrove, but the 
northern and southern portions are sand, and the only prominent 
features are three casuarina trees, the center and largest, about 70 feet 
high, being 2i miles northwestward of Eas Nondo. In the south- 
western part of the bay are the rivers Mluri and Maiyapa, Marongo, 
the principal village, being about IJ miles northward of the latter, 
while other small villages may be found amongst the coconut groves; 
a few fowls, goats, and sweet potatoes may be obtained. 

Islet and dangers. — Mwamba Mpanga-panga, nearly 2^ miles 
north-northeastward of the west end of Wamizi Island, and composed 
of coral and sand, is li miles in extent, dry in places at low water, 
springs, and steep-to on all sides ; it usually breaks below half tide. 

Pollard Shoal, on the northern side of the entrance to Wamizi 
Pass, and 6 miles northward of the northeast end of Wamizi Island, 
is i mile in extent, with 1} fathoms water and steep-to. 

Keramimbi Island, 40 feet high, on the northern side of the en- 
trance to Maiyapa Bay, is nearly 1 mile in length and thickly wooded. 
A coral reef, dry at low water, surrounds it to a distance of 1^ miles 
on its southern and eastern sides and the whole space within the 
island, as far northward as Eas Afunji, is shallow. 

Wamizi Pass, leading into Maiyapa Bay, between the reefs of 
Wamizi and Eongwi Islands, is 5^ miles wide, and between the reefs 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 315 

of Keramimbi and Wamizi, 3f miles ; it is deep and clear, with the 
exception of Mwamba Mpanga-panga. 

The 100-f athom contour line passes about 1^ miles from the shoals 
on either side of the entrance, and is less than 1 mile from Mwamba 
Mpanga-panga, within which the depths decrease, but there are deep 
holes, as already mentioned; in the bay they are from 5^ to 19 
fathoms. 

Directions — ^Anchorages. — ^The approach to Maiyapa Bay is by 
the Wamizi Pass, and when entering, Mkunga Islet, off the northeast- 
ern end of Wamizi Island, should be passed at a distance of 2 or 3 
miles; when that islet bears 113 "^ it will show clear of Wamizi Island, 
and, if kept on this bearing astern, steering 293°, will lead to an 
anchorage in a depth of about 10 fathoms, over sand and shells, with 
the eastern point of Keramimbi barring 9°. 

If seeking a more sheltered anchorage: from the position just 
given, steer for the large tree, westward of Ras Nondo, bearing 239°, 
until the western end of Wamizi bears 173°, when alter course to 329° 
and anchor as convenient in from 6 to 10 fathoms, over sand and 
coral. 

Anchorage may also be taken under the western edge of Mpanga- 
panga Reef, for which see the chart. The British naval vessel Nassau 
rode out a strong southeasterly gale in smooth water, ^ mile south- 
westward of this reef in 6 fathoms water, over sand and coral. 

Tidal streams. — In Maiyapa Bay both streams attain velocities 
of from 2 to 4 knots, at springs. 

Port Mluri. — A tongue of sand, dry at half ebb, on which are 
Letumba, an islet 30 feet high, and Fungu Mseruro, a drift sand 
bank, projects 2^ miles northward from the southwest shore of 
Maiyapa Bay, and shallow water extends 2 miles farther in a north- 
northeast direction, westward of which is the channel to Port Mluri. 
This channel is narrow, with a l^-fathoms shoal partly blocking the 
fairway ; the anchoring ground in the port has from 7 to 10 fathoms, 
over mud, but is adapted for small vessels only. The Portuguese 
have a settlement here. 

Coast. — Ras Afunji, 15 feet high, the southern point of Tunghi 
Bay, is fronted by a sand bank which dries out fully 1 mile at low 
water. 

Bongwi and Tekomaji Islands stand on one continuous coral 
reef, upwards of 9 miles in length, in a north and south direction, 
the seaward edge of which is steep-to ; both islands are low and flat, 
but densely wooded ; the outer coast of Tekomaji is rocky, but that of 
Rongwi is principally sandy beach. The reef skirts the islands 
generally to a distance of 1 mile, and on the southeastern part, where 
it extends farther off, there are several detached black rocks uncover- 
ing at half ebb. 



316 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

Rongwi Island, separated from Ras Afiinji by a channel 1 mile 
in width between the dangers on either side, and with 4 or 5 feet 
water, is 1^ miles southward of Tekomaji ; off its northwestern point 
is Kamesi, a wooded islet 40 feet high. Tekomaji is of triangular 
shape, 2 miles long. 

When approaching these islands from seaward, the only dis- 
tinguishing features are two rounded clumps of trees 94 feet high, 
on the northeastern part of Eongwi ; and, when within 6 miles, three 
casuarina trees may be seen on the eastern shore of Tekomaji ; there 
are also one or more casuarina trees on the northwestern point of 
Tekomaji. 

Tungiii Bay, between Ras Afunji and Cape Delgado, is about 8 
miles wide, with a sandy beach around its shores except between 
Kiuya (Tunghi) village and Cape Delgado, which portion is rocky; 
between Ras Afunji and the head of the bay it is low and flat, and 
thence to Cape Delgado it is from 80 to 200 feet high. 

On the wooded ridge, westward of Mnangani village, is a con- 
spicuous baobab tree about 250 feet, and 1 mile to the northward, a 
compact group of these trees is 228 feet high ; the former tree is on 
the highest ground anywhere in the vicinity of Cape Delgado. 

Gape Delgado, the northern point of entrance to Tunghi Bay, 
is the low extremity of a peninsula extending 4 miles eastward, and 
i mile within the south side of the cape is a conspicuous palm tree, 
75 feet high, while on the north side of the cape is a hill 85 feet high; 
a reef which is steep-to with no outlying patches extends from south- 
eastward of the cape round the north side of the peninsula, being 
fully 1 mile off in places. 

Light. — Near the extreme of tho, cape a fixed white light is exhib- 
ited at an elevation of 59 feet above high water from a black wooden 
tower, and is visible 3 miles. Far bearings of arc of visibility, see 
Light List. 

Dangers. — The reef surrounding Tekomaji Island, which extends 
nearly IJ miles northeastward and northward of it, is steep-to and, 
with Cape Delgado Reef, is usually marked by surf. 

From Ras Afunji round the head of the bay to Kiuya village, sand 
and coral flats stretch 1 mile offshore, and shallow water extends 
considerably beyond. A patch of 2 J fathoms lies outside the shore 
bank and nearly 3 miles southward of Kiuya village, while farther 
in a 2i-fatliom patch, also outside the shore bank, is 2 miles south- 
southeastward of Mto Mnungi. 

Mto Mnangani, running into the head of Tunghi Bay, is 600 
yards wide at its entrance, but banks, drying at low water, narrow 
it to less than 200 j^ards; canoes can ascend only 1| miles from the 
mouth. Mnangani village is on the western bank at the entrance. 



KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 317 

Channel. — The entrance between the reef northward of Teko- 
maji Island and the shore bank southward of Cape Delgado Penin- 
sula, is If miles in width, continuing for about 6 miles, and is then 
reduced to about f mile between the shore bank on the south side and 
the 2^-f athom patch on the north. 

The 100-fathom contour line cuts into the entrance between the 
west end of Tekomaji Island and Cape Delgado, and within that the 
depths decrease to from 8 to 18 fathoms in the fairway; there is a 
depth of 10 fathoms in the narrow part and from 8 to 9 fathoms in 
the outer part of the channel of Mto Mnangani. 

Buoys. — In the narrow part of the channel a black spherical buoy 
is moored on the south and a red spherical buoy on the north side. 

Directions — ^Anchorage. — Cape Delgado Lighthouse and the 
group of baobabs near Mnangani village assist in identifying Tunghi 
Bay, and the best time to enter is in the morning, the group of 
baobab trees, bearing 265°, leading in mid-channel; soundings will 
not be obtained with the hand lead until Eas Afunji is weU-^ien 
westward of Tekomaji Island, bearing about 180°. 

When Eas Afunji bears 177° a vessel of deep draft should ^H:iier 
anchor or steer for it on that bearing, anchoring westward of the 
north lextreme of Tekomaji Island, with its west extreme bearing 
from 104° to 117°, the anchorage being sheltered. Vessels of light 
draft could continue with the baobabs bearing 265°, anchoring in 
from 6 to 9 fathoms, over mud, when Eas Afunji bears 144°, but the 
swell is sometimes considerable at this anchorage. A small vessel 
might pass between the black and red buoys and anchor off Mto 
Mnangani in 9 or 10 fathoms. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Tunghi Bay, at 4 h. 
5 m. ; springs rise 14 feet, neaps 9 feet. 

Eiuya Village, or Tunghi, is concealed from view by a belt of 
thick mangrove bushes fronting the shore, but its position may be 
readily identified by a thick grove of coconut trees; an old fort in 
the village is a small square building in a dilapidated state. Dhows, 
with masts down, lie completely hidden in small creeks in the man- 
groves. 

Supplies. — A few fowls, eggs, etc., are usually obtainable, and 
firewood, which may be cut on any part of the coast between Eas 
Pekawi and Cape Delgado, is generally ill adapted for steaming pur- 
poses, but by a careful selection of trees many of them might advan- 
tageously be used with coal. 

Climate. — The fever months here are coincident with the prin- 
cipal rainy months, viz, February to May. 

Winds. — The general experience gained in the British naval ves- 
sel Nassau^ whilst surveying the coast, was as follows: Northeast 
winds from December to March, getting lighter as the season pro- 



318 KILIMAN TO CAPE DELGADO. 

gresses, varied occasionally by heavy squalls of wind and rain from 
northwest, accompanied by vivid lightning and heavy thunder. 

The change of monsoons takes place in April ; heavy squalls then 
frequently occur from south and southwest, but by the beginning of 
May the steady southern monsoon has set in, the wind generally 
freshening in the afternoon to a strong breeze, and from this month 
the force gradually lessens, and the wind veers to the eastward. 

By October very light easterly winds prevail, the change to the 
northeast monsoon taking place gradually in the early part of No- 
vember, accompanied by a few light showers. 

Between the islands and the mainland, sea and land breezes pre- 
vail, the former, during May and June, blow very fresh. 

Currents. — ^The separation of the equatorial current takes place 
between the parallels of about latitude 10° or 11° 0' south, in the 
vicinity of Cape Delgado. During the height of the northeast mon- 
soon the separation is at its maximum northern limit, and vice versa. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 

Coast. — From Cape Delgado, the coast is low and thickly wooded 
as far as Ras Swafo, a distance of 14 miles; between are Mbwezi 
and Keonga Bays, separated from each other by Ras Nasunga, the 
shore being for the whole distance skirted by reefs. The long ocean 
tfwell generally breaks heavily on these reefs, which are thus made 
visible for some distance. 

Mbwezi Bay, between Cape Delgado and Eas Nasunga, is about 
Bi miles wide between the reefs, with a long white sandy beach in its 
western part. There is, however, no anchorage in this bay, the 
depths being from 150 to 200 fathoms in the entrance, and the reefs 
which skirt the coast steep-to; as there are no creeks, landing is 
seldom practicable. 

Mbwezi village stands on the southwest side of the bay, near the 
southern end of the sandy beach, in a grove of coconut trees. 

Sas Nasunga, which is low, may be recognized by the number 
of detached rocks off it, and has a reef, with bowlders on its outer 
edge, extending in a southeasterly direction 1^ miles from it, dimin- 
ishing in width to about 1,600 yards near the village of Mbwezi, and 
from thence round Cape Delgado. The sea generally breaks on the 
outer edge, while on the reef, but within the edge, it may be compara- 
tively smooth. 

Eeonga Bay is 4 miles wide between Ras Nasunga and Ras Sama- 
dudu, and from the latter northward, the coast is low, thickly 
wooded, and with a fringing reef H miles wide; Mwamba Ricoma, 
the southern termination of this coast reef, drying in places, at low 
water, forms the northern boundary of Keonga Bay. 

There are also a number of sand banks that dry at low water, 
springs, near the head of the bay, but the water deepens rapidly out- 
side the 5-fathoms contour line, affording but little anchorage space, 
and the bottom is rocky in places; within the same line are shallow 
heads of coral, of which several dry. 

The Keonga, the Letonda, its mouth known by tall casuarina trees 
on its northern side, and the Mpambi, at the head of Keonga Bay, are 
arms of the sea; Mto Mpambi is said to join Mto Decomba to the 
northwestward at spring tides, when it affords a passage for canoes. 

319 



320 CAPE DELGADO TO HAS KANZI. 

Buoyage. — ^The best water from the bay to Mto Letonda is indi- 
cated by three red and black vertically striped conical buoys, marked 
Kl, K2, and K3. The fairway buoy, Kl, is surmounted by a St 
Andrew's cross, and moored in 11 fathoms, at nearly 2 miles from 
the mouth of the Letonda. 

The other two buovs, moored in mid-channel, in about 16 feet 
water, have the letter and number on them in white. 

Directions — Anchorage. — To proceed to the anchorage in Ke- 
onga Bay steer for Ras Nasunga, bearing 192°, until in 10 fathoms 
water, when the anchor may be immediately let go, but the best 
anchorage is in a depth of 7i fathoms, over sand, on this bearing of 
Ras Nasunga, and with the northernmost point of land seen bear- 
ing 327° and the south point of Mto Keonga, 274°. 

Small craft can enter Mto Letonda, guided by the buoys, but local 
assistance should be obtained ; in the creek, the southern shore must 
be kept aboard. The channel leading to Keonga is shallow and tor- 
tuous; boats should only ascend it with a rising tide. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Keonga Bay at 4 h. 
10 m. ; springs rise 12 feet. 

Village. — Keonga Village, about 2 miles up on the southern side 
of Keonga Creek, stands in a grove of coconut trees on a small ridge 
70 feet high; it is frequented by trading dhows, and has a popula- 
tion of about 4,000. There is a well of good water before the village, 
but other supplies are not obtainable. 

Bovuma Bay is contained between Ras Swafo and Ras Matunda, 
the distance between being about 9 miles and the bay receding about 
4 miles to the river entrance. 

Bas Swafo (Cape Rovunaa) , the southeastern point of Rovuma 
Bay is low and thickly wooded, with a small conical hillock, 77 feet 
high, i mile inland ; this hillock is conspicuous when near the land. 
Northward of Ras Swafo, the reef dries in patches about 1,400 
yards from the shore at low water, springs, and for 1^ miles the 
depths are only from 1 fathom to 2 fathoms. The edge of this bank 
is steep-to, and the tidal streams run strongly, making a wide berth 
necessarv. 

From Ras Swafo, round the head of the bav to Mto Letokoto, the 
shore is bordered with mangrove trees, and is nearly all swamp at 
high water, springs. About 2 miles northward of the entrance to 
Rovuma River, close to the shore, is a conspicuous square clump of 
trees, and IJ miles farther northward is a group of three tall trees, 
which from seaward forms one of the most prominent features in 
Rovuma Bay. 

Mto Decomba is a creek J mile westward of Ras Swafo, with a 
bar on which the sea generally breaks heavily, but it is sometimes 



CAPE DELGADO TO BAS KANZI. 321 

possible for a boat to get in at half tide. Within the bar there is 
from 2 to 3 fathoms water for 1 mile, and, as before stated, it is said 
to be navigable for canoes to Keonga Bay, at high water, springs. 

Mto Mquango is a small creek eastward of the Rovmna River, into 
which boats can enter at high water, springs, but some little distance 
up it is almost impassable even for canoes; the sea generally breaks 
heavily oflF the entrance of this creek. 

Mto LetokotOy a creek northward of the Rovuma River, is about 
f mile wide at the entrance and reported to be navigable by canoes 
for 15 miles, where it joints the Rovuma River, but the bar dries 
across the mouth. 

Ras Matunda, the northern point of the bay, may be recognized 
by a series of white sand hills, near the coast, about 80 feet high 
and 1 mile in extent ; a single tall tree on their northeastern extreme 
is conspicuous either from the northward or southward. The fring- 
ing coast reef dries nearly 1 mile off the ras, from whence it trends 
south westward to the remarkable square clump of trees southward of 
Mto Letokoto, where its width decreases to 300 yards, but with shal- 
low water some distance beyond. 

Hills. — ^Kilima Mundo, a rather sharp, well-wooded peak, 350 
feet high, on the southern side of the Rovuma River, and 6 miles 
within the entrance, is the highest land in the vicinity. Kilima 
Macheriuka, northward of Rovuma River and 6J miles inland, is the 
southeastern shoulder of a flat range extending to the northwestward, 
which may be readily identified by three large baobab trees near the 
summit of its eastern face, one of which is about 341 feet above the 
ist^a. 

Anchorage. — There is good anchorage on the southern side of 
Rovuma Bay in 7 fathoms water, over mud, with Ras Matunda bear- 
ing 337°, Kilima Mundo 226°, and the extreme of Ras Swafo 125°. 
Less swell is experienced here than in other parts of the bay. 

Good anchorage may also be obtained on the northern side of the 
bay in a depth of 10 fathoms over mud, with Ras Matunda bearing 
358°, and the remarkable square clump of trees southward of Mto 
Letokoko, 268°. There is no anchorage immediately off Rovuma 
River entrance, as the bank is very steep, and the depth decreases 
from 90 fathoms to 5 fathoms within a distance of 400 yards. 

Landing. — Westward of Mto Decomba is a long, flat, sandy beach, 
on which it is possible to land occasionally, but between Rovuma 
River and Ras Matunda it is seldom possible to effect a landing, the 
bay being open to the ocean swell and heavy-breaking rollers at all 
times. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Rovuma Bay at 4 h. 
10 m. ; springs rise 12 feet. 

39511—16 21 



322 GAPE DELOADO TO BA6 KAKZL 

Tidal streams. — ^The stream of the rising tide in the bay sets 
southeastward, and the other stream in a contrary direction; when 
the river is high the stream runs out without ceasing, overcoming 
the in-going stream. 

Bovuma River is about f mile wide between the trees on either 
side of its mouth, but at low water this width is reduced to less than 
half by a sand bank that dries from the western shore. From 
thence the direction of the river is southwestward, but when ex- 
amined in September, during the dry season, the river being then 
very low, about 2 miles within the entrance it was obstructed by sand 
banks in places nearly dry at low water, springs. 

Although there is no bar the great depth of water immediately 
outside the river, changing suddenly to 30 fathoms, causes dangerous 
overfalls, especially when the wind is blowing from the eastward, 
rendering it at such times unsafe for a boat to attempt to enter, the 
sea breaking right across; the out-going stream runs stronger near 
the mouth of the river than a rowing boat could stem. 

The entrance is not easily made out until abreast of it, and there 
are several smaller openings both northward and eastward of it. 
The muddy water from the river extends into deep water, and the 
clearly defined line of meeting with the blue water is very noticeable. 

Inland navigation. — About 2 miles within the mouth of the 
river, sand banks commence and render the navigation intricate, the 
channel being narrow, with a depth of only a few feet in places, and 
here and there crossing abruptly from one side of the river to the 
other. The navigation of the Rovuma depends much on the season, 
it being highest in March and lowest about October. 

The British navel vessel Pioneer^ in March, 1861, ascended the 
river for a distance of 30 miles, and found that the water subsided 
in the middle of the month, but rose again nearly to its former height 
at its end, the examination of the river being made between these 
period ; at the turning point there appeared to be no impediment to 
further progress, but as the water began to fall rapidly it was con- 
sidered advisable to return to the entrance, in doing which a depth 
of 5 feet only was found in places, the stream running 3 knots. 

In September, 18G2, Dr. Livingstone ascended the river in boats 
for 156 miles, and proceeded to latitude 11° 53' south, longitude 
38° 36' east, just below Nyamatolo Island, and about 114 miles as the 
crow flies from the coast; the ascent occupied 15 days and the descent 
10 days. The river was unusually low, entailing frequent dragging 
the boats over the shallow parts. 

The river bed, about f mile wide, was flanked by well-wooded 
tableland, apparently ranges of hills 500 feet high, and sometimes 
the spurs of the hills came close to the river, but there was generally 
about 1 mile of alluvial soil between the highland and the bank. 



CAPE DELGADO TO BAS KANZI. 323 

About 60 miles up the river the tableland receded and there was 
an immense plain with detached granite rocks and hills dotted about 
it, while here some rocks appeared in the river. At Nyamatolo 
Island the river bed was all rocky, the water rushing through 
numerous cham.els between rocky masses 4 or 5 feet out of water, 
which were said to be navigable for canoes. 

The distance from Ngomano, 30 miles above Nyamatolo Island, to 
Lake Nyasa, was said to be about 12 days' journey. The Lujenda 
River, rising in the mountains on the southeastern side of Lake 
Nyasa, enters the Rovuma at Ngomano, and there is a route to Lake 
Kilwa along its banks, but the stream is only ankle deep in the dry 
season. 

Natives. — There are but few inhabitants near the mouth of the 
river, but farther up are numerous villages, some on sand islets in 
the river. 

Supplies^ etc. — Only a scanty supply of provisions is to be ob- 
tained from the natives ; the tsetse fly is met with along the Rovuma, 
and the people in consequence have no cattle. The river water affects 
people adversely until accustomed to it. Wood for steamers may be 
procured. 

Msimbati Channel. — From Ras Matunda the coast and reef 
trend in a northwest direction for 4 miles to Ras Ruvura, the latter, 
which is steep-to, extending from 1,000 to 1,600 yards from the 
shore. Msimbati Channel, from 800 to 1,400 yards in width, is a 
break between the reef at Ras Ruvura and that extending from Mana 
Hawanja Island, on the northwest side. 

From the northwestern side of entrance to this channel a reef 
nearly 2 miles in width, and with two islets on it, protects Mnazi 
Bay, extending 10 miles to the northwestward, where it turns west- 
ward to Mikindani Bay. 

Mana Hawanja, the southeastern islet, about i mile within the 
edge of the reef forming the pass, is 83 feet high, and covered with 
trees. 

Mongo, the larger islet, is thickly wooded, and has a number of 
tall trees near its northwestern extreme that show well from the 
northward ; southwestward of that extreme Nakitumbi Island is con- 
nected with it by a bank of sand which dries soon after high water. 

Shoal. — A shoal with a depth of 2^ fathoms has been discovered 
about 8 miles 17° from Ras Ruvura. 

Mnazi Bay, the large sheet of water within the coral reef which 
surrounds the islands of Mana Hawanja and Mongo, is about 8 miles 
long in a northwest and southeast direction, or 12 miles including 
the shallow portion at the northwestern end, and about 5 miles wide 
from Msimbati Channel, to the southwestern bight of the bay; its 



324 CAPE DEUiADO TO RAS KANZI. 

extremes are shallow but the middle is clear, the bottom being sand 
and coral. 

A bank of sand and coral, extending from i mile to IJ miles off- 
shore, fringes the whole of the bay from Ras Msimbati to Bas San- 
gamku, which makes landing difficult, except at higJi water, when it 
is practicable at Mnazi village. 

Depths. — The depths in Msimbati Channel are from 20 to 41 
fathoms, shoaling to from 7 to 16 fathoms in the clear space of the 
bay. 

Dangers. — Fungu Achumbu, a coral reef, IJ miles in length, 
drying in patches at low water, is situated with its northeastern end 
lying about 1 mile westward of Ras Msimbati, the inner entrance 
point on the southeast side. At 600 yards eastward of this end of 
Fungu Achumbu, and in line with Ras Msimbati, is a patch, awash 
at low water, with a deep-water passage on each side. 

A coral patch, drying at low water, and lying nearly 1 mile north- 
westward of the ras, is on a bank of sand and coral, 1,300 yards in 
extent within the 5-fathoms contour line, with depths varying from 
1 J to 4 J fathoms, nearly in mid-channel. 

Directions. — From abreast of the entrance, steer in between the 
the reefs, with Ras Msimbati bearing 198°, until the south extreme 
of Mana Ilawanja Island bears 305°; then steer 218° in order to 
avoid the coral flat, with from 2 to 3 fathoms, which extends off- 
shore northward of Ras Msimbati, and when that point bears 170° 
it can be steered for, anchoring as convenient in depths of from 
10 to 15 fathoms, over sand. 

Should the wind be fresh from the northward, a better anchorage 
will be found southward of Mana Hawanja Island; to reach this 
anchorage, steer in as before for Ras Msimbati until the southwestern 
point of Mana Hawanja Island bears 316°, then alter course to 307°, 
and anchor in from 10 to 13 fathoms as convenient. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Mnazi Bay at 4 h. 
m. ; springs rise 11 feet. 

Tidal streams. — The stream in Msimbati Channel runs at rates 
of from 4 to 5 knots at springs, with heavy overfalls off the point of 
the reef extending southeastward of Mana Hawanja Island. There 
is very little tidal stream within the bay, but outside the streams, 
following the direction of the coast, running northwestward and 
southeastward, and attaining velocities of from 2 to 3 knots, at 
springs, are strongest near the reefs, the southeast-going stream being 
that of the rising tide. 

Village. — Mnazi is a small village on the southwest shore of the 
bay, and goats, poultry, and eggs may be procured. 

Wood and water. — ^Mangrove wood for steaming purposes can 
be procured on any part of this coast, but if native labor can not be 



CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 325 

obtained, it is as well, if possible, to shun the fever-breeding swamps 
in which the mangrove chiefly thrives. 

Water for boats could be obtained from a well near the coast, about 
i mile northward of Ras Msimbati, but there is no place between 
Cape Delgado and Mikindani Bay where a vessel can obtain water 
with facility. 

Mikindani Bay, the entrance to which lies between Ras San* 
gamku and Cape Paman, is there about 4J miles wide between the 
reefs on either side. Mwamba Aveu, a steep-to drying coral reef, 
extends fully 1| miles northward of Ras Sangamku, on the east, and 
a similar reef extends 1,600 yards off Cape Paman and the coast 
northeastward of it, on the west sid£. The shores of the bay are 
fringed by coral flats, drying in patches at low water, springs, and 
extending from 600 yards to 1 mile off. 

Mikindani Bay may be readily identified from seaward by Mlima 
Mjoho, a remarkable conical hill, 617 feet high, and wooded, about 
10 miles south westward of the center of the entrance ; also, if within 
7 miles of the entrance, by Hull Rocks, 62 and 54 feet high, close east- 
ward of Cape Paman, and forming a mass of conglomerate coral cov- 
ered with brushwood. Both sides of the bay are low and thickly 
wooded, while at the head, over Mikidani Harbor, the hills rise from 
300 to 617 feet above the sea level; about 2 miles south westward of 
Ras Sangamku is a conspicuous high tree. 

Shangani Shoal, a patch with a least depth of 3 fathoms, over 
coral and sand, and deep water all around it, lies in the fairway to 
Mto Mtwara on the southeast side of the bay, and nearly 2 miles 
northward of the entrance to that harbor. 

A shoal with a least depth of 6 fathoms has been discovered about 
800 yards from Shangani Shoal in Mikindani Bay. It has not been 
examined. 

Anchorage. — The only anchorage in the open bay is on its eastern 
side, between Shangani Shoal and the reef fringing that side of 
the bay. 

Mto Mtwara, a spacious and well-sheltered harbor, entered on 
the southeastern side of Mikindani Bay, is 3^ miles long by IJ miles 
wide, and affords good anchorage over the greater part of it. The 
entrance is deep, and from 300 to 400 yards wide between Mwamba 
Ribunda and Mwamba Shangani, the coral flats fringing the coast on 
either side. 

Messemo Point, on the eastern side of the entrance, has near it a 
conspicuous tree which leans to the westward and has drooping 
foliage. 

Messemo Sand Pit, on the eastern side of the cliannel and about 1^ 
miles within the edge of the reefs, is steep-to, as is Ras Richemerero, 
the western point of entrance, but shoal water extends about 200 



326 CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 

yards in the bight southward of it Patches of from 2 to 3 fathoms 
lie near the middle of the harbor, as shown on the plan. On the 
southern side is Mto Pwazie, a creek with from 3^ to 6 fathoms for 
the first mile within the entrance, and extending about 1 mile farther 
southward, when it becomes lost in the mangroves. 

Depths. — Mikindani Bay is deep, having 280 fathoms in the center 
of the entrance, but there are depths of from 9 to 16 fathoms about 
i mile oflf the reef, southeastward of Shangani Shoal. The entrance 
to Mto Mtwara has 20 fathoms water, and within the depths are from 
6 to 20 fathoms. 

Directions. — To avoid the Shungani Shoal, when entering Mto 
Mtwara, keep Hull highest ro^k bearing 313° astern, or Ras Riche- 
merero ahead, bearing eastward of 168° until Ras Sangamku bears 
69^5 when with a good lookout aloft, there is no difficulty in entering 
the harbor with the sun astern, the eye and color of the water being 
the best guides. 

When past Ras Richemerero, if entering with the ingoing stream, 
keep well over on the eastern side, but if the outgoing stream is 
running, keep toward Mtwara villc^ge to allow for turning, as the 
sti'eam runs sharply round Messemo Sandspit at rates of from 2^ to 
3 knots. 

Anchorage. — The best temporary berth is near Messemo Spit, in 
14 fathoms water, over sand, with the end of the spit bearing 284°, 
and a conspicuous cliff on the southwest side of the bay, 210°. If 
intending to make any stay, there is better anchorage under the 
northern shore farther up the harbor, in from 7 to 10 fathoms 
over mud. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Mto Mtwara Harbor 
at 3 h. 45 m. ; springs rise 12 feet. 

Tidal streams. — The tidal streams are strong at the western 
anchorage as well as in the entrance channel. 

Supplies. — At three villages on the shores of the harbor small 
supplies are obtainable. 

Misete Creek, between Mto Mtwara and Mikindani Harbor, has 
an entrance about 300 yards wide between Mwamba Shangani and 
Mwamba Dadi, and within the entrance it expands into a basin 
nearly i mile wide, with a bottom of sand and pebbles. A small 
vessel would be well sheltered here, but with the harbors of Mikin- 
dani and Mto Mtwara so near, there could be no object in entering 
such a confined space. 

The depth in the entrance is 10 fathoms, decreasing to 3i fathoms 
IJ miles within; the basin at the head has from 1 J to 3 J fathoms. 

Mikindani (Pimlea) Haxbor, at the head of Mikindani Bay, 
affords secure anchorage, but the entrance channel is only 300 yards 
wide in one place between the coral flats projecting on either side. 



CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 327 

Nearly i mile southward of the head of the bay is Bismarck Hill, 
348 feet high, and about halfway up its northern slope is a white 
house with a tower, visible from a considerable distance seaward. 

The depths on the anchorage channel are from 5f to 12 fathoms, 
and 7 fathoms at the anchorage. 

Dangers. — At J mile southwestward of Pemba Point, on a shoal 
spit projecting from the western side of the harbor, is a rock with 
less than 6 feet water, and 850 yards farther in nearly the same 
direction is a rock with 2^ fathoms. 

In the southern part of the bay, 600 yards north-northeastward of 
the customhouse, are two rocks awash at low water, and a third rock 
lies nearly 400 yards from the customhouse on the same bearing; 
eastward of this, shore bank, with depths under 2 fathoms, extends 
1,200 yards from the south shore, and the western shore is shoal for 
about 800 yards. 

Buoys. — ^The eastern side of the entrance channel is marked by 
two black conical buoys, marked, in white, 1/MIK and 2/MIK. 

The western side of the channel has two red spar buoys, marked, 
in white, A/MIK and B/MIK, the outer surmounted by a triangle. 

The east side of the 2J-fathom rock, nearly in the center of the 
bay, is marked by a white spar buoy, surmounted by a ball. 

A white conical buoy, surmounted by two triangles, is moored on 
the north side of the two rocks, 600 yards northward of the custom- 
house. 

Directions — ^Anchorage. — To enter Mikindani Harbor from the 
northward, after passing i mile outside Hull Eocks, a 185° course 
leads up to about 1 mile eastward of Ras Managumba, a sharp rocky 
point, 15 feet high, with two villages northward of it, on the western 
side of the bay. 

From this steer about 210°, bringing the district office, a building 
with a tower halfway up a hill, at the head of the harbor, in line 
with Gunia Point, passing between the red spar buoy and the black 
conical buoys, at the entrance, and farther in. 

When within the entrance points, steer about 215° for the custom- 
house, a low white house near the shore flanked by two small towers, 
anchoring in about 6J fathoms water, over mud, when Mirumba 
Fort bears about 254°. 

The channel is so narrow that a vessel is easily conned by eye when 
the Sim is in a favorable position; the reefs on either side show at 
low water. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Mikindani Harbor 
at 3 h. 50 m. ; springs rise 12 feet. 

Tidal streams. — The tidal stream in the harbor is scarcely per- 
ceptible. 



328 CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZF. 

Village. — ^The houses of the village of Mikindani extend along 
the shore, from eastward of the customhouse to Mirumba Fort. 

Coxmnunication. — A coasting steamer calls regularly at the port, 
and there is telegraphic communication with Kilwa, Dar es Salaam, 
and other coast ports to the northward. 

Supplies. — The usual small supplies of poultry and eggs are 
obtainable at the village, but the water is bad, although a spring of 
good water exists in the neighborhood. 

Trade, etc. — The principal products of the neighborhood are 
gum copal, ivory, seeds, and rice, which are exchanged for European 
commodities, chiefly through the Banians. Mikindani is reputed to 
be the most unhealthy port of German East Africa. 

Coast. — From Cape Paman, the northwestern extreme of Mikin- 
dani Bay, to Mgau Mwania, 10 miles west-northwestward, the coast 
is low and bordered by a reef extending from 1,400 to 1,600 yards 
to 1^ miles offshore; the only remarkable feature is a dark clump of 
trees, 80 feet high, 3^ miles beyond Cape Paman. When off Mgau 
Mwania, Mlima Mjoho, already described, shows as the southern 
extreme of the hilly range. 

From Mgau Mwania to Mto Lindi, about 16 miles northwestward, 
the coast is again low, with a reef extending from i mile to 1^ miles 
off; from Mto Lindi the coast turns to the northward continuing 
low to Mzungu Bay, a distance of 27 miles, with some mangrove 
islets on the reef, which, southward of Ras Kera, extends about 1 
mile offshore, the land at the back becoming bolder near Ras Kera. 

At 2 or 3 miles inland, a wooded range, 400 feet high, extends 
parallel with the shore. From Mzungu Bay to Kiswere Harbor the 
coast is rocky. 

Mgau Mwania, or Mungulho River, entered between Fungu 
Chosan and Fungu Gomani, the coral reefs extending about 1 mile 
off the east and west entrance points, respectively, may be easily 
distinguished by the break in the land when the river opens bearing 
about 220°, and also by the Madjovi or Mushroom Rocks, 15 feet 
high, situated 400 yards within the edge of Fungu Gomani. 

During the southern monsoon in the afternoon when the wind is 
from about east-southeast, and also when the northern monsoon is 
strong, the sea at times appears to break nearly across the entrance, 
which has a width of about 400 yards. 

Reefs. — Xymphe Shoal, about ^ mile in extent, within the 5- 
fathom contour line, with a least depth of 2| fathoms, lies in the 
fairway of the approach to the river entrance, and 1.7 miles north- 
eastward of Madjovi Rock. 

Fungu Chosan and Fungu Gomani, the fringing coral reefs on 
each side of the entrance, are continued seaward by shoal water, 



CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 329 

with depths under 3 fathoms, for a distance of about 1^00 yards, 
and outside the edges are some detached patches of from 2J to 3 
fathoms. 

Ras Swa-Swa, a pomt on the east side of the channel, nearly 2^ 
miles within the entrance, has a spit extending 400 yards westward 
of it, with shallow water about 200 yards beyond, and isolated patches 
dry at from 400 to 600 yards oflf the southern shore, on the southeast 
side of Mto Sudi. 

Directions. — Approaching Mgau Mwania do not close the coast 
within 2^ miles until the white customhouse at the western extreme 
of the beach at Sudi is well open, and bringing it in line with a gap 
in the distant hills, bearing 201°, it leads westward of the Nymphe 
Shoal and up to the entrance of the river. 

When Madjovi High Eock bears 224° edge to the eastward until 
the old customhouse is well open of the sand spit of Ras Swa-Swa, 
and steering for the white customhouse leads in mid-channel to the 
anchorage off Mwania. 

If bound to the anchorage above Ras Swa-Swa, keep as nearly as 
possible in mid-chaniiel, edging slightly to the westward when near- 
ing Ras Swa-Swa until nearly abreast Mto Mwepi to avoid the spit 
extending 400 yards from that point, and also the coral patch on the 
opposite side of the channel, and then keeping southeastward into 
Mto Sudi. The spit extending from Ras Swa-Swa shows by dis- 
coloration, even at high water. 

Anchorag^es. — Temporary anchorage may be found within 
Nymphe Shoal in a depth of 9 fathoms, over sand and coral, with 
the highest Madjovi Rock bearing 215°, distant about 1 mile. 

A convenient anchorage for vessels of war is in mid-river in a 
depth of 9 fathoms, over mud, about 400 yards west-northwestward 
of the point close to the southwest end of Mwania village, while in 
Mto Sudi a vessel can anchor in 6 fathoms, over sand, J mile south- 
westward of Ras Swa-Swa, or in from 7^ to 8 fathoms off Sudi 
village. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Mgau Mwania at 
3 h. 45 m. ; springs rise 12 feet. 

Tidal streams. — Off the entrance the stream of the rising tide 
runs northward and the other stream southeastward at rates of from 
2 to 3 knots, the north-going stream being the stronger during the 
southern monsoon. 

Villages — Supplies. — There are several villages on the banks 
of Mgau Mwania, but at none of them can supplies beyond a few 
fowls and country fruits be obtained. On the eastern point of the 
entrance is Mkiya, and about 600 yards farther in is the larger village 
of Mwania. Sudi, the principal village, and the only one where good 



330 CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZl. 

water is to be found, is on the western bank above Bas Swa-Swa and 
about 3 miles from the entrance. 

Lindi Bay lies between Ras Shuka on the southern, and Ras 
Banura or Kiremba Point on the northern, side, 3| miles apart; Ras 
Banura is a cliffy point above 25 feet high. The hills over the west- 
ern shore, rising to a height of 976 feet, are well wooded, and culti- 
vated in patches ; Mlima Mdemba, 947 feet high, and about 7 miles 
westward of Ras Banura, has a grove of coconut trees on its summit. 

Mto Lindi enters the bay in its southwestern comer and about 5 
miles south-southwestward of the entrance are Mlima Atu and Mlima 
Nimi, 699 and 733 feet high, respectively. 

The depths in the outer part of the bay are from 50 to 250 fathoms, 
but in the inner part the 20 and 5 fathoms contour lines are close 
together at about 2 miles from the head of the bay, the whole portion 
within that being shallow. 

Dangers. — On the southern side of the entrance, Fungu Myangi 
extends about i mile northward of Ras Shuka, but from thence west- 
ward to Ras Rungi, the fringing reef does not extend more than 600 
yards; the outer edge of Fungu Myangi is a ridge of dead coral and 
bowlders, the top of which covers at three-quarters flood, and on it 
the sea sometimes breaks heavily. On the northern side of the bay 
the coast reef extends 600 yards in places, and the fringing reefs 
on both sides are steep-to. 

Umtamar Shoal, the outer extreme of the shallow water extend- 
ing 1.4 miles north-northwestward of Ras Rungi, has a least depth 
of li fathoms at low water, springs. 

Directions. — ^Approaching from the eastward, the land about 
Lindi Bay, being the highest on the coast between Mikindani and 
Zanzibar, can not be mistaken, and from either the southward or the 
northward the great indentation in the coastline, together with this 
high land, are sufficient to indicate its position. 

Bound to Lindi Bay from the northward, the coast should be given 
a berth of 1 mile, until abreast of Ras Banura, and from this posi- 
tion, a number of buildings near Ras Ekapapa and the northern end 
of Lindi town, on the western point of entrance to Mto Lindi, will be 
seen. 

Anchorages. — There is fair anchorage along the northern side 
of Lindi Bay during the northeast monsoon between Ras Ekapapa 
and Ras Mungu, in a depth of 8 fathoms, over sand, with the south 
extreme of the land eastward of Ras Ekapapa bearing 70°, and 
Ras Rungi about 201° ; also a temporary anchorage in 5 fathoms, 
mud, oflP Ras Rungi, with the center of Mwentengi village bearing 
143°, and Ras Rungi 190°. The best anchorage, however, as regards 
holding ground, shelter, and convenience for vessels of moderate 



CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 331 

draft visiting Lindi, is off the town, within the bar, as described 
on the following page. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Mto Lindi at 4 h. 5 
m. ; springs rise 11 feet. 

Tidal streams. — The tidal streams in the bay, outside the bank 
of soundings, are not strong, but within Ras Eungi they run from 2 
to 3 knots, the outgoing stream being very strong during the rainy 
season, when a vessel seldom swings to the contrary stream. 

Mto Lindi. — The entrance to the river is nearly i mile wide be- 
tween its banks, but the navigable channel has a width of 400 yards 
only. From Gala Island, on which there is a village, 3 miles above 
the entrance, the river takes a southwesterly direction for about 3 
miles, where there are several branches. Mtali, the principal one, is 
navigable, at about half tide, for vessels of from 6 to 8 feet draft 
for about 10 miles. At 13 miles up it apparently ends in a swamp, 
as boats could not proceed beyond. 

Banks. — Extending 850 yards from Ras NandO; the western point 
of entrance, is a sand bank which dries 4 feet at low water, and 
southward of this, on the same side, is Fungu Mbachiwonaki, a bank 
of coral and sand ^ mile in length, which dries at half ebb, and is 
connected with the sand bank from Ras Nando by a bar nearly dry 
at low water, over which there is a channel for small craft. 

Bar — Depths. — From a short distance westward of Ras Rungi, 
a bar about 200 yards in width connects with the bank, of which 
Umtamar Shoal is the extreme, and on the bar there is said to be a 
depth of 17J feet at low water, spring tides, although from 13 to 
15 feet have been reported, and it is not recommended that vessels 
above 20 feet should cross the bar without previous examination or 
the assistance of a pilot; within the bar the water deepens to from 
7 to 10 fathoms at the anchorage off the town. 

Beacons. — Two leading beacons stand a short distance northwest- 
ward of the town, the front beacon being a white obelisk, 16 feet 
high, on the beach ; the rear beacon is a pole 30 feet high, with white 
triangular topmark. When in line from seaward, bearing 241°, they 
lead up to and just southward of the fairway buoy, but they are 
reported to be difficult to distinguish in the afternoon and evening, 
even in clear weather. 

Buoys. — Two red spar buoys with white topmarks, A and B and 
A/Lindi and B/Lindi marked on them, are moored on the line of 
the leading beacons; the outer buoy, being the fairway buoy, is 
moored in 3 fathoms on the southeastern edge of the spit forming 
the northern side of the entrance. A similar buoy to the above, but 
with a topmark C and C/Lindi marked on it is moored in 2^ fathoms 
about i mile northeastward of the fort; it has a white board with 



332 CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI, 

"5 meter" on it. The fact of these buoys being in position must 
not be depended on. 

Directions. — To enter the river, steer in from seaward with the 
fort well open of Ras Rungi', bearing 228° until the leading beacons 
are nearly in line bearing 241° when keep slightly to the southward 
of this line, which leads northward of the reef off Mwentengi village 
and in the best water between Ras Rungi and the fairway buoy, 
passing about 100 yards southeastward of the latter. 

Continue on this course and allowing for set of the tidal stream 
until the saddle between Mlima Nuni and Mlima Atu is in line with 
the middle of the entrance to the river bearing about 200° and 
altering coui*se on this mark will lead to the anchorage off the 
town. 

Anchorage. — The anchorage for vessels of moderate draft is in 
a depth of 9 fathoms, over sand and mud, northeastward of the 
town, with Ras Rungi bearing 170° and Lindi Fort 260°; there is 
a single baobab tree on Ras Rungi close to two houses. 

Town. — The town of Lindi, built under a grove of coconut trees, 
has a fort, a customhouse, and other Government buildings, which 
lie near the shore, and there are landing steps near the custom- 
house; it has a small garrison and is the seat of a district controller. 
In 1908 the population was about 3,500, but there are very few 
Europeans. 

Communication. — There is a weekly overland post to Mikindani 
and a land wire to Kilwa. 

Supplies. — Fowls, eggs, and goats are to be obtained in small 
quantities, but vegetables are scarce; there are several wells of 
brackish water in Lindi, but good water is obtainable from a spring 
w^hich passes under a turreted stone house on the eastern side of the 
river just inside the mangrove; at high water boats can go up this 
creek. 

Trade. — liuropean goods, hardware, etc., are imported and sent 
into the interior; the exports are ivory, brought to the coast by 
caravans, copal, caoutchouc, corn, rice, maize, and sesame. Nearly 
all trade is conducted by Banians, who are to be found at most 
places on this coast. For some miles round Lindi the country is well 
cultivated, rice, mtama seed, manioc, etc., being grown in abundance. 

Coast.— Mto Mbanja, about 3 miles northward of Lindi Bay, may 
be known by a large gap in the hills, in which are two hills forming 
a landmark; there is no anchorage off it, but dhows enter at all times 
of tide, and within the mouth the water shoals to 3 feet. 

Ras Kibungwe, 2 miles northward of ilbanja, is a wooded point, 
50 feet high, and J mile northward of the point is an islet closely 
resembling it. 



CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 333 

Ras Kera is a bold mangrove point, 4 miles northward of Ras 
Kibungwe, and Mto Kera is a small river immediately southward of 
Ras Kera. There are 4 fathoms between the reefs at the entrance to 
the river, but the mouth is so narrow that the swell caused by the 
surf on either side rolls in and makes it dangerous even for boats to 
enter. 

Mchinga Bay (Fort Nung^a) j lying between Ras Mzinga and 
Ras Rokumbi, the former 10 feet and the latter 15 feet high and 2f 
miles apart, is about 1 mile wide between the fringing reefs when 
anchorage depths are reached, near its head. The bay may be known 
by the gap caused by Mto Namgaru at its head, and by the mangrove 
islets, from 12 to 15 feet high, on the fringing reefs extending from 
the entrance points. These reefs surround the entrance points and 
fringe both sides of the bay, extending from 800 to 1,500 yards 
offshore. 

The entrance to Mto Namgaru, at the head of Mchinga Bay, is 
blocked by the Fungu Namtamwa, a drying bank, and is only passable 
by boats at high water. The river has not been explored, but it is 
stated that its waters were salt and that a canoe could ascend it in a 
three days' journey. 

The 10- fathom contour line crosses the bay at about 1 mile from 
its head, and within it are depths of from Z\ to 9 fathoms for a dis-- 
tance of about 900 vards to the 3-fathom contour. 

Directions. — In entering Mchinga Bay, keep the entrance to Mto 
Namgaru bearing between 250° and 260°, but no soundings will be 
obtained with the hand lead until the tall mangroves on the southern 
shore bear 182°, when the depth suddenly decreases from 50 to 10 
fathoms, after which anchor as convenient. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage on the southern side of Mchinga 
Bay in a depth of 3 fathoms, over sand, with Ras Mzinga bearing 
120° and Ras Rokumbi 31°; here a vessel is partly sheltered by 
Mwamba Mahazamu from the swell which sets into the bay at all 
seasons. There is deeper water but less shelter northeastward of 
this position. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Mchinga Bay at 
4 h. ra. ; springs rise 12 feet. 

Town. — Mchinga town, with a customhouse, stands in the north- 
western corner of the bay, in a coconut grove ; Mchinga village is on 
the southern shore. 

Coast. — Nondo and Ruvu Bays, both shallow indentations of the 
coast, afford no anchorage, as the water is deep close to the fringing 
reef, 600 or 800 yards wide, which borders the coast. There are no 
dangers outside the reef. 

Mazungu Bay, 9 miles north-northwestward of Ruvu Bay, does not 
afford much shelter, though fair anchorage may be obtained in its 



334 CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 

southern part in 9 fathoms water, over sand and coral, with Ras 
Bwamkuro bearing 331^ and the center of the village 211°. Mto 
Bwamknro, discharging in the northern part of Mzungu Bay, dis- 
colors the water during the rainy season for 1 mile to seaward, and 
at low water a sand bank bars the entrance to the river to boats; 
on a rising tide there are heavy overfalls. 

Kiswere Harbor is entered between Eas Bobare and Eas Berikiti, 
about f mile apart, the channel being reduced to about i mile between 
coral reefs, dry at half tide, extending from these points. The bar 
of the Mto Nanga, with from 3 to 6 feet water, and with a patch on 
its eastern part awash at low water, springs, extends nearly 1 mile 
into the harbor on its northwestern side. 

The approach is between Ras Bwamkuro, 20 feet high, and Ras 
Fughio, 29 feet high, 4J miles apart, the most conspicuous features 
being Mlima Mamba, a conical wooded hill, 419 feet high, situated 
1^ miles inland of the head of the harbor, and Mlima Ruhaha, 412 
feet, about 2 miles northward of it, which has a high tree on it; on 
a nearer approach, Pandawi Square Cliff, on the coast, on the south- 
west side of the head, is conspicuous. 

At a short distance from the coast the hills appear to be of mode- 
rate height, the tableland to the northward rising from 200 to 350 
feet above the sea level. There are no dangers beyond the coral reefs 
fringing the shore. 

The 10-fathom contour line crosses the bay between Ras Bobare 
and Berikiti, with a space of about 1,200 yards between it and the 
3-fathom contour line, which is more than IJ miles from the head, 
the latter drying out for nearly 800 yards. 

Directions — Anchorage. — When approaching Kiswere Harbor, 
if toward low water, the sea will probably be observed breaking on 
the bank inside and on the coral reef off Ras Berikiti, which, when 
recognized, may be rounded as close as convenient. 

Coming from the southward steer into the bay with Pandawi Cliff 
bearing 264° until abreast of Ras Berikiti, alter course to 247° until 
Mlima Ruhaha is seen between the entrance points of Mto Nanga. 
or, until the remarkable sand patch on the northern shore bears 
2°, when a vessel may anchor in 4 fathoms, over stiff mud, and good 
holding ground, this being probably the best anchorage in either 
monsoon. 

Deep draft vessels must anchor farther out, in about 12 fathoms, 
where they are more exposed. 

A distant hill in line with a red cliff on the southwest side of the 
harbor, bearing about 244°, is also a mark for entering, but it is 
somewhat difficult to distinguish. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Kiswere Harbor at 
4 h. 25 m. ; springs rise 12 feet. 



OAFB DEIjQADO TO IBlAB eakzi. 335 

Villages. — The large village of Kiswere, with a customhouse, is 
on the northwest side of Mto Kiswere, a small fresh-water stream 
running into the southwest corner of the bay, and can be reached by 
a boat at half tide ; Mtumbo village is on the east side of the entrance 
to Mto Nanga. 

Supplies of goats, fowls, eggs, etc., may be obtained at Kiswere 
village ; the w^ater in wells at Mtumbo village is brackish, and unfit 
for use. 

Mto Nanga. — From the western entrance point of this river in the 
northwestern corner of Kiswere Harbor, a depth of 3 fathoms may 
be carried for 4rJ miles, nearly up to the fork, but higher up the 
river becomes insignificant, and there is a patch of rocks in mid- 
channel 1 mile below the fork. The banks are mostly mangrove 
swamps, with higher, well wooded, and partially cultivated land 
in the background to the eastward. 

The anchorage off Mtumbo village, in about 4 fathoms, is only 
accessible to light dr'aft vessels, as the bar outside the entrance has 
only 6 feet over it at low water springs, and there is a nasty sea on it 
at times. 

A good guide for entering is Mlima Euhaha seen over the shore 
about i mile within the western entrance point, until Pandawi Cliff 
bears 233° ; then edge toward the eastern and deeper side, and anchor 
as convenient off Mtumbo village. 

Coast. — From Ras Fughio the coast trends nearly in a straight 
line for 9 miles, with sandy beaches and small off-lying mangrove 
islets on the reef, to Ras Mombi, the southern point of Roango Bay, 
a shallow indentation of the coast, not distinguishable above 3 miles 
off; the hills on this part of the coast are low and nearly all of the 
same height. 

There is no anchorage for vessels, but a narrow 3- foot boat channel 
leads through the reef to a creek, affording shelter to dhows and 
situated in the center of the head of the bay. A village on the beach 
near the head of the bay is unapproachable to boats except at high 
water. / 

From Roango Bay the coast is rocky but with sandy bights as far 
as Ras Ngumbe Sukani, the highest point of this part of the coast, 
which may be known by being just southward of two islets, 20 feet 
high, close inshore on the fringing reef. If approached during the 
morning, a white patch will be seen on the upper part of the ras. 

From Ras Ngumbe Sukani to Mto Pawi the coast consists of a 
mangrove swamp with several creeks, the mouths of which are not 
distinguishable from seaward. Between Kiswere Harbor and Mto 
Pawi the fringing reef is steep-to and extends from 600 to 800 yards 
offshore. 



336 CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 

Mto Pawi, a boat channel available only at high tide with smooth 
water, separates the southern end of Songa Manara Island from the 
mainland and opens into Pawi Creek (Mkurulengamunyu) , the south- 
eastern arm of Sangarungu Harbor. 

Mto Pawi is not distinguishable from seaward, being overhung 
by mangroves, but the south point of Songa Manara may be known 
by a remarkable break in one of the projecting cliffs, which, when 
seen from the southward, appears like an island. The sea, when 
there is much swell, breaks through this cleft with great violence, 
throwing the spray to a considerable height and giving the appear- 
ance of white smoke rising from the land. 

Songa Manara Island, about 6 miles in length in a northwest 
and opposite direction, is low, with several groves of coconut trees 
on it and a particularly tall clump on Ras Kivurugu, its eastern ex- 
treme, which assists in recognizing it. The island has an indented 
rocky coast on its seaward side and is skirted by a reef, which extends 
nearly 1 mile off Eas Kivurugu. On its northeast side are the three 
low bushy Kivurugu Islets. The edge of the reef is everywhere 
steep-to. 

There are several villages on Songa Manara Island, of which 
Sanjiya-Majoma is the principal; also the remains of stone houses 
and towers. 

Sangarungu Harbor, lying within Songa Manara Island, is 
about 3 miles long by J mile wide in its eastern portion, with some- 
what inconvenient depths for anchorage ; the southern part is named 
Port Nisus, and Port Pactolus is the northern arm, which is exposed 
to the sea. The entrance, between Songa Manara and Kisiwa Kilwa, 
and common to both, is about J mile wide between the reefs extend- 
ing from either side. 

Ras Sangarungu, the northern point of Songa Manara, on the 
southern side of the entrance, is sandy, crowned with high coconut 
trees and faced with mangroves. Ras Mchangamm, on the opposite 
side of the channel, is low and covered with mangroves. 

Sangarungu Harbor is surrounded by mangroves and encumbered 
by islets and reef^, with strong tidal streams, and the swell reaches 
far in, so that a vessel would have to go some distance in for a secure 
berth. It has no proper rivers discharging into it, though many 
ramifications in the shape of mangrove creeks are used by the natives 
for local trade; but, Kilwa being so near, any trade from distant 
parts inland finds an exit there. 

The depths in the entrance to the harbor are from 25 to 37 fath- 
oms, and from 15 to 30 fathoms in the eastern arm extending to the 
southward. 

Caution. — ^The wnter in Sangarungu Harbor is very thick and 
muddy ; consequently, dangers can not be seen. 



CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 337 

Port Nisus. — Sanji-ya-Kati, with a village on it, is a mangrove 
island nearly in the center of the southern branch of Sangarungu 
Harbor, with an extensive reef stretching northward from it. South- 
ward of Sanji-ya-Kati is Port Nisus, affording anchorage. 

The depths in the entrance to Port Nisus are from 6 to 11 fathoms 
and from 4 to 10 fathoms at the anchorage. 

Port Pactolus. — The portion of the harbor northward of Sanji- 
ya-Kati Reef is Port Pactolus; its entrance is scarcely 200 yards 
wide between a sand spit with 3 fathoms water, extending porthward 
from Sanji-ya-Kati Reef, and the shore reef southward of Kisiwa 
Kilwa. Within the entrance is good anchorage, over a muddy bot- 
tom, but exposed to the swell that rolls in through the wide open 
entrance to Sangarungu. 

The depths in the entrance are from 4 to 10 fathoms and from 6 
to 11 fathoms at the anchorage. 

From this harbor there is boat communication at all times with 
Ealwa Harbor by Mlango Mugongo, the wide passage westward of 
Kisiwa Kilwa. 

Kisiwa Eilwa^ the island which separates the harbors of Sanga- 
rungu and Kilwa Kisiwani, is 3^ miles in length in a north and 
south direction, low, and covered with trees; the northern part is a 
coral plateau, 50 feet above the sea; on it are many large baobab 
trees. The fringing reef, drying off from 400 yards to 1 mile, and 
following the line of the east coast, is steep-to. 

Kilwa Kisiwani Harbor is the eastern portion of an estuary, 
which extends inland for about 15 miles in a general westerly direc- 
tion, to where the M to Mavudyi discharges into it ; it is adapted for 
steam vessels of all classes and for the shipment of goods. The 
entrance between Ras Kipakoni and Ras M atuso, about 2 miles apart, 
is about 800 yards wide between the reefs bordering the shore, which 
are steep-to, expanding to 1,200 or 1,400 yards inside near the town. 

The estuary above Kilwa Kisiwani town, and known as Port 
Beaver, becomes shallow a few miles up, and then is divided by 
islands into channels leading to Mto Mavudyi, which has a depth of 
2J fathoms in its entrance, and is said to be navigable by canoes for 
some distance. 

South shore — Ras Kipakoni^ the southern point of entrance, is 
low, and has mangrove bushes on its .western part; Mwamba Kipa- 
koni, drying 5 feet, extends f mile eastward of the point, and on its 
southeast edge is an islet, 12 feet high, while Balozi Spit extends J 
mile northward of Ras Kipakoni, and dries 7 feet; it and Mwamba 
Kipakoni are steep-to, the latter protecting the former from the sea, 
which only breaks on Balozi Spit at low water. 

From Ras Kipakoni the southern shore to Ras Ruvura is of a 
cliffy nature and bordered by a narrow belt of mangroves, which also 

39511—16 22 



338 CAPE DEI^ADO TO RAS KANZI. 

extend along the western ridge of Balozi Spit ; the fringing reef on 
this shore is steep-to, and has on its northern edge, near its west 
extreme. Castle Islet, a mass of mangroves. 

Beacon. — The north extreme of Balozi Spit is marked by an iron 
beacon, about 23 feet high, siirmoimted by a black ball. 

North shore. — Has Matuso (Cape Kilwa) , the northern point 
of entrance, is low, sandy, and dotted with trees, and westward of it 
to Ras Mso the north shore is first sandy and then cliffy, Ras Mso 
being a cliff about 10 feet high. 

Mwamba Rukyira, a tongue of reef stretching nearly 4 miles 
from Ras Matuso in a northeasterly direction, is prolonged as 
Rukyira Spit in a northerly direction, its total distance being 5J 
miles ; although Rukyira Spit is again prolonged for many miles to 
the northward by Rukyira Bar. 

Southward and westward of Ras Matuso, the reef, extending from 
1,000 to 1,300 yards offshore, is all dry at low water, springs, and 
there are mangrove bushes and sand banks on its eastern part, some 
above high water; it is steep-to on its southern and eastern sides, and 
the sea always breaks on it. 

Mso Bay, between Ras Mso and Ras Rongozi, is shallow, its sandy 
shore terminating abruptly southward in low rocky cliffs, showing in 
one part a yellow face: southward of these cliffs to Ras Rongozi, and 
round into the harbor the shore is fringed with mangroves. A sand 
and mud bank, drv at low water, extends 300 vards southwestward 
from Ras Rongozi, with tidal whirls off it. 

The base of Mpara Hill, a flat-topped eminence, 460 feet high, par- 
tially cultivated but mostly covered with jungle, skirts the northern 
shore of Port Beaver, which anchorage has ample width, and, for a 
distance of some 5 or 6 miles, is capable of receiving and giving per- 
fect shelter to a number of vessels of the deepest draft. 

Depth. — The depths in the entrance to Kilwa Kisiwani Harbor 
are from 10 to 44 fathoms, and from 10 to 20 fathoms at the anchor- 
age ; the entrance to Port Beaver has from 12 to 27 fathoms, decreas- 
ing to from 6 to 15 fathoms in the port. 

Ferries. — The channel separating Kisiwa Kilwa from the main- 
land to the westward is very shallow at its northern end, and at low 
tides fordable, and at this part a ferry communicates with the island, 
while another ferry plies between Kilwa Kisiwani village and a break 
in the mangroves northwestward of Ras Rongozi. 

Directions. — In making Kilwa Kisiwani from any direction, 
Mpara Hill, the only eminence in the immediate vicinity, will be seen 
in clear weather from a distance of 20 miles ; it is flat-topped and in 
no way remarkable, except from being near Singino Hill to the 
northward. Southward of Songa Manara Island are other hills 



CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 339 

rather similar in appearance, but they are continuous, whereas south- 
ward of Mpara is a low plain forming a break of 20 miles. 

In very clear weather the Mchinga Range, 1,200 feet above the sea 
and 20 miles inland, will also be seen, but the summits are not well 
marked. Ras Matuso is tolerably conspicuous, either from north- 
ward or southward, and Mwamba Rukyira, the reef oflf it, will be 
seen from a distance of 3 miles either dry or breaking. 

At low water no other guide but the eye is necessary for entering 
the harbor, but at high water only the outer parts break, and Balozi 
Spit does not show even by a ripple, but the beacon on its northern 
extreme points out its position. A stranger should, if possible, avoid 
entering with the strength of the in-going stream and with the sun 
ahead, and with the outgoing stream running, the rush of water 
sometimes raises a sea between the outer points of the reefs, which, at 
springs, is dangerous for boats, and makes it difficult to realize that 
there are over 30 fathoms where the overfalls take place. 

To enter from the northward, run along about ^ mile distant from 
the southeastern edge of Mwamba Rukyira, and the yellow cliffs on 
the southwest side of Mso Bay, said to be visible from a distance of 
7 miles, being distinguished, they should be steered for bearing 285° 
which will lead in the middle of the fairway and northward of 
Balozi Spit beacon, which is sometimes difficult to distinguish against 
the dark background. 

A baobab tree, standing in an open, park-like space, 45 feet high, 
is situated i mile eastward of Kilwa Kisiwani village, and painted 
black and white, but it is difficult to distinguish in a bad light ; when 
Balozi Spit Beacon is passed, steer for the tree bearing 227°, until 
abreast of the mangrove bushes on Ras Rongozi, when alter course 
for the anchorage. While steering the above courses, the set of the 
tidal streams should be watched. 

From the southward Ras Matuso should be approached bearing 
about 296° and the above directions followed. No reliance should 
be placed on positions obtained by bearings of points, formed by 
mangrove bushes, as the growth of these may have considerably 
altered the points. 

There is no difficulty in sailing out in the early morning with the 
land wind. 

Anchorage. — There is temporary outer anchorage during the 
northeast monsoon, about 400 yards from the southern edge of 
Mwamba Rukyira, in about 10 fathoms, over sand, abreast of the 
large mangrove bush on that reef, and 1,700 yards southward of Ras 
Matuso ; the farther eastward the better, to be out of the rush of the 
tidal streams. 

The anchorage northward of Kilwa Kisiwani village, in from 9 
to 15 fathoms, is open to the sea breeze, but completely protected by 



340 CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 

the projecting points of reef from the heavy swell that almost invari- 
ably beats on the outer shore. A good berth is in a depth of 12 
fathoms, with Castle Islet bearing 241°, the castle 202°, and Ras 
Kipakoni 90°. The reef dries off abreast nearly 400 yards. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Kilwa Kisiwani at 
3 h. 45 m. ; springs rise 12 feet, neaps 7^ feet, neaps range 4 feet. 

Tidal streams. — The tidal streams are strong, and at the inner 
anchorage there is often an eddy, but as the bottom is tenacious mud 
a vessel can lie with a short scope of cable and the anchor be kept 
clear. 

Current — Caution. — The current is continuously north-going off 
all this part of the coast and frequently sets in toward the land; 
it is strongest and most regular during the southern monsoon, when 
its strength increases at times to 4 knots. Sailing vessels should 
therefore make the land southward of the desired point, and, if 
closing with it at night, heave-to in ample time to allow for drift. 

Village. — Kilw-a Kisiwani, so named in contradistinction to Kilwa 
Kivinje, a few miles to the northward, is the village occupying 
the site of the old Portuguese town of Quiloa, which was for several 
centuries the most important place on the east coast of Africa. The 
ruins of Old Quiloa, on the northwestern portion of the island, are 
extensive, but are mere foundations, except the ancient Arab Castle, 
a tall conspicuous keep-like fortress, which stands close to the water 
and may be seen from a distance of 10 miles in the morning sun, 
some mosques, and an embattled space, the walls of which are still 
standing. 

The village of Kilwa Kisiwani has but little trade, what there is 
being in the hands of Banians. 

Supplies. — Cattle, goats, and fowls are fairly plentiful, and the 
island abounds with bush buck; the inhabitants of Kisiwa Kilwa 
Island are supplied with water from wells. 

Climate. — The harbor is mostly bordered by mangroves and has 
a bad reputation for malaria, but it is no worse than Kilwa Kivinje, 
and were the site of the dwelling houses as a rule better chosen 
it would be more healthy. 

Winds. — Easterly winds prevail here in the form of strong sea 
breezes during the greater part of the year and generally occasion a 
considerable swell outside the harbor, so that if the wind falls light 
it is sometimes difficult for a sailing vessel to work out, which fact 
gives importance to the outer anchorage mentioned, that being the 
only position where a vessel can possibly bring up outside the harbor. 
The land wind blows early in the morning. 

Coast. — From Ras Matuso the coast, trending in a north-north- 
west direction for 7 miles to Ras Tikwiri, is bordered by a reef Avhich 
dries off from ^ to 1 mile, being a continuation of Mwamba Rukyira. 



CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 341 

The coast is sandy and flat, with several villages, backed by thick 
jungle. 

Bukyira Bay, between Ras Matuso and Ras Tikwiri, has good 
anchorage at its southern end, where Mwamba Rukyira protects a 
vessel from the swell, but is of little use, except to vessels of light 
draft, in consequence of Rukyira bar blocking the entrance from 
seaward. 

Bukyira Bar, a continuation of Rukyira Spit, is narrow, about 
5 miles distant from the coast and extends 9 miles northward, with 
irregular depths of from 2 to 10 fathoms, and less in one or more 
spots. Though there are doubtless places where vessels can at all 
times pass over it into Rukyira Bay, the attempt should not be made 
without good cause, as there is usually a heavy swell, and from the 
irregularity of the bottom other shoal spots, besides those marked on 
the chart, may exist. 

Coast. — ^Bas Tikwiri (Bilwa Point) is formed of mangrove? 
broken at its extreme into isolated clumps of these trees, which ex- 
tend to about 600 yards within the edge of the fringing shore reef. 
Ruangale Reef (Dupont Bank) is dry 7 feet at low water, springs, 
and separated by a boat channel from the fringing reef; the sea 
always breaks on its outer edge, which lies 2^ miles eastward of Ras 
Tikwiri. 

Ras Miramba is a low mangrove point, 6 miles northwestward of 
Ras Tikwiri, with shallow water extending IJ miles north-northeast- 
ward of it ; northwestard of Ras Miramba the coast forms a shallow 
bay as far as Mto Gingw^era Entrance, a distance of ^ miles. On 
the shore of this bay is the large town of Kilwa Kivinje, presently 
described. 

Singino hill, about 3 miles southwestward of Ras Miramba, is a 
flat cultivated plateau, 550 feet high, about 3 miles in diameter, and 
its rim or edge, being tolerably steep on all sides, serves for bearings. 
Xunguruku, a small conical hill 480 feet high, and connected to it 
by a low spur, is about 2 miles westward, in which direction other 
hills stretch, but the general prospect toward them is flat and unin- 
teresting. 

Mto Gingwera, the bar of which dries at low water, spring tides, 
can be ascended for a distance of about 9 miles, and abounds in hip- 
popotami. 

Beefs. — Mpovi Beef , 2^ miles in length in a northwest and op- 
posite direction, and tolerably steep-to on its eastern edge, near which 
are a few mangrove bushes, has a sand bank which dries from 4 to 11 
feet on it, and is the southernmost of the mass of reefs protecting 
the anchorage of Kilwa Kivinje. On its other sides the reef shelves 
gradually, but shoal water, under 3 fathoms, extends 1^ miles north- 



342 CAPE DElXiADO TO RAS KANZI. 

ward of the reef; although IJ miles from the shore, the chamiel 
between is only available for vessels of light draft. 

Buoy. — A black conical buoy, marked " 1, Kilwa," is moored on 
the north extreme of the shoal water on the north side of the reef. 

Mwanamkaya, forming the southern side of the Kilwa Main Pass 
or southern channel to Kilwa Kivinje, is a reef 2^ miles in length in 
a north-northwest and opposite direction, and situated about 2 miles 
northeastward of Mpovi Beef, with 8 fathoms water between. Near 
the northwestern corner of Mwanamkaya is a sand head, which only 
covers at springs, and patches of from 3 to 4 fathoms lie about 1 mile 
eastward of the southern part of the reef, being the extension north- 
ward of Rukyira Bar. 

Amana^ 1^ miles long in an east and west direction, lies westward 
of Mwanamkaya, the sand on its western end drying 7 feet at half 
tide. There is a clear passage round it with nothing less than 4 
fathoms. 

Fanjove Island, on the north side of the entrance to Kilwa Pass, 
is small, covered with trees, and lies on the inner side of the northern 
portion of a reef 5^ miles in length in a north and south direction; 
its outer edge, on which the sea always breaks, being steep-to and 
drying 4 feet. 

Shoal water, under 3 fathoms, extends 1,200 yards southwestward 
of the reef, and a detached patch of 3 fathoms lies nearly 1 mile 
westward of the south end of the reef. 

Light. — On the southwest end of Fanjove Island is a white quad- 
rangular tower 62 feet in height, which exhibits at an elevation of 
66 feet above high water a fixed white light, visible 14 miles. A 
dwelling is attached to the lighthouse. For bearings of arc of visi- 
bility, see Light List. 

Shoal. — A coral rock with a depth of 1 fathom over it has been 
discovered 1.3 miles 237° from P^'anjove Island Lighthouse. 

Luala, 2i miles westward of the southern portion of Fanjove Reef, 
is 2 miles in length in a north and south direction and has a sand 
bank which dries 6 feet on its northwest edge. 

Jewe, a reef 3 miles in length in a northeast and opposite direction, 
and steep-to on all sides, lies If miles westward of Luala, separated 
by Luala Channel, which is deep and useful to vessels proceeding 
within the reefs, and not touching at Kilwa Kivinje ; a long, narrow 
strip of sand on the northwest side of Jewe dries 11 feet, having no 
particular head. A 5-fathom patch lies 2 miles northward of the 
east end of Jewe Reef. 

Kilwa Main Pass, between Mwanamkaya and Amana, on the 
south, and Fanjove Reef, Luala, and Jewe, on the north, is 2^ miles 
wide at its narrowest part. 



CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 343 

Depths over 100 fathoms extend into the pass as far as a line 
joining the north end of Mwanamkaya and the northeast end of 
Jewe, from which they decrease gradually to the 10- fathom contour 
line, about 2^ miles from Kilwa Kivinje; the water becomes discol- 
ored when within the outer reefs. 

Directions. — ^Approaching Kilwa Main Pass, Fanjove and the 
larger island of Songa Songa may be seen in clear weather from a 
distance of 14 miles, and Singino and Mpara Hills, under similar 
conditions, from 18 to 20 miles, but soutliward of the latter hill 
nothing will be visible unless in very clear weather, when the distant 
Mchinga Hills might perhaps be seen. 

6teering to pass about 5 miles to the southward of Fanjove Island 
the breakers on the reef extending southward of it will be seen, and 
the eye will then be the best guide, giving the reef with the shoal 
water extending from it a berth of at least i mile. 

When Fanjove Lighthouse bears 15°, if the weather is clear and 
the sun not ahead, the entrance to Mto Gingwera will probably be 
seen, showing as a slight gap in the coast line, when its center should 
be steered for, bearing 251°, until the western end of Jewe Eeef 
bears 357°, when alter course for the anchorage off the town. 

If the mouth of the river can not be distinguished when to the 
southward of Fanjove Reef, bearings of Fanjove Lighthouse and 
Singino (tangents) and Nunguruku Hills should fix the position, 
and a course may then be shaped for the river and anchorage, the 
most conspicuous objects being a white stone building with a red 
roof and a large white house, both on the beach ; approaching the 
anchorage, the depth should not be shoaled to less than 5 fathoms. 

Anchorage. — The anchorage is open, but good protection is af- 
forded by the reefs to the eastward in ordinary weather, although 
when the monsoon is strong a slight swell comes in through the 
passages. 

The bank of sand and mud fronting Ras Miramba and the town 
is about 1^ miles off to the 3-fathom contour line, and is reported to 
be extending to the northward of the latter, while off Mto Gingwera 
the similar bank is extending eastward, with two rocks, on which the 
depth is less than 6 feet, lying 2J and 2j\ miles, respectively, from 
the northern point of entrance to that river. 

A good berth in 4J fathoms may be obtained by steering 198° for 
the station house, a white building with a red roof and a tower with 
a superstructure, until Nunguruku bears about 224°. 

Buoy. — A red conical buoy, with a white tablet, on which is " 4.5 
m.," as a topmark, indicating the depth of 2^ fathoms in which it lies, 
is moored to the northward of the station house. 



344 CAPE DELGADO TO BAS KANZI. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Kilwa Kivinje, at 
4 h. m. ; springs rise 12 feet. 

The tidal streams at the anchorage are inappreciable. 

Town. — The town of Kilwa Kivinje, 1 mile westward of Ras 
Miramba and partly surrounded by coconut palms, consists of a 
labyrinth of huts and brick houses, with a population of about 4,500 
in 1908 ; it is the residence of a district controller, and has probably 
more trade than any other place in German East Africa. 

Communication. — The port is in telegraphic communication with 
Dar es Salaam. 

Supplies of cattle, sheep, poultry, and eggs are abundant, but 
excepting millet, manioc, and sweet potatoes, vegetables are not 
easily procured ; water is obtainable, but that from wells in the town 
is bad. 

Trade. — The exports consist chiefly of copal, coconuts, caout- 
chouc, corn, rice, maize, matting, etc., and imports stuffs and the 
necesarry articles for the native population. 

Coast. — From Mto Gingwera the coast trends in a north-north- 
west direction, with some slight sinuosities and points to Has 
Samanga Fungu, a distance of 18 miles, and for about the first 7 
miles the shore is a sandy beach, but farther on it is fringed with 
mangroves. Villages lie all along this coast, but are mostly con- 
cealed by the mangroves. There are no reefs, except ofl Ras Wango, 
but a sand and mud flat dries off to a considerable distance. 

The coast is backed by a flat plain, which to the northward gradu- 
ally slopes upward to a number of low wooded ridges running 
parallel with the coast, which again rise to the Matumbi Range, 17 
miles from the sea, and averaging from 1,700 to 2,200 feet in height. 

Ras Samanga Fungu is a point of high mangroves conspicuous 
from the northward when near the coast, and close northward of it 
is Samanga Fungu Creek and village, with Samanga village about 
IJ miles farther northward, on the northern side of an estuary; it is 
the largest village between Kilwa Kivinje and the River Rufiji, and 
quite concealed from the sea. 

The estuary contracts at a short distance inland and is said to join 
another creek which debouches about 1 mile northward of it and 
just southward of Ras Ndumbo, which is a mangrove point with a 
single bush on it. 

Communication. — A telegraph office is situated at Mtingi on the 
coast, about 13 miles northward of Kilwa Kivinje. 

Outer islands and reefs — Clearing mark. — Fanjove Island 
Lighthouse, or the light in sight at night, bearing westward of 192®, 
leads seaward of the reefs northward of Fanjove Island and its 
reefs. 



CAPE DELGADO TO HAS KANZI. 345 

Songa Songa Island^ nearly 3^ miles northwestward of Fanjove 
Island, is a coral island 2^ miles in length, covered with trees, and 
situated on a broad reef, dry at sparing tides, which is surrounded 
by shallow water on all but the northwestern side, where Pumbavu, 
a sandy islet with a few scattered trees, is connected with the 
main island by a neck of sand which covers i mile in length but 
has deep and clear water westward of it. On the point of Songa 
Songa, nearest Pumbavu, is a clump of tall trees conspicuous from 
the inner channel. 

Dangers. — Val Rock^ with 6 feet least water and steep-to, lies 2^ 
miles southward of Pumbavu Islet and 1 mile from Songa Songa 
Island Reef; as the rock does not show it should be given a wide 
berth. 

Pweza is a small reef lying IJ miles northward of Luala Reef, with 
a small sand head dry 8 feet at low water, springs. 

Anchorage. — ^There is anchorage in about 6 fathoms from 600 
to 1,000 yards westward of Pumbavu Islet. Small craft can anchor 
in 4 fathoms, nearer Songa Songa and more sheltered, by passing 
over the sandy flat joining Pumbavu Islet with the reef southward 
of it in not less than 2 fathoms at low water. 

Supplies. — Songa Songa has a village standing in a large clear- 
ing of the bush, about J mile from the beach on its eastern shore, 
and wells, with tolerably good water, are situated in the coral nearly 
in its center; these are difficult of access and best approached from 
the western side. Cattle and goats are bred on the island. 

Imbi, a reef northward of Fanjove, is 2^ miles in length, with a 
sand head drying 7 feet at low water, springs; it is steep-to along 
its eastern edge, on which the sea breaks heavily. Its southern end is 
connected with the Fanjove Reef by coral banks with no more than 
3 fathoms, except in one narrow 4-fathom channel, which has only 
been partially examined. 

Msuaji, drying 1 foot, is near the extreme of a shoal extending 
nearly 3 miles westward of Imbi, and Sanders Rock, with IJ fathoms, 
i& IJ miles westward of Msuaji ; Baniani, a reef drying 10 feet, is 
nearly 2 miles northward of Sanders Rock. 

Nyuni, a coral and sand islet with bushes, and a few casuarinas, 
60 feet high, on its eastern side, which can be seen from a distance of 
12 miles, lies about 4 mites northward of Imbi on the western side of 
a reef 3 miles in length, dry at low water, and steep-to on its seaward 
side. Turtle frequent this island, and also Okuza northward of it, 
from February to July. 

Kimbore Reef, drying 7 feet, lies about 1 mile westward of Nyuni 
Islet, and 3-fathom patches lie about 2 miles south-southwestward 
and 3^ miles southwestward of Nyuni. 



346 CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI, 

Nyunl Fass^ between Imbi Reef and Nyuni Island Keef , affords 
access to the Inner Channel, but as no good leading mark can be 
given and the swell is heavy on the edge of the shallow water, the 
passage is not recommended. 

The 100-fathom contour line extends int6 the pass as far as the 
western side of Imbi, from which the depths to the westward de- 
crease to from 4 to 5 fathoms over a shoal, forming a bar. There is a 
passage to the northwestward, with from 6 to 9 fathoms. 

Mombawaka^ northward of Xyuni Reef, is a reef 1^ miles in 
extent at its seaward edge, having a small area awash at low water, 
the remainder having but a few feet over it ; the sea generally break^^ 
over the whole reef. 

Okuza Island, 6 miles northward of Nyuni Island, is small, 
sandy, and covered with casuarinas, the highest of which, at tie 
eastern end, are 90 feet in height, and can be seen about 14 miles in 
clear weather. The island is on the northwestern part of a reeP, *J 
miles in length in a north and south direction, which dries from 10 
to 12 feet at low water, springs, is steep- to on its seaward side, and 
tolerably so on the other sides. 

Between Okuza and the reefs southwestward of Kibondo Island is 
the wide and clear entrance of the South Mafia Channel. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage within Okuza Reef in from 7 to 
12 fathoms; in the northeast monsoon, a berth well to the southwest- 
ward should be chosen to avoid the swell. 

Inner Channel — Beefs. — Between the outer reefs and islands 
described and the mainland southward of Mto Rufiji ya Wake is an 
inner chain of reefs, which for the most part have navigable chan- 
nels between them. The track recommended is marked by a pecked 
line on the plan, and is best navigable by vessels when the sun is in 
a favorable position for seeing the reefs, and with a good lookout 
aloft; the channel on either side of Pwajuu ai^d Poiasi Reefs is 
equally good. The reefs bordering this inner channel will now be 
described, commencing from the southward. 

Buoyage. — A few of the most important shoals ai-e marked by 
black conical buoys, with the number and name in white, moored on 
the eastern side of the channel, but their positions must not be en- 
tirely depended on. 

Pwajuu Beef, lying in the fairway westward of Songa Songa 
Island, is IJ miles in length with a long extent of sand drying 8 feet 
at half tide ; it is mostly steep-to, and can generally be seen. 

Poiasi Beefy also in the fairway, lies J mile northward of Pwajuu 
Reef, and is 2^ miles long in a northwest and opposite direction by 
4 mile wide, the narrow sand on it drying over an extent of 1^ 
miles, the highest part being at its northwest end, where it dries 11 
feet at springs ; it is mostly steep-to. 



CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 347 

Eastern side. — Machan^^ a mass of reefs on the eastern side 
of the best track, lies from 4^ to 7 miles northward of Songa Songa, 
its southwestern reef drying at half ebb ; its edge is steep, but does 
not show well. The northwestern reef has a sand head near its 
western edge, drying 10 feet and covering only at high water, and 
except at that time is a good guide for the channel. 

Banda, a small reef with a sand head drying 8 feet at low water, 
springs, is 2 J miles northeastward from Machangi Sand Head; its 
western side is not steep-to. 

Bawara, also on the eastern side of the best track, is another 
broken mass of reefs northeastward of Banda Reef, and covering an 
area 2^ miles in extent in a north and south, by 3 miles in an east and 
west direction, with four sand heads showing at low water; their 
western edges are fairly steep-to. 

Western side. — Fungu Wango and Fungu Kiswasi, lying, respec- 
tively, eastward and northeastward of Ras Wango, dry 6 feet at low 
water, and are the southernmost reefs on this side. 

Chocha is 2 miles in length in a northwest and southeast direc- 
tion and dry at low water, with sand which dries 9 feet on its north- 
western extreme ; the southeastern end, which tails off for 400 yards 
and is about 1 mile westward of the sand head on Machangi, can 
generally be seen, showing green under water. 

Membeuso, 2$ miles northward of Machangi, is about 1 mile in 
length in a west-northwest and opposite direction by half that width ; 
the sand on it dries 8 feet, and its edge is steep-to. A patch dries 
between it and Chocha, as does also Miza Reef, farther westward, 
and both are away from the best track. 

Simaya Island, 4 miles northward of Membeuso Reef, is a sandy 
islet covered with high trees, which reach a height of 100 feet, and is 
visible 14 miles; it stands on a reef 1,400 or 1,600 yards long and 
steep-to. Some 5-fathom patches are charted between Simaya Island 
and Bawara Reefs, eastward of the best track. 

Directions. — After leaving Kilwa Kivinje, the eastern edge of 
Singino Hill should be brought to bear 177° and a course 357° steered 
with it astern until the high trees at the northwest end of Songa 
Songa Island bear 28°, when alter course for them and continue until 
the discolored water of the southeast ends of Pwajuu and Poiasi 
Reefs is seen, when steer about 350° to pass i mile eastward of them 
and to the channel between Machangi and Chocha Reefs. 

If passing westward of Pwajuu and Poiasi Reefs, and having 
steered 357° from Kilwa Kivinje, as before, when Songa Songa trees 
bear 28°, alter course to 347°, and when abreast the northwest end of 
Poiasi, alter course to 35° until nearly up to Machangi Reef. Chocha 
is not easily seen on account of its highest part being at the west end 
of the reef. 



348 CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 

Having passed to the westward of northwest side of Machangi, 
steer IS*^ until 1^ miles eastward of Simaya Island, passing between 
Banda and Membeuso, and then shape a course 26° to pass nearly 
1 mile westward of Mange. 

Coast. — Mohoro Bay, included between Ras Ndrnnbo and Ras 
Pombwe, 5 miles apart, is fronted by a thick belt of mangroves along 
its shore, the bay drying about 2J miles from its head at low water. 
Kikwaju is a broad but shallow creek in the northwestern part of the 
bay, and on the western shore, a short distance up this creek, is the 
village of Marendego. 

Mto Mohoro, a river which eastward of Kikwaju Creek occupies 
the whole of the head of Mohoro Bay, flows into it by its two mouths, 
the Lokotonazi and Utagite Rivers; these are mangrove-lined creeks 
with from 1 fathom to 3 fathoms, and connect about 3 miles up. 
The Utagite has a depth of 3 feet on its bar at low water, springs, 
about 2 miles outside the entrance. There is no swell on the bar, but 
with any wind the sea breaks on the sand banks on either side at 
half ebb. 

The Mohoro is 200 yards wide at the junction of the two rivers 
and at the highest point reached by the FawrCs boats, early in 
August, 1877, about 14 miles in a direct line from the coast, was 
80 yards wide. At that distance it had become so shallow that the 
steam cutter could get no farther. Here are several villages with 
cultivated ground around. The land route from Kilwa to Dar es 
Salaam passes through them. 

The banks of the river at that season are from 10 to 20 feet above 
water, and, where not scoured into cliffs by the stream, are densely 
covered with vegetation. The tidal influence extends above the 
villages. 

Buoy. — A small black and red vertically striped can buoy m-arks 
the center of the fairway of the entrance to Utagite River. 

Communication. — At Xebenzollamt, about 17 miles up the river 
from Ras Pombwe, is a post and a telegraph office. 

Bas Pombwe (Bachambao) , the northern point of Mohoro Bay, 
is composed of mangroves, and on its northeastern side is Pombwe 
Creek, nearly 1 mile wide in its entrance and extending about 2^ 
miles in a northwesterly direction from the ras, where it ends in a 
mangrove swamp. 

Okambara is a reef of coral and mud stretching off 4^ miles in an 
east-southeast direction from Ras Pombwe and drying from 2 feet 
in its inner part to 8 feet in its outer part at low water, springs. 

Northward of Okambara is Mwamba Mkuu, another large reef, 
which also dries 8 feet. It approaches within 1 mile of Simaya 
Island and there is a clear 7- fathom channel between them. 



CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 349 

Kitope Hilly a conspicuous flat-topped hill, 780 feet high, rising 
in the plain 5 miles westward of Mohoro Bay, is thickly wooded, and 
has a lower spur to the northward with a small conical summit. 

Bufiji Delta. — In Mohoro Bay, northward of Samanga, com- 
mences the remarkable maze of creeks forming the delta of the 
Rufiji, some of which do not communicate at ordinary times with 
either river, neither do the rivers themselves ever join, though at one 
point in their coui'ses they approach one another closely. In the 
rainy season of the interior, December and the two following months, 
the whole plain is frequently flooded. 

The delta has been pushed forward in advance of the general coast- 
line and now forms a convex projection 50 miles in length, all low 
and of uniform outline, as viewed from the sea, with mangroves 
occupying the greatest portion of the shore line and extending back 
for a varying distance from it. Within the swampy belt is a Broad 
flat plain, about 35 miles in length north and south, covered with 
long grass and a few trees, and dotted here and there with small 
villages, in the vicinity of which and near the rivers the land is 
cultivated. 

From Ras Pombwe to Kikunguni village, 36 miles to the north- 
ward in a direct line, 10 large mouths open into the sea, eight of 
which are connected at all times with the Rufiji, the other two being 
only salt-water creeks. All these mouths are connected by a series 
of small creeks, passing through the mangroves near the sea, which 
serve, at high water, as canoe channels from one village to another 
without the necessity of crossing the bars, the absence of which at 
the Simba IJranga and Kikunya mouths render them the best en- 
trances if wishing to ascend the Rufiji. 

Mto Bufiji-ya-Wake (Kiengieni) connects with the main 
stream near Ruanda village, about 12 miles above Yaya Mouth, and 
has several branches probably leading northward and southward 
into adjacent entrances but all unexplored. The upper part is too 
shallow to allow a boat to reach the Rufiji in the dry season. 

The bar, 1^ miles outside the entrance points, is never quite dry, 
but usually has some swell on it, and from 2 to 4 miles off it are 
several patches, awash at low water, with from 6 to 7 fathoms 
close-to. Yaya village, on its northern entrance point, stands in 
clump of high trees. 

Bumbura, the next creek to the northward, has not been explored, 
the sea breaking so heavily on the bar that it could not be crossed. 

Ndahi Mouth, 7 J miles north-northeastward of Yaya Entrance, 
may possibly be distinguished by a high grove of cascuarinas on its 
northern bank, but the bar is bad at all times, owing to the sea 
rolling in through the wide South Mafia Channel. 



350 CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 

Kiassi Mouthy 54 miles northeastward of the Ndahi, is a broad 
arm, joining the latter at 5 miles to the southwestward, above which 
it takes the name of Mto Kimero, and winds through open grass 
country. About 6 miles up, it is joined by the Mto Usembe, which 
leaves the Rufiji 3 miles below the Mto Kimero, neither river afford- 
ing a passage for even a small steam launch in the dry season, unless 
perhaps at spring tides. 

Msala Mouth, situated westward of Boydii Island, may be con- 
sidered the true mouth of the Rufiji, although one of the smallest, as 
firm ground and fresh water are much sooner reached by it than by 
the larger mangrove entrances. Banks of sand and mud dry off 
Msala Mouth for 3 miles, and, at low water, springs, the entrance is 
impracticable; there is considerable swell on the bar with a fresh 
breeze. 

Inmiediately within the mouth is a large creek trending south- 
ward, with the village of Msala on its western point, and at 5 miles 
from the entrance to the Bumba Branch, or main stream, the man- 
grove belt is passed, while for 7 miles farther the river is bordered 
by dense forest, in which are rice clearings; at the point where it 
branches, and where the Rufiji proper is reached, it emerges into open 
country. Its average breadth is from 80 to 150 yards, with a depth 
of 2 fathoms. 

Ras Twana, the northeastern ])oint of the delta, is composed of 
low mangroves, and is 6 miles northward of the Msala Mouth ; it has 
a sand and mud bank drying in spots at low water, springs, and 
tolerably steep-to, extending 3^ miles eastward, which is generally 
visible only when the sea is breaking on it. Twana Creek, close west- 
ward of the ras, is a blind creek. 

Kiomboni Mouth, lying 2 miles noi-thwestward from Ras Twana, 
is one of the large mouths of the Rufiji, and before joining the Simba 
Uranga, it runs for 12 miles through dense mangroves; it is about 
400 yards wide, with a depth of from 3 feet to 3 fathoms. 

Simba Uranga, used by coasting vessels which load with timber 
for Zanzibar, has practically no bar, being approached over the shore 
bank, under 3 fathoms, which extends 6 or 7 miles off its entrance; 
near low water, a considerable sea is sometimes raised bv the ebb 
tide. 

Patches, awash at low water, lie on the shore bank from 2 to 4 
miles northeastward of the southern point of entrance. 

Depths. — Within the 3-fathom contour line the depth decreases 
to 2 fathoms near the fairway buoy, and to 1^ fathoms near the inner 
buoy, the least depth being about 8 feet at low water, springs, and 
in the entrance to the river the depths are from 2 to 5 fathoms, while 
inside it deepens to 10 fathoms for a short distance. 



CAPE DELGADO TO EAS KANZI. 351 

Directions. — A conspicuous clump of high, ragged trees, situatecjl 
a short distance northwestward of the mouth, is usually the first 
object ^en when making the river, and the point on the south side 
has some high casuarina trees on it. A course 205° will lead to the 
center of the entrance, and within, the estuary is from 300 to 400 
yards wide, and carries from 1 fathom to 3 fathoms to its junction 
with the Kiomboni, 10 miles to the southwestward. Several creeks 
branching off to the northward communicate with the Kikunya 
Branch. 

Immediately inside the entrance, the large and intricate ramifi- 
cations of the Suninga Branch trend away southward and rejoin the 
Simba Uranga 8^ miles to the southwestward, the courses of both 
being entirely through mangroves, and on the island thus formed is 
Suninga village, the largest of several in the rivers. 

Kikunya Mouthy the northernmost and largest of these great 
openings, situated 3 miles northwestward of Simba Uranga, is 2^ 
miles wide at the entrance, and has no bar, the least depth being 2 
fathoms at low water, springs, steering about 223° for the center of 
the entrance. Kikunya village, standing on firm land near the head 
of a little branch creek, 9 miles from the coast, is the most important 
place in the neighborhood. 

The passage of the river presents no difficulties until within 2 miles 
of Kikunya, where the river becomes narrow, with sharp bends, and 
only about 3 feet at half tide. At the landing place, 1 mile below 
the village, there is a deep pool with from 4 to 6 fathoms water. 

The Kikunya is only connected with the Eufiji by side communica- 
tions with the Simba Uranga, and has no fresh water in it. In 
all the branches northward of Msala, the water is salt, as the amount 
of fresh water which finds its way into them is so small compared 
with their vast area that it produces but little effect. 

Bnfiji River. — Above the delta the river is not nearly the size 
that might be expected from the number and width of its mouths, 
and the undoubted distance of its source, and by the time the inunda- 
tion caused by the interior rains has subsided and the stream becomes 
reduced in strength so that a boat can ascend, the available water 
channel is very limited and obstructed by many shoals and banks; 
also wherever the river widens with a straight reach it is frequently 
shallow for its whole width. 

The steam cutter of the British naval vessel Fawn, drawing 3 feet, 
ascended without difficulty, for 30 miles to Kisoma, which is 20 miles 
in, a straight line from the Msala Mouth, having general depths of 
from 2 to 3 fathoms, and not less than from 9 to 10 feet water all the 
way, except at one spot a little above Ukema village, where there 
seemed to be no deep channel, but a bar wuth from 2 to 3 feet across 



352 CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 

the river, which would probably be cleared away by the next inun- 
dation. 

At Mpembeno village, just below Kisoma, although the river bed 
was over 300 yards wide from bank to bank, the actual stream of 
water was not more than 80 yards wide, and mostly shallow, while 
from somewhat unreliable information it was gathered that higher 
up, the river was more encumbered with shoals ; the banks of the river 
at this part were flat and uninteresting with few trees. 

The river is tidal to near the fork of the Kimero, and above this 
the velocity of the stream was on an average 1} miles an hour. 

At Mpembeno is the main ferry by which the land route from 
Kilwa to Dar es Salaam crosses the Sufiji, and grain, roots, and 
pumpkins are grown. 

A steam pinnace drawing 5^ feet, and accompanied by a whale 
boat, entered the river by the Simba Uranga Mouth in May, 1892, and 
reached Korogero or Kungulio, which is within two days' journey 
of Kisake, a German station on the Kingani Eiver, but has only a 
few huts. 

The Pangani Falls, probably about 150 miles from the entrance, 
were visited on foot from Korogero, and the river there was found to 
be about 30 yards wide and the falls about 3 feet in height in the 
month of June, the river having fallen about that amount in a fort- 
night. 

The Kufiji is apparently navigable to the falls at all seasons for 
vessels of about 2 feet draft, the depths in places being from 20 to 
30 feet, but the channel is constantly shifting, as at Kilindi a bar, 
which just admitted the passage of the ship's steam launch, w^hen 
ascending, was dry on the return some three weeks later, and the 
descent was made by a detour, rejoining the main branch lower down. 

The rise of the river is about 15 feet, and it is lowest in November, 
as in the Zambezi, the characteristics of the two rivers being much 
the same; it was noticed that the river fell 4^ feet between the 9th 
and 23d of May. The tide ceases at Jobine-Jongo (Jongoni?). 

Numbers of villages were seen, in some cases the houses being built 
on piles, where the localities were flooded at high river, but above 
Kooni, about 90 miles from the entrance, the left, or northern, bank 
only was inhabited, although below that place there were villages on 
both banks; near the villages, bananas, mangoes, and rice were plenti- 
ful, while wood (ebony) for fuel was abundant between Nyanda 
village and the Pangani Falls, except for a short distance. 

Descending the Rufiji from Kungulio village in canoes between 
the 13th and 16th of March, 1896, inclusive, the journey occupying 
28 hours to the Simba Uranga Mouth, not less than 6 feet water was 
obtained anywhere, but this was the season of high river. 



CAPE DELGADO TO BAS KANZI. 353 

Mafia Island, forming part of the German Protectorate, and 
lying eastward of the northern part of the delta of the Rufiji, from 
which it is separated by the Mafia Channel, is 27 miles in length, 
in a northeast and opposite direction ; it is composed of coral, with an 
extreme width of 9 miles. Its coast is generally low, but it has a cen- 
tral rocky plateau from 70 to 100 feet in height, the trees on it rising 
to a height of 200 feet ; its outline is devoid of any remarkable feature. 

The island is much cut up by mangrove swamps and creeks, but a 
large part is fertile and cultivated with coconut trees, manioc, etc. 
The eastern side is cliffy and fringed by a narrow coral reef, steep-to, 
on which the sea breaks furiously. The southern and western coasts 
are bordered by fringing reefs of varying width, and have numerous 
shoals off them. 

The most considerable village is on Chole Island, in Chole Bay, on 
the southeastern side of Mafia; other villages, though numerous, are 
all very small. 

Southeast coast. — Tutia Reef, the southernmost danger off 
Mafia, is detached and lies off the extreme of the reef extending 4^ 
miles south westward of Kiboiido Island. A sand bank on the north- 
western part of Tutia Reef dries 12 feet at springs, and the southern 
edge of the reef breaks heavily, always showing its position; a rocky 
ridge on this edge also dries 12 feet, but being black is not so con- 
spicuous. 

Kibondo Island^ triangular in shape; flat, and composed of coral, 
the sides being about If miles in length, lies 3f miles from the 
southern coast of Mafia Island, and has a clump of tall trees on the 
southern end, and some coconut palms on the northwestern point, 
which are both conspicuous. 

The reef on which the island, lies extends about 12 miles south- 
westward of Chole Bay, dries 8 feet at springs in places, and has 
Juani Island and some islets on it ; its southeast edge is steep-to, and 
on it the sea breaks heavily. 

Kibondo anchorage. — Good anchorage, sheltered from all swell, 

may be obtained on the west side of Kibondo Reef, a good berth 

being in a depth of 6 fathoms over sand and mud, with the southern 

islet of Kibondo bearing 88°, and the northwest end of Tutia Sand 

. Bank 183°. 

Caution. — It jiiust be borne in mind that the sand bank is on the 
inner side of Tutia Reef, and a good berth should be given when 
rounding it for Kibondo anchorage from the eastward, as the current 
sets toward it. 

Chole Bay, 44 miles in diameter, is a deep indentation in tht; 
southeastern shore of Mafia Island, the mouth of which is nearly 
closed by the reefs and islands of Juani, Chole, and Miewi. Within 

39511—16 2B 



354 CAPE DELGADO TO BAS KANZI. 

the bay, which has only been partially examined, is a limited area of 
deep water, but Eonasi Pass, the entrance from the eastward, is 
narrow, with rocks on either side, and the tidal streams run with 
such velocity through it that unless well buoyed it would be unsafe 
for any vessel to use. 

The southwest channel inside the reefs from the south westward is 
always available for boats, except at low water, springs, and at high 
water small vessels of 10 feet draSf can enter by it. 

The depths in Kinasi Pass are from 6 to 11 fathoms and from 
4 to 8 fathoms in the deep portion of the bay. The shores of Cholo 
Bay are well cultivated and populated. 

Juani Island, lying northeast \<^ard of Kibondo, on the same reef^ 
and, forming the southern shore of Chole Bay, presents to seaward 
a straight face of cliffs 10 feet high and 4^ miles in length, fringed 
by a narrow reef; its inner coast is composed of cliffs and man- 
groves. 

Chole Island, 1 mile in length, lies about i mile northwestward 
of Juani on the same reef, and on it is the principal village and 
place for trade in Mafia; it contains about 2,000 inhabitants and ii 
locally celebrated for its mats, but it is difficult to communicate 
with, as a vessel can not get nearer than the anchorage westward of 
Kibondo, nearly 9 miles distant, and the water is so shallow between 
the anchorage and Chole that at low water springs it is not ea^y 
for even a light boat to find a passage. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Chole Bay, at 4 h. 
m. ; springs rise 15 feet, neaps rise 16 feet. 
Supplies of fresh provisions are scarce. 

East coast. — From the southeast point of the island the east coast 
trends in a north-northeast direction for 18 miles to Has Mkumbi, 
and is nearly straight and bordered by a steep-to fringing reef. 

Mafia Island — South coast. — The southern coast of Mafia, from 
Chole Bay to Ras Kisimani, is low, mostly fringed with mangroves, 
and backed by groves of coconut trees, with the exception of some 
red cliffs, 60 feet high, westward of Dongo Jekundu, which are con- 
spicuous. It is bordered by the Okuto Reef, dry in places at low 
watear, springs, and extending 3f miles southward, also by other 
shoal ground forming the northern side of Kibondo Anchorage. 

Has Mkumbi (Moresby Point) , the northern extreme of Mafia 
Island, is a coral cliff about 15 feet high, within which the land, 
rising to about 80 feet, is covered' with small bushes and trees. 

Light. — A quadrangular-shaped tower, 98 feet in height, with red 
and white bands, stands on Ras Mkumbi, and exhibits, at an eleva- 
tion of 102 feet above high water, a white and red alternating flash- 
ing light, visible 16 miles. 



OAPE DELGADO TO B^ KANZI. 355 

SeefSy on which the sea breaks in ordinary weather, extend 1,400 
yards northward of Ras Mknmbi, and a 2-fathom patch lies 1 mile 
northeastward of the lighthouse, so that vessels should round the 
point at a distance of at least 1^ or 2 miles. 

A tail of broken ground stretches 5 miles northward from Ras 
Mkumbi, and patches of 9 fathoms are found 5 or 6 miles north- 
westward of this tail near the edge of deep water; although the 
British naval vessel Fawn found nothing less than that depth it 
would be well to avoid the neighborhood. The rush of the current, 
even in places where the depth is not less than 20 fathoms, is plainly 
seen, and makes these patches appear like dangers. 

Mafia Channel^ between the dangers eastward of the northern 
mouths of the Rufiji River on the west and those westward and north- 
westward of Mafia Island on' the east, although much encumbered 
by reefs, is buoyed and is easily navigable by day; it may be of 
considerable advantage to a steam vessel of moderate draft and low 
power proceeding to the southward against the southern monsoon, 
but vessels bound to the northward gain nothing by using it, as the 
current is favorable outside the island. 

The best track, shown by a pecked line on the chart, is buoyed, 
the buoys being separately described with the dangers which they 
mark, and it is best to navigate it at low water when the reefs are 
most easily seen, but this can not always be depended on to the north- 
ward of the Rufiji Delta, where the water is frequently thick. 

Too great reliance should not be placed on the buoys being in posi- 
tion. 

Depths. — ^The least depth in Mafia Channel is 6 fathoms, unless 
passing westward of Sefo, when there is only from 4 to 5 fathoms. 

West shore. — The west shore of Mafia Channel, formed by the 
land about the various northern outlets of the Rufiji River, has been 
described. 

Dangers — ^West side. — Fungu Marima, the southernmost dan- 
ger on the west side of the track, dries 4 feet, and is 2J miles in 
length in a north and south direction; a shoal with from 2 to 3 
fathoms extends fully 1 mile southward, and shoal patches, one 
awash at low water, stretch about 5 miles to the northward of it, 
while the channel between it and the shore is almost filled by shoal 
patches. 

Kauri, about 2J miles eastward of the north end of Fungu Marinia; 
with shoal patches between, dries 6 feet. 

Belainiy about 2 miles north-northeastward of Kauri, is awasli 
at low water, springs, at its northern part, situated 1^ miles west- 
southwestward of Ras Kisimani; a rocky shoal, partly detached,. 



356 OAPE DELOADO TO RAS KANZL 

extends about 1^ miles to the southward, and there are patches in the 
channel to the westward. 

Boydu Island, in the middle of that part of Mafia Channel west- 
ward of the track, is a narrow sandy island, 1^ miles in length in 
a west-northwest and opposite direction, and covered with casuarina 
trees 90 feet in height; it lies on a reef, drying from 2 to 6 feet, 
having islets on it southward of both extremes of the island, the reef 
extending from all sides and 2 miles to the southward. A shoal 
with from 1 to 3 fathoms extends nearly 4 miles north-northeastward 
of this reef. 

Maduviy a small sand bank drying 13 feet, lies 2 miles northeast- 
ward of the east end of Boydu Island, and from it a narrow shoal, 
with from 2 to 3 fathoms, stretches nearly 4 miles to the northward 
close along the western side of the track, being steep-to and generally 
showing by a line of discolored water. 

East side. — ^Mange, southwestward of Okuto Reef and on the 
eastern side of the southern entrance to Mafia Channel, is 2 miles in 
length, dry at low water, springs, the sand head toward its northern 
end drying 12 feet; it can generally be distinguished even when the 
sand head is covered. 

Buoy. — A black conical buoy, with " 5, Mafia " in white letters on 
it, is moored in the western edge of the shore bank, with depths under 
3 fathoms, which extends 1^ miles from the red cliffs, southward of 
Ras Kisimani ; there is only 3 feet water a few yards eastward of the 
buoy, though it lies in 11 fathoms. 

Has Kisimani, th6 west point of Mafia Island, and the eastern 
point of entrance to the narrows of Mafia Channel, from the south- 
ward, is low, sandy, and steep-to at its western extreme, but shallow 
water extends from the coast both to the southward and northward 
of it ; there is a swamp within the point. 

Water may be obtained by digging holes in the sand to the north- 
ward of the point, but, although there is a village, supplies are diffi- 
cult to procure. 

Northwest coast. — Between Ras Kisimani and Ras Mbisi, 10 
miles northeastward, the northwest coast of Mafia Island forms a 
bight named Tirene Bay, the land within its shores being about 100 
feet high, and having two natural objects, forming useful landmarks. 

Ngombeni Shamba, the southwestern of these, is a clump of mango 
trees, 175 feet high, about 2f miles eastward of Ras Kisimani, and 
showing more conspicuously than other lower clumps. 

Palm Hill, 4 miles northeastward of this, and the other object, is 
covered with coconut palms, forming a conical summit 170 feet high, 
which shape is more marked at a distance, when it is more easily 
identified. Near Tirene, a plantation about 6^ miles northeastward 
of Ras Kisimani, there is a conspicuous white house. 



N 



CAPE DELGADO TO HAS KANZI. 357 

Has Mbisiy a coral point, has a mangrove creek on its southeast 
side, and on the land forming the west side of the creek are some high 
trees ; the land rises at about 2 miles eastward to Lechmere Hill, 160 
feet high. 

Dangers — ^East side. — Al Hadjiri, a reef lying 3J miles north- 
ward of Ras Kisimani, is rather more than 1 mile in extent, with a 
sand bank on it that dries 6 feet at low water, springs, and is gen- 
erally visible from discolored water; its southwest edge, toward 
Mafia Channel, not being steep-to, should be given a berth. 

Buoy. — A black conical buoy, with " 4 Mafia " in white letters on 
it, is moored on the west edge of the reef, west-south westward of the 
drying sand bank. 

Sefo, a reef about 3 miles northward of Al Hadjiri, has a sand 
bank on it, drying 12 feet at low water, springs, and is therefore 
generally visible. 

Buoy. — A white spar buoy, with "Sefo" on it in white lettei^s 
and surmounted by a staff and two triangles, bases apart, is moored 
on the west side of the sand bank. 

Salim Bank, about 3 miles in length in a northwest and opposite 
direction, and 1^ miles in greatest width, lies with its northwest end 
1 mile eastward of Sefo; it is formed of sand and coral, and has a 
least depth of 1 fathom. 

Buoy. — A black conical buoy, with " 3 Mafia " in white letters on 
it, is moored at the northwest extreme of the bank. 

Tirene Reef. — Sand dries off about 1^ miles from the shore of the 
bay northeastward of Ras Kisimani, about \ mile off the shore north- 
eastward, and If miles westward of Ras Mbisi, and outside it the 
shore bank, under 3 fathoms, extends in a tongue for nearly 5 miles 
northeastward of Ras Kisimani. 

Tirene Reef, awash at low water, springs, lies about \ mile north- 
eastward of the point of this tongue of shore bank, and is steep-to on 
its southern side, but has shoal water extending from it about 1,600 
yards to the northward, and 700 yards westward. 

Buoys. — Tirene Reef is marked on its eastern side by a white spar 
buoy, with " Tirene " on it in white letters, and surmounted by two 
black triangles, bases together. 

A red spar buoy, surmounted by a cylinder, is moored near the edge 
of the shore bank, northward of Kilindoni. 

Directions. — From westward of Mange a course 4"^ should lead 
to about 800 yards westward of the black buoy ("6 Mafia"), when 
course may be altered to 348°, passing a similar distance westward 
of Ras Kisimani, and between the narrow bank, extending northward 
of Maduvi, on the west, and Al Hadjiri on the east. 

Mange Reef can usually be seen from a distance of 2 miles, even 
when covered, which is only at or near high water, springs. 



358 CAPE DELGADO TO BAS KANZI. 

Being abreast the black buoy ("4 Mafia") marking the western 
edge of AI Harjiri and intending to anchor in Tirene Bay, continue 
the course 348° for about 1 mile, and then alter course to 27°, to pass 
about i mile westward of the black buoy (" 3 Mafia") on the north- 
west e2ctreme of Salim and, roimding that buoy, steer to the east- 
ward until Magomani Shamba palm hill bears 164°, when steer for 
it, passing southwestward of the patch awash, situated 3 miles west- 
northwestward of Eas Mbisi, and eastward of the buoy marking 
Tirene Reef. 

If not intending to enter Tirene Bay the course 348° may be con- 
tinued, which should lead about 400 yards westward of the white 
spar buoy marking the northwest side of Sefo. 

Anchorages. — Good ancliorage may be obtained off Tirene, which 
has a conspicuous white house J mile northward of it, in a depth of 
6 fathoms, about ^ mile from the drying part of the shore sand 
and H miles offshore, with Ras Mbisi bearing 40°, sheltered by the 
outer banks; or a vessel might anchor farther southwestward off 
Kilindoni, abreast of a red buoy with " Kilindoni " in white letters 
on it, which has, as a topmark, a square tablet inscribed "4^ m.," 
indicating the depth of water in which it is moored. 

Tidal streams* — From buoy "No. 3 Mafia" the stream of the 
rising tide sets s(»iew1iat strongly into Tirene Bay, and at the an* 
chorage it Avas observed that the stream set to the northward at a rate 
of i knot at 3 hours after, and to the southward at a similar rate 
at the same time before, high water. 

Village. — Kilindoni is a village with a customhouse. 

Mafia Channel — ^West side — Dangers. — Wumi, the southern- 
most danger on the west side of the track continued northward of 
Sefo, is 6 miles north-northeastward of that reef, and dries 2 feet 
at low water, springs, but is not easily distinguished at high water 
on account of there being no sand on it; a 2-fathom patch lies 1 
mile westward of it. 

Pili, a reef drying 1 foot at low water, springs, is 4i miles north- 
northeastward of Wumi, and of the same character as that danger, 
only smaller. 

Dira, lying about 7 miles north-northwestward of Fili, is 3| miles 
in length in a north-northeast and opposite direction, with a sand 
bank drying 10 feet on its southwest side ; it generally shows, and the 
sea always breaks on it. In a southeast direction, toward the track, 
are a number of patches with from 6 to 10 fathoms. 

About 3 miles southwestward of the drying sand bank is the 
northern extreme of a reef about 1 mile in extent and awash at low 
water, springs, and a 5-fathom patch, with perhaps less water near 
it, is situated If miles east-northeastward of the northeast extreme 
of Dira. 



CAFE DELGADO TO BAS KANZI. 359 

A 2-f athom shoal and rock is located about 4^ miles southwestward 
of the southern extreme of Dira Keef . Depths of 2^ fathoms have 
been found to extend about 1^00 yards 232° from this shoal, the 
approximate position of the latter being in latitude 7° 38' south 
and longitude 39° 30' 45" east. 

TJkamba, about 7 miles northward of Dira, has a sand bank near 
its northeast extreme, drying 10 feet at low water, springs, but on 
which the sea does not always break at high water, and from this 
sand bank the reef, with several drying patches and many breaks 
in them, "extends about 3^ miles southwestward and upward of 4 
miles westward ; in the space south-south westward of Ukamba, for 7 
miles, are other reefs, mostly awash, with navigable channels be- 
tween them, but lying out of the ordinary track of vessels. 

The western detached reef of Ukamba is marked by a small barrel 
buoy, which is mentioned with the dangers off the western shore. 

Muni Patches are three small coral heads, with 2 fathoms, occu- 
pying a space of about 4 miles in a north-northwest and opposite 
direction, the easternmost patch being situated nearly 4 miles east- 
ward of Ukamba drying patch ; they rise abruptly from deep water, 
their positions being (mly known by tidal swirls. 

Bussard Beef, about 270 yards in extent, with less than 1 fathom 
over it, is about 2^ miles north-northwestward of the northeast ex- 
treme of Ukamba, and a patch of 2 fathoms lies about 1^ miles south- 
eastward of Bussard Reef ; the current runs strongly in the vicinity 
of the reef. 

Field Patch, a small coral head of 5 fathoms, steep-to, is about 
5 miles north-northeastward of the eastern Muni Patch. 

Mafia Island — Northwest coast. — Kirongwe Bay, about 5 miles 
eastward of Eas Mbisi, is shallow, and choked with banks of mud 
and sand ; the village of the same name lies at its head. 

Ras Murundo, the northern point of entrance to Kirongwe Bay, is 
sandy, with high trees on it, and from the point Mwamba Kkuu 
stretches 2J miles northwestward, its extreme drying 8 feet at low 
water, springs. 

From Ras Murundo the coast, trending northeastward for about 
11^ miles to Ras Mkumbi, is chiefly sandy, with low points of coral 
cliffs here and there, and some mangrove creeks, one of which, 4J 
miles from Ras Murundo, joins Kirongwe Creek, and is generally 
frequented by hippopotami. 

Anchorage. — During the southwest monsoon, when the wind is 
not too strong, there is good anchorage southwestward of Rafi 
Mkumbi, in from 8 to 14 fathoms, over sand and mud, at from 1^ 
to 3 miles from the shore, a good berth, and convenient for landing, 
being in a depth of 9 fathoms, over sand and mud, with the light- 



360 CAPE DELQADO TO EAS KANZI. 

house bearing 57° and Ras Biieni 117°, distant from 1 mile to IJ 
miles. 

The edge of the fringing reef varies its distance from the shore 
near this anchorage from a few hundred yards to 1 mile, the I'dge, 
although not steep-to, being clearly seen at low water. 

Landing. — The best landing at low water and at half tide is at 
Ras Bueni, where there is but little reef, but after half tide boats 
may land anywhere. 

Supplies. — At several villages, southwestward of Ras Mkumbi, 
and at Bueni, bullocks, goats, fowls, and a small quantity of yams 
and pumpkins may be procured ; guinea fowl are also obtainable. 

Dangers — ^East side. — The southernmost danger on the east side 
of the track, northward of Tirene Bay, is the patch of reef already 
mentioned ; on the north side of tliis patch, and to the eastward and 
northward, at a distance of about 2^ miles, are somewhat similar 
patches. 

Barakuni Islet, about 6^ miles north-northeastward of Ras 
Mbisi, is sandy and covered with casuarina trees, the tops of which 
are about 100 feet high ; it lies on the southwest edge of a reef 1 mile 
in extent, from which a shallow spit extends 2 miles southwestward, 
leaving a narrow, but deep, channel between it and Mwamba Mkuu. 

For a distance of about 3 miles northward of this reef and spit are 
a number of sunken reefs, separated by narrow channels; some of 
these reefs sometimes break heavily, whilst others do not show, but 
they practically close the passage except on the north side, and the 
tidal streams set through with considerable strength. 

Pigeons may be obtained on Barakuni Islet as well as on 
Shungu-mbili. 

Shungu-mbili Islet, 7 miles northward of Ras Mbisi, is similar 
to Barakuni Islet, and its trees, of the same height, may be seen from 
a distance of 14 miles in clear weather ; it lies on the southern edge 
of a reef, which dries 3 feet at low water, springs. A spit, with 
depths under 10 fathoms, extends about 3 miles south-south westward 
of the islet, and on it are two shallow patches, while shallow water, 
which is steep-to, extends IJ miles westward of the islet toward * 
the track. 

Buoy. — A black conical buoy, with "2 Mafia" on it in white 
letters, is moored at the western extreme of the latter shoal water. 

Niororo Island, lying 5 miles northward of Shungu-mbili, is 
about i mile in length, covered with bushes, and has on it a few 
casuarina trees about 100 feet high ; it is partly bordered by low coral 
cliff, and lies on the western edge of a drying reef, which is one of a 
number, separated from each other by shallow water, aad stretching 
to the northward, southward, and eastward, for distances of from 1 
mile to 3^ miles, but little more than 200 yards westward. 



CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 361 

At the northwest extreme of the bank on which these reefs lie is 
a sand bank, drying 5 feet at low water, springs, and the current, 
being deflected to the northwestward by this part of the reef, often 
makes the reef to appear to extend farther in that direction than it 
actually does. A vessel approaching Mafia Channel from the north- 
ward will first sight Mafia Island, the trees on it being visible from 
about 14 miles. 

Buoy. — A white spar buoy, surmoimted by two black triangles, 
pointing downward, marks the southeast extreme of the bank on 
which the island and reefs stand. 

Gordon Reef, a sunken danger with less than 1 fathom water, lies 
about 3 miles north-northeastward of Niororo Island, and about 4 
miles east-southeastward of it is a patch of 3 fathoms, while Vulture 
Bank, 1| miles in length, within the 10-fathom contour line, has one 
spot on its northeast end with a depth of 2 fathoms; it is situated 
about 6J miles northeastward of Niororo Island. 

Fawn Bank, a number of patches^ with depths of from 5 to 10 
fathoms, lies, for a distance of 3^ miles, in an east and west direction 
across the northern entrance to Mafia Channel; its center is about 
6 J miles, 0°, of Niororo Island. Depths of from 4 to 7 fathoms 
are reported (1915) to exist within a distance of 4 miles to the north- 
ward of the eastern end of Fawn Bank. 

Shungu-mbili just open westward of Niororo Island, bearing 178°, 
leads over Fawn Bank in a depth of 10 fathoms, and also westward 
of Gordon Reef. 

Directions. — Having passed on either side of Sefo, Niororo Island 
should be steered for, bearing 27°, which course will lead about 
f mile westward of the buoy marking the west end of Shungu-mbili 
Bank, and when Shungu-mbili Islet bears 142° alter course to 5° 
to pass westward of the buoy marking the northwest end of Niororo 
Island Bank. 

Being abreast the latter buoy the course 27° should be again 
steered until Shungu-mbili is just open westward of Niororo Island, 
bearing 178°, when steer 358°, using these as a stern mark, and 
crossing Fawn Bank in a depth of 10 fathoms. 

As previously mentioned, there is nothing to be gained by a vessel 
using this channel if bound to the northward, and a vessel coming 
from that direction must reverse these directions. A vessel from the 
northward from about 4 or 5 miles eastward of Eas Kanzi Light- 
house should steer about 174°, and the trees on Niororo Island should 
be seen in clear weather when abreast of Muni Patches, when the 
leading marks, already given, may be brought in line, but the outline 
of Mafia Island will not be visible until Shungu-mbili is abeam. 

Anchorage, in a depth of 9 fathoms, over sand, may be obtained 
off the northwest end of Niororo Island, on which turtle may be 



\ 

362 CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 

procured in the season, from January to June, the natives coming 
in these months from the mainland to turn them. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Ras Kisimani, and 
throughout the Mafia Channel, at 3 h. 55 m. ; springs rise 15 feet, 
neaps rise 9 feet. 

Tidal streams. — Southward of Has Kisimani the stream of the 
rising tide sets northwestward, and the other stream in a contrary 
direction, but to the northward of Ras Kisimani the streams are 
nearly reversed, the former being a south-going stream and the latter 
northeast going, although the streams are frequently overpowered by 
the permanent north-going current, especially during neaps. 

The alteration in the direction of the streams depends considerabl}'^ 
on the wind, as if that should be strong from southeast, unless at 
spring tides, it is almost certain that a strong north-going current 
will be experienced in Mafia Channel, at any time of tide. 

Between Mange and Sefo Reefs, the current or stream generally 
follows the direction of the* channel, but a northeast-going set may 
be experienced, on passing AI Hadjiri, with a falling tide. 

Coast. — From Kikunguni the coast, mostly sand}' and fronted by 
a mud bank drying at low water, trends in a north-northeast direc- 
tion, forming a long bight, for 33 miles, to Ras Pembamnasi ; there 
are no important projections, but it is intersected by several streams, 
some of which have large mouths, all closed at low water, springs, 
but accessible to small vessels at high water. 

About 6 miles within the coast the Mtoti Hills, a flat-topped range, 
runs parallel to it, and at its southern end is Kanage, 700 feet high, 
with a conspicuous clump of trees on it, from which the range lowers 
to 300 feet at its northern end. The country near the sea is well culti- 
vated and thickly populated, and a considerable amount of copal and 
rubber is produced in the vicinity. 

The most important of the several villages are Kavinja, 5 miles 
northward of Kikunguni; Kivumangao and Yandope, 7 and 8 miles 
farther north ; Kisiju abreast of Kwale Island, and Bosa westward of 
Ras Pembamnasi. 

Several small islands, with a number of dangers outside them, 
lie off the coast, most of the latter, on account of the muddy water, 
only showing at low tide, and both islands and reefs break with the 
ocean swell; but in ordinary weather and except in places abreast 
the channels between them, the water is smooth and landing may 
be easily effected. 

The water deepens very gradually along the coast, with a navi- 
gable channel, having a soft muddy bottom inside the islands, the 
water being generally deeper toward them ; this channel is invariably 
used by dhows. 



CAPE DELGADO TO RAS KANZI. 363 

Tidal streams and currents. — The tidal streams are strong in 
all the channels, and along the shore the stream of the rising tide 
running to the southward and toward, and the other stream to the 
northward and off, the shore. Eastward of the Kwale Beefs there 
is sometimes a continous northerly current, but this depends on the 
wind. 

Islands and reefs. — ^Eoma Island^ formed of coral, and 1 mile 
in diameter, with the tops of the trees about 70 feet above high 
water, is 5 miles from the mainland, with from 3 to 4 fathoms in the 
channel between. The island stands on a reef extending 2 miles 
northeastward, having several small busH-covered islets on its outer 
part, the northernmost and largest being Pemba-juu, with trees 40 
feet in heights 

Hatambura, a rocky islet with trees about 40 feet in height, sit- 
uated 2f miles northward of Koma, is surrounded by a narrow reef 
with 6 and 6 fathoms water close-to. 

Anchorage. — Good anchorage in either monsoon may be ob- 
tained to the northward of Koma Island, in a depth of 6 fathoms, 
over mud, with Pemba-juu Islet bearing about 94°, distant 1,400 or 
1,600 yards. 

Supplies. — Bullocks, fowls, and goats are procurable at Koma 
at a cheap rate, and there is a well of good water easy of access near 
the western point. 

Kwale Island^ 7^ miles northward of Koma Ishind, is composed 
of coral, and 2^ miles long by 1,500 yards wide, the tops of the trees 
being about 100 feet above high water; it is bordered by a large 
reef, on the southeast side of which are the three bushy Chokaa 
Islets, the easternmost of these, 40 feet high, being 1 mile from 
Kwale. The narrow channel within Kwale Island has a maximum 
depth of 2 fathoms at low water, springs, over muddy bottom. 

Buoy. — The northwestern edge of the sand bank extending from 
Ras Funguni, the west point of the island, is marked by a black 
conical buoy. 

North Fanjove Island^ 5^ miles northeastward of Kwale Island, 
is sandy, covered with trees 60 feet high, and surrounded by a reef, 
which extends about f mile south-southwestward, and dries out to a 
distance of i mile in some other directions. Several patches of reef 
lie between it and Kwale Island. 

Sukuti Beef, the northernmost and largest of Kwale Reefs, occu- 
pies a space between 2 and 5^ miles northward of North Fanjove 
Island, and is from 3 to 6 miles from the mainland; it forms the 
southern side of Shungu Bay. Two mangrove trees stand on its 
western side, where is also a coral head that dries 10 feet; the sea 
always breaks heavily on the outer edge of Sukuti Reef. 



364 CAPE DEU^iADO TO RAS KANZI. 

Vyumbani are three small reefs awash, about 2 miles southwest- 
ward from the shallowest parts of Sukuti Reef and 2^ miles from the 
mainland. 

Channels. — The channel, 1^ miles wide, between North Fanjove 
Island and Sukuti Reef, has depths of from 6 to 12 fathoms, and the 
northern side of Mto Dendeni entrance, where there is a conspicuous 
high clump of trees, bearing 269°, leads through. A channel inside 
Sukuti and Vyumbani Reefs has 3 fathoms at low water, springs, but 
the latter reefs do not show at high water. 

Anchorage. — Good anchorage may be obtained by small craft in 
either monsoon, in a depth of 3 or 4 fathoms, westward of Sukuti 
Reef and most easily entered from the northward. Binga Hill, iso- 
lated, flat-topped, and 530 feet high, situated 8 miles northwestward 
of Mto Dendini, is a conspicuous object from this anchorage. 

Ras Fembamnasi, the eastern point of Shungu Bay, is a low 
mangrove point backed by higher trees, with shore reef drying oflf 
I mile; a detached breaking patch lies 1,400 yards from the eastern 
extreme, and a rock, awash at low water, is 1 mile west-southwest- 
ward of the point. 

Shungu Bay, southwestward of Ras Pembamnasi, is shallow, tbe 
3-fathom contour line being about 1^ miles offshore. Mto Shungfr- 
bueni, discharging into the bay, is of considerable width at its 
mouth, which dries completely across at low water, springs, and has a 
rock, drying 6 feet, lying nearly 1 mile off it. A boat can ascend for 
several miles at high water. 

Ras MwambamkUy formed of high mangroves, is bordered by 
a reef which dries off 1 mile southward, with a 3-fathom tail extend- 
ing southwestward for another mile; a 2j»fathom patch, i mile in 
extent, lies 2^ miles south-southwestward from the point. 

Buuni Bay, between Ras Pembamnasi and Ras Mwambamku, is a 
sandy bay 3 miles wide, mostly shallow, and open to the southeast- 
ward. Some red cliffs, a little southward of the village in the center 
of the bay, show well with the sun in the east. 

Directions. — Approaching Buuni Bay from the southward the 
highest trees on Ras Pembamnasi should be steered for bearing 330°, 
until the eastern extreme of Ras Mwambamku bears 23°, when alter 
course for it, which will lead in a depth of 4J fathoms between the 
2-fathom patch 2J miles south-southwestward of Ras Mwambamku 
and the breaking reef off Ras Pembamnasi. 

From the northward steer for the red cliffs bearing 319°, which 
will lead, in a depth of 5 fathoms, between the 2-fathom patch and 
the reef extending southwestward of Ras Mwambamku, and when 
the east eictreme of that point bears 20°, alter course for it and the 
anchorage. 



CAPE DELGADO TO BAS KANZI. 365 

Anchorage. — The anchorage in Buuni Bay during the northeast 
monsoon is in a depth of 5^ fathoms, over sand and mud, with Bas 
Mwambamku bearing 20°, and the southern extreme of the reef 
extending from it 82°, protected by Eas Mwambamku. 

Coast. — From Ras Mwambamku the coast trends to the northward 
for 7i miles to Ras Kanzi, the first 3 miles being low and swampy, 
after which it rises to cliffs, 80 feet high, at Puna Point, off which 
the shore reef extends only a few hundred yards, with deep water 
close-to, but in other places it stretches off nearly 1 mile. 

Ras Kanzi may be distinguished by the number of palmyra palms 
near it, which are not seen elsewhere on this coast, also by Puna 
Hill, isolated, rounded, and 240 feet high, situated about 4J miles to 
the westward of it, and which is especially conspicuous when ap- 
proaching from the southward. 

Light. — A fixed white light, visible 14 miles, is exhibited, at an 
elevation of 62 feet above high water, from a quadrangular-shaped 
tower, 31 feet in height, situated on Ras Kanzi; a detached white 
dwelling is near the light tower. For bearings of arc of visibility, 
see Light List. 

Currents. — The current to the eastward of Mafia Island runs con- 
tinuously to the north-northwestward, its rate varjdng from 1 knot 
to 2 knots in the northeast monsoon to from 2 to 4 knots in the 
southwest monsoon, and the width of its belt also varies considerably, 
extending sometimes only about 30 miles offshore and at other times 
much more, so that it is difficult to estimate its velocity when ap- 
proaching the coast from the eastward. 

A vessel bound for Zanzibar should steer well to the southward to 
make Ras Mkumbi Lighthouse or Light, so as to. insure giving the 
dangerous locality of Fungu Kizimkazi (Latham Island) a wide 
berth. 

Northward of Ras Mkumbi the western limit of the current some- 
times does not reach beyond midway between the mainland and 
Fungu Kizimkazi, and in such condition, even in the southern mon- 
soon, a southerly set may be experienced near Ras Kimbiji, but 
usually at this season the current strikes the coast somewhere in the 
vicinity of Ras Kimbiji, and runs along it to the northward. 

On the bank under 100 fathoms, northwestward of Ras Mkumbi, 
the movement of the water is tidal, the stream of the rising tide set- 
ting southwestward, and the other stream in an opposite direction, 
but varying several points either way. 

Winds. — ^The seasons at Mafia Island are similar to those at Zanzi- 
bar and, like them, very changeable, but the wind in the Mafia 
Channel is steadier during the day than in the Zanzibar Channel. 
The rainfall is greater in the vicinity of Ras Kisimani than in other 
parts of Mafia Island. 



CHAPTER IX. 



RAS KANZI TO PANGANI BAY, INCLUDING ZANZIBAR ISLAND 

AND CHANNEL. 

Fungu Eizimkazi (Latham Island) , belonging to the Govern- 
ment of Zanzibar, is a low, dangerous coral island lying 77°, distant 
23^ miles from Ras Kimbiji, and in the fairway of vessels approach- 
ing the Zanzibar Channel from the southeastward; it is 350 yards 
long in a north and south direction, and nearly 200 yards wide. 

Its surface, 10 feet above high water, has been flattened by the 
constant treading of myriads of sea fowl, thus consolidating the sand 
collected on the coral substratum into a soft sandstone, which shines 
very white in the sun but is difficult to see with a bad light or at 
night. It lies on a coral ledge which dries for about 200 yards off 
it, and depths of less than 3 fathoms extend beyond about 600 yards 
northward and eastward, and about half that distance southward and 
westward. 

Landing. — A sand bank shifts from one end of the island to the 
other, according to the monsoon, being always on the lee side, and on 
this it is practicable to eflfect a landing in moderately calm weather. 

Beacon. — ^The base of a beacon, which marked the island, was 
reported to be in existence in 1899, with a small house having a corru- 
gated iron roof and a flagstaff near it, but no reliance should be placed 
on finding these still standing. 

Anchorage. — The island is near the western edge of a bank, 
which, within a depth of 20 fathoms, extends about 4^ miles to the 
northward, 4 miles to the southward, and- 2 miles to the eastward, 
beyond which the water rapidly deepens to 200 fathoms. The greater 
part of the bank has depths of from 5 to 10 fathoms, over sand, inter- 
spersed with large lumps of coral, and the water is so clear that the 
bottom has been plainly seen by moonlight when in a depth of 10 
fathoms. 

Anchorage may be taken up to the northward or southward of the 
island, depending on the monsoon, and in moderate weather it is a 
good place for a vessel to anchor for the night when too late to fetch 
Zanzibar, at which time the bank may be safely approached by the 
lead on any side but the west, where it is steep-to, but the cross swell 
on the bank renders the anchorage uneasy. 

367 



y 



368 RAS KANZI TO PANGANl BAY, ZANZIBAR ISLAND AND CHANNEL. 

From the masthead of a vessel at anchor the mainland at Ras 
Kimbiji is just visible on a clear day. There is good fishing on the 
bank. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Fungii Kizimkazi at 
4 h. m. ; springs rise about 12 feet. 

Current. — The current on the bank is variable, but on either side 
of it, directly the deep water is gained, it runs to the northward 
with varying strength all the year round, the velocity during the 
southwest monsoon being from \\ to 4 knots, and in the northeast 
monsoon from 1 knot to 2^ knots. At 5 miles westward of Fungu 
Kizimkazi the current is much weaker. In November, 1914, the 
British naval vessel ChatJia/m experienced a set to the southeastward 
of about 1 knot per hour when passing inside Fungu Kizimkazi. 

Coast. — Ras Kimbiji, a cliffy but low promontory on the main- 
land, about 1^ miles to the northward of Ras Kanzi, will be known 
by a rounded hill 150 feet high, conspicuous by its isolation, which . 
rises 2 miles within the point, and by the lighthouse on Ras Kanzi ; 
it is a good point for a fresh departure if bound up Zanzibar Channel. 

The coast from Ras Kimbiji to Ras Manamku, 6^ miles north- 
northwestward, is varied by cliffs and sandy bays, the land being 
higher than that for some distance to the northward ; at the village 
of Kutani, about midway, the cliffs are 70 feet high and of a red 
color. Ras Manamku is a red cliffy point 60 feet high. 

Fungfu Miza, a narrow reef, 1 mile long and drying 1 foot at 
low water, springs, lies 1\ miles off Kutani Cliff and village. A rock 
with less than 1 fathom, on which the sea generally breaks, lies 
nearly 1 mile north-northwestward of it, with shallow water between. 

Anchorage. — Temporary anchorage in a depth of about 14 
fathoms can be obtained about 1 mile offshore anywhere along this 
coast when the monsoon is light, except near Fungu Miza, but care 
must be taken not to approach the anchorage at too great a speed, 
as the depth decreases suddenly from 35 to 15 fathoms, and from 
that again to much shoaler water. 

Bas Ndege, the southwest point of the southern entrance of the 
Zanzibar Channel, is cliffy, 30 feet high, and backed by low, rounded 
hills, being conspicuous from the southeastward or northwestward; 
it is abrupt, with cliffs 10 feet high, which are fairly steep-to. 

Coasting craft working southward along the mainland meet the 
current off Ras Ndege, which makes it a difficult point to pass during 
the southwest monsoon ; but there is good anchorage for small craft 
1\ miles westward of the point. 

Dhow Harbor. — From Ras Xdege, the coast trending for 5 miles 
in a west-northwest direction to Ras Koronjo, is generally a sandy 
beach, but there are some small cliffs; at about 1^ miles from the 
former point is a dhow harbor, a bight in the shore reef, affording 



HAS KANZI TO PANGANI BAY, ZANZIBAR ISLAND AND CHANNEL. 369 

anchorage in 2 fathoms during the southwest monsoon, at which 
season it and parts of the coast westward are usually frequented by 
dhows waiting to get around Ras Ndege. 

Coast. — Ras Koronjo, a; cliffy point, 4 miles from the dhow har- 
bor, with Mboamaji village nearly midway between, has a fringing 
coral ledge drying out nearly 1 mile in a northwesterly direction from 
it; and between Ras Koronjo and Ras Mjimwema, 3 miles farther 
west-northwestward, the coast forms a low, sandy bay, backed by 
mangrove swamps, with the village of Mjimwema on its western 
shor^. High coconut trees grow around the villages of Mjimwema, 
Mjimpia, and Magogoni. 

Ras Bongoniy 2 miles northwestward of Ras Mjimwema, is the 
rocky eastern point of Dar es Salaam Harbor, the red cliffs of the 
point being from 15 to 20 feet high. 

Beacons. — On Ras Rongoni stands a white obelisk, and on a rock 
180 yards in front of it is a white pyramidal beacon, the two forming 
a leading mark for the approach to the entrance of the harbor. 

Islands and reefs. — A little to the northwestward of Ras Ndege 
commences a chain of islands and reefs, which, skirting the coast for 
about 20 miles, as far as Fungu Yasin, afford shelter to several 
anchorages and lie at an average of 2 miles from the mainland, in 
addition to which is the landlocked harbor of Dar es Salaam. 

Mwamba Eikwero^ about J mile in extent, and drying 2 feet at 
low water, springs, is steep-to, with from 6 to 9 fathoms around, and 
lies about 2 miles north-northeastward of Mboamaji village ; between 
it and the shore reef is a patch, awash at low water, on which the sea 
always breaks. 

A 3J-f athom patch lies 1,400 yards north-northeastward of Mwamba 
Kikwero. 

Sinda Islands^ between 1 and 2 milies northward of Ras Koronjo, 
are two coral islands on a reef 1 mile in diameter, the outer and 
larger island -J mile long and about 50 feet high, with some trees on 
it ; a chain of islets fringes the eastern edge of the reef. Inner Sinda 
Island, 40 feet high, has white sand on its northern and southern 
extremes. 

Millard Bank, 1 mile in length, has a least depth of 3 fathoms 
on the shoalest spot, at the northern end, situated 1^ miles north- 
northwestward of Outer Sinda Island; the bank can not be distin- 
guished until close to it. Gunja Peak in line with Ras Kankadya, 
bearing 287°, leads about 1^ miles northward of it. 

Mboamaji Harbor, the anchorage, southwestward of the Sinda 
Islands, is fairly protected by the surrounding reefs, but in a strong 
monsoon, and especially the northeast monsoon, the swell sets in 
round the islands. Mboamaji village ie on the shore southeastward of 

39511—16 ^24 



370 HAS KANZI TO PANGANI BAY, ZANZIBAR ISLAND AND CHANNEL. 

Sinda Islands, a curve, in the coral ledge fronting it, affords pro- 
tection to boats landing at low water. 

Directions. — To enter Mboamaji Harbor from the southeastward, 
keep Inner Makatumbe Island well open northward of Outer Sinda 
Island, bearing 275°, which leads northward of the 3^-fathom 
patch, northward of Mwamba Kikwero, and when the Sinda Islands 
appear to touch, bearing about 256°, steer to pass about 600 yards 
off the islets on the eastern side of Sinda Eeef ; the eye will guide to 
the anchorage. 

To enter from the northward, westward of Millard Bank; from 
abreast of the Makatumbe group, bring the southwestern point of 
Inner Sinda Island to bear 150°, and steer for it, anchoring when 
convenient. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage during the southwest monsoon 
is in a depth of 10 fathoms, over sand and mud, with the south ex- 
treme of Inner Sinda Island bearing 110°, and the north extreme 
of Outer Sinda 60°. There is also fair anchorage off Mjimwema 
village in 6 fathoms water, over sand, with the northeast extreme of 
Kendwa Island bearing 326°, and the white house in Mjimwema 
village, 241°. 

Small vessels of 10 feet draft may obtain well-sheltered anchorage 
close off the village, the best berth in the northeast monsoon being 
in a depth of fathoms, over sand, with the southwestern point of 
Inner Sinda bearing 17°, distant 400 yards. 

Tidal streams. — The streams at this latter anchorage are strong, 
and toward high water, especially in the northeast monsoon, the 
stream runs rapidly eastward, and causes a vessel to swing to the 
swell in a most unpleasant manner. 

Eendwa, an island i mile in extent, is on the edge of the coral 
ledge fronting Ras Mjimwema to a distance of 1 mile. Its trees are 
40 feet above high water and its outline level and uniform. 

Boat channel. — Between Kendwa Island and Makatumbe Keefs 
is a boat channel i mile wide, but even in the southwest monsoon, at 
low water, the sea sometimes breaks right across it. Working to 
windward in the northeast monsoon the lee of Makatumbe Island Reef 
should be kept. 

Dar es Salaam Bay, the outer anchorage of Dar es Salaam, lies 
between the Makatumbe Group and Kankadya Peninsula, which 
extends to the northward on the west side. Its northern portion is 
encumbered by the Daphne Reefs, but there is sufficient space in the 
remainder for all classes of vessels. During the southwest monsoon 
the bay is well protected by the Makatumbe Group, but during the 
northeast monsoon a considerable swell sets in with a strong wind, 
although a small vessel which can lie near Inner Makatumbe Island 
will be somewhat sheltered. 



RAS KAJSrZI TO PANGANI BAY, ZANZIBAR ISLAND AND CHANNEL. 371 

The shore of the bay is broken and indented and presents to the 
eye a low outline, nearly uniform in height, but much diversified by 
alternate sand beaches and cliffs, while at about 12 miles inland a 
chain of moimtains, rising to a height of from 1,200 to 1,500 feet, 
extends south westward and terminates abruptly. 

Makatumbe Islands, with several islets, lie on a large coral 
reef, IJ miles in length in a northwest and opposite direction, on 
the southeast side of Dar es Salaam Bay ; the two largest islands are 
about 400 yards in extent, the outer, 40 feet high, being on the north- 
east and the inner on the southwest side of the reef. The inner 
island has several trees about 60 feet high near its center, and the 
quarantine station, a white house with a flagstaff on its southwest side. 
The water from a well on this island is undrinkable. 

Light. — Half a mile eastward of the west extreme of Outer Maka- 
tumbe Island is a square tower, 95 feet high, with black and white 
stripes, which exhibits, at an elevation of 96 feet above high water, 
a flashing white light, visible 15 miles. 

Dangers. — The reef on which Makatumbe Islands lie dries at low 
water, springs, is steep-to on its eastern side and connected to the 
shore southwestward of it by a shallow flat, having an average depth 
of 1^ fathoms. 

Hammond Rock, the northernmost of the islets on the reef and 
immediately within its north end, is 6 feet high, and forms a guide 
to vessels rounding the reef; the extreme of a shoal with 2^ fathoms 
is 800 yards northwestward of Hammond Rock, and the 5-fathom 
contour line passes the same distance northward of that rock. The 
western edge of the reef slopes gradually. 

Buoy. — A white spar buoy, with " Hammond " in black letters on 
it, and surmounted by two black triangles, is moored 800 yards north- 
ward of Hammond Rock, on the 5-fathom contour. 

West shore. — From Ras Kankadya, the north extreme of the 
peninsula forming the west side of Dar es Salaam Bay, the west 
shore has a general southerly trend for 3J miles, with one small 
bay, to Upanga Bay, a sandy inlet i mile wide, with cliffy points, 
and drying at low water; Mto Upanga runs into its head. 

The east shore of the peninsula has cliffs from 10 to 20 feet high 
and is fringed by a reef which, with shore bank, extends in places 
for 600 yards; seen from the northeastward, the peninsula appears 
as an island, and a sandy patch, about f mile within its extreme, is 
conspicuous with the sun in the east. 

From Upanga Bay, the head of Dar es Salaam Bay curves round 
to the southeastward and has shore reef, continued by shore bank 
under 3 fathoms, extending 1^ miles out, the entrance to Dar es 
Salaam Harbor being between points of the reef. 



372 RAS KANZI TO PANGANI BAY, ZANZIBAR ISLAND AND CHANNEL 

Dangers. — Kankadya Patch, with a depth of 5 fathoms, lies 2| 
miles eastward of Ras Kankadya. 

Daphne Beefs, lying toward the northwest side of the entrance 
to the bay, occupy a space 1^ miles in length in a northeast and oppo- 
site direction, the outermost and largest being 1 mile i^ length in a 
north-northwest and opposite direction, within the 5-fathom con- 
tour line, and has depths of from 2 to 21 fathoms for a length of 
1,400 yards; the shallowest part of 2 fathoms can sometimes be 
seen, but this should not be relied on. 

The middle reef, i mile southwestward of the outermost, is about 
1,200 yards in length in a north and south direction within the 5- 
fathom contour line, and has two spots of 3 fathoms, while the 
inner reef, about 600 yards southwestward of the preceding, and the 
same in extent, has several rocky heads with less than 1 fathom, 
which occasionally break. 

Buoy. — ^A white spar buoy, with " Daphne " in black letters, and 
surmounted by two black inverted triangles, is moored in a depth of 
8 fathoms on the southeast extreme of the Outer Daphne Reef. 

Clearing marks. — Gunja Peak in line with Ras Kankadya, bear- 
ing 287°, leads 800 yards northward, the western tangents of Bon- 
goyo in line 312° leads northeastward, while the East Ferry Point 
flagstaff, bearing 204°, leads southeastward of Outer Daphne Reef. 

Boats working up in shore in the northeast monsoon, when in the 
vicinity of Inner Daphne Reef, should tack directly to the south 
extreme of Bongoyo opens of Ras Kankawya, about 343°. 

Depths. — The depths in the fairway of the entrance, on the lead- 
ing mark, are from 14 to 16 fathoms, and from 4 to 7 fathoms, over 
mud, at the anchorage. 

Signal station. — The signal station on East Ferry Point is a 
conspicuous white tower, which may be seen from a distance of 10 
miles in clear weather. 

Badio station. — The radio station on the west bank of Dar es 
Salaam Inlet is open to the public from 7.30 a. m. to 11.30 a. m., 
from 4 p. m. to 6 p. m., and from 8 p. m. to 11 p. m. on week days; 
on Sunday it is open from 9 a. m. to 11 a. m. and from 8 p. m. to 10 
p. m. The call letters are K. A. C. 

Directions. — Approaching Dar es Salaam Bay from the south- 
ward, the Sinda Islands will first come into view, and the outer island 
should be given a berth of 2^ miles to clear Millard Bank, by keeping 
Gunja Peak in line with Ras Kankadya, bearing 287°, and steering 
on this mark until the lighthouse on Outer Makatumbe Island bears 
253°, and the Inner Sinda Island is open westward of the Outer 
Sinda, about 184°, when steer to round Hammond Rock Buoy to the 
anchorage. 



BAS KANZI TO PANGANI BAY, ZANZIBAK ISLAND AND CHANNEL 373 

* 

From the northward, Mbudya Island, about If miles northward of 
Bongoyo, will be first distinguished by its clump of trees, and it 
should be given a berth of at least 4 miles in order to pass outside the 
Mbudya Patches. Run along shore at this distance until the Outer 
Makatumbe Island Lighthouse bears 196'', and steer for it on that 

bearing. 

When the hospital on Has Chokir, a large two-story building, 
which may be seen 16 miles distant, bears 216°, steering for it leads 
midway between the buoys marking Outer Daphne Reef and the spit 
extending from Hammond Rock, and the East Ferry Point lookout, 
bearing 204°, leads through the bay until Inner Makatumbe Island 
bears about 118°, when steer for the anchorage. 

Anchorage. — In either monsoon the best anchorage for vessels 
of moderate draft is in a depth of 4 fathoms, over mud, with the 
white quarantine station bearing 127° and Hammond Rock 48°. A 
vessel of light draft can, with advantage, lie nearer Inner Maka- 
tumbe, but those of deep draft must anchor farther northward, in 7 
or 8 fathoms ; sailing vessels must anchor in the bay and show their 
house flags. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Dar es Salaam Har- 
bor at 4 h. 12 m. ; springs rise lOf feet, neaps 8 feet, neaps range 
6J feet. 

Tidal streams. — The tidal streams in the vicinity of Dar es 
Salaam Bay are variable and uncertain, the change of the monsoon 
working an entire reversal, in most instances, both in their direction 
and strength ; in the bay the velocity is not great. 

As a general rule, the northwest-going stream is that of the rising 
tide, the other stream setting southeastward, but amongst the islands 
and reefs the streams will often be found setting in opposite direc- 
tions, as on Mbudya Patches, where, in the northeast monsoon, the 
stream sets as above mentioned, but, at the same time, inside Bongoyo 
Island they are reversed; outside these patches the streams set gener- 
ally to the northward and southward, respectively. 

In the southwest monsoon, at about 6 miles from the land, the 
current always runs northwestward at rates of from 1 knot to 3 
knots. 

Dar es Salaam Harbor, entered between South Reef, extending 
600 yards northward of Ras Rongoni, and continued for a farther 
distance of i mile by shore bank, under 3 fathoms, on the east, and 
North Reef (North Sandhead) stretching about 1,800 yards east- 
ward of Ras Chokir, which has red cliffs 30 feet high on the west, is 
300 yards in width between the points of these reefs, and from this 
entrance extends nearly 1 mile in a southwest direction, to East and 
West Ferry Points, both low and sandy, and on either side of the 
inner entrance. 



374 BAS KANZI TO PANGANI BAY, ZANZIBAR ISLAND AXD CHANXEI. 

Within these inner points the harbor forms a basin nearly 1 mile 
in length in a west-southwest and opposite direction, with a width of 
about i mile, and from its southern side Dar es Salaam Inlet extends 
to the southward, with a curve to the southwest for 2J miles, its 
general width being nearly J mile, while on the southwest side of the 
basin is the entrance to Mto Kurasini, crossed immediately within by 
a bridge. 

The shores of the basin mostly consist of cliffy land from 20 to 
30 feet high, the town occupying the north and northwest shores, the 
coal depot being on the former and the customho«se on the latter 
shore; the banks of Dar es Salaam Inlet are steep and fronted by 
mangroves, and for a distance of 2 miles it is navigable, but above 
that it bifurcates, both branches drying at low water, springs, and it 
is said ending in a mangrove swamp. 

Entrance. — The entrance to the harbor between the points of the 
shore bank is about 600 yards in width, its navigable fairway be- 
tween the points of the shore reefs being reduced to 200 yards and to 
125 yards in places farther in ; owing to the outer part of the entrance 
lying between the extremes of shoals, it is not easily distinguished 
even from the anchorage in the bay. 

A rocky patch off the southeast end of North Reef presents the 
great difficulty in entering or leaving, as it makes the turn more 
abrupt, and narrows the navigable channel at that part to 120 yards ; 
the turn between East and West Ferry Points is a curve, but it is 
easy there to keep in mid-channel. 

Dangers. — In addition to the rocky patch mentioned, two small 
shoals of 2f and 3 fathoms lie on the southern side of the fairway, 
about 800 yards northeastward of East Ferry Point. 

A bank about 800 yards in length, with a least depth of 3^ fathoms, 
lies parallel to and about 300 yards from the north shore of the 
basin, and fronting the entrance to Mto Kurasini, is a bank about 
150 yards in length, in a northwest and opposite direction, with a 
least depth of 1^ fathoms. 

Buoys. — A red spar buoy with " Dr.s.m." in white letters on it 
and surmounted by a white A, is moored in a depth of 4 J fathoms, as 
a fairway buoy at the outer entrance. 

A red spar buoy with " Dr.s.m." in white letters on it and with a 
white letter B as a topmark, is moored in 6 fathoms southeastward 
of the rock off North Reef. 

On the north side of the fairway and about 400 yards northward 
of East Ferry Point, is a similar buoy to the foregoing, in 3f 
fathoms, but with " Dr.s.m." in white letters on it and a white C as 
a topmark. 

The east and south side of the channel are marked by five black 
conical buoys, the outer of these being marked " Dr.s.m.," and moored 



KAS KANZI TO PANGANI BAY, ZANZIBAR ISLAND AND CHANNEL. 375 

northwestward of the If-fathoms patch on the bank connecting 
Makatumbe Islands Reef with the shore; the second buoy, marked 
" 1 a," is about 700 yards northward of Ras Rongoni. 

The other three buoys, marked from outward, respectively, 
"2/Dr.s.m.," "3/Dr.s.m.," and "4/Dr.s.m.," are on the edge of 
the bank extending northward of Ras Makabe and the shore about 
400 yards eastward of it. 

The bank fronting Mto Kurasini is marked at its southeast end 
by a white spar buoy, surmounted by two black triangles, bases to- 
gether, and the northwest end by a similar buoy, but having two 
triangles, both pointing upward. 

Depths. — ^The depth at the entrance near the fairway buoy is 4^ 
fathoms, increasing to from 6J to 10 fathoms, for a distance of 
about 1,200 yards within the North and South Reefs, beyond which a 
bar about 600 yards in width, with depths of from 3^ to 4 fathoms, 
crosses the channel, after which the water again deepens to from 6J 
to 10 fathoms between East and West Ferry Points, the depths at 
the anchorage northward of the bank fronting the town being from 
6^ to 9 fathoms. 

Mooring buoys. — ^The positions of several mooring buoys in the 
harbor will be seen'bn the plan. 

Signals. — ^A white ball is hoisted at the lower yardarm of the 
signal station mast on East Ferry Point, as soon as an outgoing 
vessel has passed West Ferry Point, and the ball is hauled down 
when the vessel has passed Buoy B. 

Pilots. — On making the usual signal a pilot boat should be found 
waiting near Outer Makatumbe Island, but pilotage is only compul- 
sory on merchant vessels of over 100 tons. The rate of pilotage is 
30 rupees for vessels of 1,000 or more tons, with an addition of 1 
rupee for every 100 tons over 1,000 tons. 

Tugs. — A vessel requiring a tag should anchor in the bay and 
hoist the signal for one by the International Code. 

Directions. — The most conspicuous objects are the red cliflfs of 
Ras Chokir, with the Government hospital above them, while nearly 
midway between the cliffs and West Ferry Point is Government 
house, the Anglican mission house being close to the point ; the Roman 
Catholic Church in the town has a sharp spire, and the Evangelical 
Church a square white tower and a red roof. 

On the south side of the channel, about midway between the beacons 
on Ras Rongoni and East Ferry Point, is a white pillar and a 
white stone wall, while on the point the white lookout house, with 
its tower, is conspicuous; a short distance eastward of Ras Makabe 
is a baobab tree with a white trunk. 

In a vessel whose draft will admit the best time to enter the 
harbor is at low water, when the reefs on either side can generally 



376 RAS KANZI TO PANGANI BAY, ZANZIBAR ISLAND AND CHANNEL. 

be seen from aloft, but a vessel of deeper draft should enter at high 
water, and in no case should entering be attempted during the full 
strength of the in-going nor leaving with a similar condition of out- 
going stream. 

From Dar es Salaam Bay bring the white obelisk on Ras Rongoni 
in line with the beacon, bearing 177°, and steer on this mark, pass- 
ing eastward of the fairway Buoy A, and westward of No. 1 black 
buoy, when the southeast extreme of the conspicuous coconut clump, 
southeastward of Mto Kurusini, will be touching West Ferry Point 
there being not less than i fathoms on this line. 

From Buoy No. 1 steer to pass about 100 yards southward of the 
red spar buoy B and for the red spar buoy C until the white pillar, 
nearly midway between Ras Rongoni and East Ferry Point, is nearly 
on with the western end of the white stone wall beliind it, about 
148°, when keep somewhat to the northward to avoid the 2f and 
3- fathoms patches nearly in mid-channel and which will be passed 
when the same pillar is in line with the east end of the wall, about 
130°, the vessel being abreast these patches as long as the pillar 
is seen in line with any portion of the wall. 

From southeastward of the red spar buoy C steer to pass in mid- 
channel between East and West Ferry Points and keeping well to 
northward of the black buoys marking the bank off Ras Makabe a 
course may be steered for the anchorage. 

The tidal stream is strongest about two hours after slack water and 
sets over the mid-channel patches, and is particularly strong near 
West Ferry Point; the outgoing stream sets strongly toward the 
buoys marking the bank of Ras Makabe, a^d if leaving during that 
stream great care is necessary after passing No. 1 black buoy to 
avoid being set on to the bank on the east side. 

Anchorage. — Vessels should not anchor in any part of the chan- 
nel when within the fairway buoy until within the Ferry Points un- 
less in a case of absolute necessity, and then the telegraph cable must 
be avoided. Unless an anchorage has been indicated by a harbor 
official, which is done by means of a boat with a green flag, for 
which the vessel should steer and anchor when the flag is propped, 
a good berth will be found with the Evangelical Church bearing 
312° and the Roman Catholic Church 285°. 

Landing may be effected at several landing stages, and there is 
a customhouse quay, but No. 1 Pier is reserved for Government 
officials, and boats are not allowed to make fast to piers nor to lie 
alongside for any length of time. * 

Tidal streams. — During springs the stream is strong in the har- 
bor channel, especially toward or after low water, as it is then 
confined to the channel itself. The strongest stream is generally 
about two hours after slack water, at which time it sets strongly 



RAS KANZI TO PANGANI BAY, ZANZIBAR ISLAND AND CHANNEL. 377 

round West Ferry Point; when North Reef is covered the stream 
sets across its southern edge between B and C Buoys. The out- 
going stream sets eastward over the shoal flat, connecting Maka* 
tumbe Islands with the shore, and after heavy rains this stream 
commences to run before the time of low water. 

Town. — The town of Dar es Salaam, the capital of German East 
Africa, occupies the north and northwest shores of the harbor and is 
elevated about 30 feet above the water, from which several flights of 
steps lead to it; it has many well-laid-out streets, with blocks of 
buildings, among which are Government residences for the governor 
and other officials, besides a fort and post and telegraph offices, the 
churches having been mentioned. 

The population is about 17,700, of which about 700 are Europeans. 

Communication. — The Central Railway runs to Kigoma, on 
Lake Tanganyika. A cable connects Dar es Salaam with Bagamoyo^ 
thence with Zanzibar, and there are land wires south to Kilwa and 
Mikindani and north to Bagamoyo and Tanga. There is also tel- 
egraphic communication with Muansa, on Victoria Nyanza. 

Coal and supplies. — ^About 3,500 tons of coal are kept in stocky 
half of which belongs to the Government and the other half is avail- 
able for merchant vessels. 

Fresh provisions are plentiful and vegetables may be obtained 
between May and October. 

An abundant supply of good spring water is obtainable from Mto 
Kurusini, and the supply to vessels is conveyed to the harbor through 
pipes terminating in tanks, but this water is said to be slightly 
brackish and very unpleasant to drink. They are supplied by two 
large and several small tanks, the larger having steam pumps, so that 
from 50 to 60 tons can be put on board in an hour. Vessels requiring 
water should hoist letter W of the International Code. 

Repairs. — Only small repairs can be executed, but workshops are 
in course of erection. 

Hospitals. — Two hospitals are maintained, one in the town being 
for natives and the other on Eas Chokir, with 30 beds, is for 
Europeans. 

Time signal. — A gun is fired daily from the saluting battery near 
the harbor office at noon, standard time of the meridian 37° 30' east, 
corresponding to 21 h. 30 m. and 00 s. Greenwich mean time. 

Trade. — Considerable trade is carried on with the interior, cara- 
vans with ivory and other produce for shipment occasionally arriving, 
while the principal articles of export are copal, com, maize, and 
sesame ; coasting trade is carried on by dhows. 

Zanzibar Channel, about 95 miles in length, with a least breadth 
of 16^ miles, separates the mainland from Zanzibar Island, both 
shores being generally parallel to one another; it is studded on either 



378 RAS KANZI TO PANGANl BAY, ZANZIBAR ISLAND AND CHANNEL. 

side by coral reefs, which in one place reduce the navigable fairway 
to less than 3J miles, the dangers on the mainland side of the southern 
entrance being those outside Dar es Salaam. 

On the mainland side the reefs are sometimes not easily distin- 
guished on account of the discolored water caused by the alluvium 
of the rivers, but on the island side the water is generally clear, so 
that the reefs can be plainly seen ; the positions of the sand heads on 
the coral reefs usually change with the monsoons. 

Depths. — The least depths in Zanzibar Channel are from 14 to 
15 fathoms. 

Western shore. — Bongoyo, a rocky island 40 feet high facing 
Msasani Bay and protecting it from the swell, is IJ miles in length in 
a northwest and opposite direction, with an average width of 400 
yards and presents a uniform outline of stunted trees on cliffs 40 
feet in height*; it is uninhabited and all but impenetrable. A sandy 
bay, in the center of the noitheastorn shore, shows white and con- 
spicuous with the morning sun. 

The surrounding reef, dry at low water, extending eastward more 
than i mile from the southern half of the island, is not very steep-to, 
but the sea always breaks on it, and a detached rock with 6 feet 
water, which breaks occasionally, is 1,200 yards east-southeastward 
of the southern point ; on the western side the reef dries off nowhere 
more than 200 yards. North Island, an isolated rock 8 feet high, lies 
off its northern point. 

The soundings eastward of Bongoyo and its reef are irregular. 

Msasani Bay, entered between Bas Kankadya and the southeast 
extreme of Bongoyo, is sandy throughout and intersected by creeks 
leading from mangrove swamps and backed, at a distance of 3 miles 
inland by a long, thickly wooded, featureless hill, rising at its 
northern end to Gunja Peak, a slight summit 600 feet in height. 

The bay affords good anchorage during either monsoon and is 
safe and easy of access from the southeastward, but its southern and 
western sides are shallow, the sand drying in some places 1,200 
yards from the shore, and the 3-f athoms line of soundings being in 
other parts nearly 1^ miles from high-water line. From the village 
of Msasani, at the head of the bay, the shore sweeps round to the 
northward for 6 miles to the village of Konduchi. 

Anchorage. — ^In the northeast monsoon the best berth is in a 
depth of 8 fathoms, over sand, westward of the center of Bongoyo, 
with its northwest extreme bearing 848°, about 1,400 or 1,600 yards. 

During the southwest monsoon a berth more to the northward, 
about \ mile off the northwestern point of Bongoyo Island, should 
be taken, or, if preferred, in the southern part of the bay, in about 
6 fathoms, with Bas Kankadya bearing 86°. From the latter berth 



RAS KANZI TO PANGANI BAY, ZANZIBAR ISLAND AND CHANNEL. 379 

landing is easy at the village of Msasani, in the southeast angle of 
the bay, from which it is two hours' walk to Dar es Salaam. 

Directions. — To enter Msasani Bay bring Gunja Peak midway 
between Ras Kankadya and Bongoyo Island, bearing about 281**, 
and steer for it until Inner Makatumbe Island is in line with Sas 
Kankadya, about 144°, then alter course to 326° for Pangavini Islet, 
if proceeding to the northern part of the bay. If intending to anchor 
westward of Ras Kankadya, round the point as convenient. 

Mbudya, the northernmost of the chain of off-lying islands men- 
tioned is formed of coral, faced with low cliffs and stands on a ledge 
of coral. It is f mile long in a north-northwest and opposite 
direction, of triangular form, and has a square clump of trees 60 feet 
high, showing above the other foliage. It is uninhabited, but fisher- 
men occasionally camp on it. 

The surrounding reef, 2 miles long and 1 mile wide, dries at low 
water, the greater part being eastward and southward of the island. 
Its inner side is tolerably steep, but the outer side deepens gradually, 
has outlying patches, and is therefore dangerous to approach. 

Mbudya Spit, with 3 fathoms, lies 2 miles southeastward of the 
south point of the island, and a 2f-fathom patch, i mile in a north 
and south direction and very narrow, lies i mile eastward of the spit. 

Mbudya Patches, a number of small patches at various distances 
outside Mbudya Island, the outer one being 4 miles from it, have 
from 3f to 5 fathoms water, but their neighborhood should be avoided. 

Pangavini Islet^ 1 mile southwestward of Mbudya Island, is a 
rocky islet J mile in extent and 30 feet high on the northwestern 
part of a coral bank 1,600 yards long, which dries 2 feet. The islet 
is 1 mile from the inainland shore, and there is a narrow 7-fathom 
channel between. 

At 1,200 yards northward of Pangavini Islet is a 3-fathom patch 
about 600 yards in extent. 

Fun^ Mkadya is a coral reef 1^ miles in length drying 2 feet 
at low water, its southern end, with 2^ fathoms, being nearly 1 mile 
northwestward of Mbudya and the reef about the same distance from 
the mainland shore, with a clear 6- fathom channel between and close 
along the reef. 

Eonduchi Harbor, the anchorage southwestward of Mbudya 
Island affords shelter during the northeast monsoon for a vessel re- 
quiring temporary anchorage, although that within Bongoyo is 
preferable. . 

Directions. — ^Konduchi Harbor may be entered either from the 
northward or southward, the latter being the better entrance during 
the northeast monsoon ; to enter by it steer in with the north point 
of Bongoyo Island bearing 273° until Pangavini Islet bears 293°, 



380 HAS KANZI TO PANGANI BAY, ZANZIBAR ISLAND AND CHANNEL. 

when steer for it until the west extreme of Mbudya bears 344*^ from 
which a course about 318° leads to the anchorage. 

The northern channel is only 800 yards wide at low water, for a 
vessel of 18 feet draft, and the center of Pangavini Islet bearing 
180°, leads in between Fungu Mkadya and Mbudya, and eastward pf 
the 3-fathom patch northward of Pangavini; the northern edge of 
Mbudya Reef, although not steep, generally shows. 

Anchoragr® ^^y ^ obtained during the southwest monsoon to 
the northward of the 3-fathom patch, in about 10 fathoms, with the 
north extreme of Mbudya bearing 85°, and the center of Pangavini 
178° ; for a small vessel it is only necessary to give the western point 
of Mbudya Island a berth of 800 yards. Or anchorage may be taken 
up in a similar depth with the west end of Mbudya 20°, and the 
north end of Pangavini 219°. 

Villag'es. — ^Konduchi and Changani Villages are on the beach 
northwestward of Pangavini, near Mto Peremji, the sand drying off 
about i mile in front of them. 

Fungu Tasin, a coral reef 1^ miles in length in a north and south 
direction, dries over a large area at low water, springs, and has a 
sand head 4 feet above high water on its northwestern extreme, 
situated nearly 3J miles north-northwestward of Mbudya. On the 
western side the reef is steep-to, but at the southeastern end a bank 
with 4 to 5 fathoms extends about 1 mile, with a patch of 3 fathoms 
near its extreme. 

Beacon. — On the sand head is a white and red beacon, with a 
triangular topmark; in clear weather it may be seen from a distance 
of 10 miles. 

Anchorage. — There is good anchorage within Fungu Yasin dur- 
ing either monsoon in depth of 16 fathoms, opposite the center of the 
reef, with the sand head beacon bearing about 31°, distant i mile. 
The safest approach to the anchorage is round the northern end of 
the reef. 

Coast. — From Konduchi Village the coast trends northwestward 
with some sinuosities for about 16 miles to Waso, and a few miles 
inland are low, rounded, wooded hills, which, in the vicinity of 
Konduchi, rise to a height of 500 feet. From Konduchi the coast is 
sandy for a short distance and then rocky to Ras Kiromoni, a low 
point with a small bay on its western side, where there is fwir 
landing during the southwest monsoon. 

At 4J miles northwestward of Ras Kiromoni is Bueni village, 
rendered conspicuous by some white tombs and large mango trees, 
and several villages are on the shore between; along this coast the 
sand or coral dries from 600 to 1,800 yards off, with outlying dangers. 



KAS KANZI TO PANGANI BAY, ZANZIBAB ISLAND AND CHANNEL. 381 

From Waso the coast, turning west-northwestward for 3^ miles to 
Has Luale, is a low sandy beach, bordered by coral ledges and banks, 
and backed by mangrove swamps or dense bush. 

Dangers. — ^Ukatani Beef, 1^ miles ea^-northeastward of Ukatani 
village, is small, and awash at low water, springs; a small patch, 
^ith less than 1 f athom,''lies between it and Ras Kiromoni, and about 
1,600 yards offshore. 

Bueni Reefs are two in number, and about 1 mile apart; the soutli- 
^astern reef has a depth of 2 fathoms and the northwestern, about 
i mile in extent, has a rock with less than 1 fathom near its north- 
west end, about IJ miles northeastward of Bueni village. These 
dangers are both difficult to distinguish, as the sea seldom breaks and 
the water is thick. 

Eitapiunbe Reefs are two coral patches lying off the village of 
that name, the southeastern reef, 2^ miles from the land and 3^ 
miles northward of Bueni village, being about 1 mile in length, and 
drying 2 feet at low water, springs. The other, nearly 2 miles 
farther northwestward, is 1 mile in diameter, 2 miles from the shore, 
and dries 4 feet; these dangers are fairly steep-to, and the sea gen- 
erally breaks on them, but the water is thick in their vicinity. 

Buoy. — ^A white spar buoy with "Kitap" on it in black letters, 
and surmounted by two black triangles, bases together, is moored in 
a depth of 9 fathoms, eastward of the drying patch on the south- 
eastern reef. 

Mshingwiy a small coral reef on which the sea generally breaks, 
even when covered, lies 1 mile off the center of the sandspit inclosing 
Mwangotini Lagoon; it is steep-to, and dries 11 feet at low water, 
springs, with 9 fathoms around. 

Mwangotini Lagoon, 4 miles long in a west-northwest and op- 
posite direction by 1 mile wide, is formed by a long, narrow tongue 
of coral and sand about 300 yards wide and covered with thick 
bush, which extends parallel with the shore from abreast Waso and 
ends in Ras Luale; Ras Mbegani, the western point of entrance to 
the lagoon, is also a low mangrove point, and is distant 1 mile from 
Ras Luale. 

The lagoon is mostly dry at low water, but there are narrow 
channels leading to Mbegani and Mwangotini villages on its south- 
em side, the position of the latter marked by tall coconut trees and 
white tombs; the lagoon ends in mangrove swamps. 

Coast. — From Ras Mbegani the coast forms a slightly receding 
sandy bay for 5 miles northwestward to Ras Nunge, a mangrove 
point which shows well out from the land when near the shore, with 
Kaole and Bagamoyo lying between; the former, a village almost 
hidden from seaward by trees and situated about 1^ miles westward 



382 RAS KANZI TO PAN(;ANI bay, ZANZIBAR ISLAND AND CHANNEL. 

of Bas Mbegani. Mto Ruvu (Kingani) Entrance is 2^ miles west- 
northwestward of Ras Nunge, the coast between being a mass of 
mangroves. 

Eebandahodiy a large bank of sand and mud, nea